Skip to main content

Full text of "Archaeological Researches in Sinkiang (1939)"

See other formats

----- "-"- "-- -*, %% --'*-. -. 



'.'.•■ ■ ■■■■■• 

\ f * 

■ ! 

1 - r '■••■:• 




• IV 

■ . > 


. ■ 

■ ■ 

I V. ;%:■!>■ 





i '" '• 

, • ■ 



I •- 





1 j 





7, Tt*J 

















J I ' 


• ,1 





:•■*. - 


ai-iti '<fc% fa L ■' I 



r ' 

p ** * 

fl AtiBifallL? 


1 \ 





VII. Archaeology 






Archaeological researches 


















J \ 





■ ■' 










- \ 



rf I 

- 1 



I - 

■ I 





1 ( 






. ' 

• 1 









' ' 

- ' 


r r 








i ■ 













VII. Archaeology 











BOKFORLAGS aktiebolaget thule 


Printed in Sweden 

Tryckeri Aktiebolaget Thule 
stockholm 1 939 

C O N T E N T S 






A. Miao-erh-ku I4 

B. Sengim-aghiz i c 

C. Toqsun x ^ 

D. The Charchan vase x g 

E. Discussion on painted pottery 22 

3. SITES WITHOUT PAINTED POTTERY ...*.! ^ .. !1 '."!.!!! **] 26 

A. Ch'ai-o-p'u 2^ 

5" Sin S er .....ill". \..\\\\\\\\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 26 

C. The Lop desert - x 

D. Chiqin-sai -- 

E. Conclusion -6 



A. The Roads . T 

B. Lou-Ian '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'/.'.'.'.[ 44 

2. REMARKS ON THE HYDROGRAPHY !.!!!!!!!!!■!!!!!!!!!!!! 46 


A. Introduction „ 

B. Earlier discoveries of graves iL 

C Grave 10 , „ . . .'.'.'.'.[[.[[[]] '.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'. '.'..'..'. \ \ \ A 

D. Graves around Yaqinliq-kol c8 

E. From Grave 10 along "The Small River" to Cemetery 5 ........* c Q 

F. Cemetery 5 ("Ordek's necropolis") ''*/.* g 

I. Description of the site $ T 

II. Wooden sculptures fa 

in. The finds ....!!!!". r. .!!!!! I! ! 68 

IV. Discussion gg 

G. Watch-tower at The Small River \\\\\ qq 

H. Burial place 7 X02 

I. Burial place 6 * **'| IO £ 

J. Burial place 4 116 

K. Discussion on the minor cemeteries H7 


A. Mass-grave 1 (No. 34) Il8 

B. Grave 35. (Single grave a) ' —, 

C Grave 36. (Single grave b) .-g 

D. "Ruin II" with grave 37 '..'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 140 

E. Mass-grave 2 (No. 38) 140 

F. Grave ( ?) near Hedin's camp 80 (No. 39) 142 

G. Conclusion 143 


A. Introduction 147 

B. Horner's and Chen's collections from the Lou-Ian station 148 

C. Ruins discovered in 1931 and 1934 155 

D. Discussion 159 


7. YING-P'AN 180 



2. SHINDI 193 

A. Watch-station 193 

B. "Tash-dt" 193 

C. Grave near Shindi 194 


A. Ruined fortress 195 

B. Burial place 197 



A. Ming-di 199 

B. Baghdad-shah ri 199 

C. Ruin near Baghdad-shahri 200 




1. CHARCHAN 204 

A. Graves 207 

B. 'Tati' finds 208 


3. MIRAN 223 


APPENDICES: Note on the inscription on the silk-strip No. 34: 65, by Prof. 

Sten Konow 231 

Microscopical and chemical tests, by Hjalmar Ljungh 235 






About 40 years ago a happy combination of circumstances enabled me, though 
not an archaeologist by profession, to discover ruins of several towns, villages, 
fortifications and temples in Eastern Turkistan, ruins which had for many 
centuries, in certain cases even a couple of thousand years, remained hidden and for- 
gotten in the desert sand. From many of these places I brought home to Sweden 
collections of archaeological specimens. 

When in Peking at the turn of the year 1926—27 I was negotiating for permis- 
sion to undertake a big expedition to Sinkiang, or Chinese Turkistan, Professor 
J. G. Andersson suggested that also a Swedish archaeologist be added to the staff of 
the expedition. For this initiative I am profoundly indebted to him, for it meant not 
only a considerable extension of our program, but also an added significance to the 

To this post, as the Swedish archaeologist of the expedition, was appointed Folke 
Bergman, who in this part of our Report Series gives an account of the archaeolo- 
gical work carried out in the province of Sinkiang. This monograph will be follow- 
ed by several others dealing with the results of extensive research in Inner Mongo- 

It is for me both a duty and a pleasure to express here my warm and cordial 
thanks for Folke Bergman's contribution to our scientific work in connection with 
the expedition. 

I am also glad of this opportunity of expressing my warm feeling of gratitude to 
our Chinese friends for their hospitality to us over a long period of years, during 
which we were able to establish a Sino-Swedish co-operation that has proved of 
great value and importance to both parties. 

By a sequence of chances beyond our control we found ourselves, in the spring 
of 1934, in the Lop-nor country. The Central Government in Nanking had done me 
the honour of entrusting me with the task of localizing and investigating two mo- 
tor-roads between China proper and Sinkiang. The civil war then in progress in the 
province led General Sheng Shih-ts'ai, the military Governor-General of Sinkiang, 
to request us, for our own safety's sake, to move down towards Lop-nor for a couple 

of months. This request, which was rather in the nature of an order, fitted in very 
opportunely with our own desire as far as possible to complete our earlier researches 
in this highly interesting region. In the course of our geographical researches in 
the Lop-nor country during this season we found, inter alia, a number of ancient 
graves, which we excavated. In September, the collections from these graves had 
been taken without mishap to Urumchi, where they would certainly have been lost 
to science if the Soviet Russian Consul-General, G. A. Apresov, with the great 
influence he wielded in the province, had not obtained for us permission to take 
these finds with us on our journey eastwards. The authorities in Peking settled their 
final destiny by deciding that we might take them to Sweden on loan, for scientific 
purposes. I wish here to express my hearty thanks to those whose aid in the matter 
contributed so powerfully to this fortunate issue. It is the description of these col- 
lections that constitutes the central part of the present volume. 

Stockholm in February 1939. 

Sven He din. 



It is the aim of this volume to describe the archaeological collections that have been 
made in the province of Sinkiang by the Swedish participants in the Sino- 
Swedish Expedition of Dr. Sven Hedin. This expedition touched Sinkiang during 
the years 1928 — 31. My own visit to the province was limited to 1928, but in 1934 
I re-visited it as a member of Sven Hedin's highway expedition. Besides the 
Swedish members Hedin, Horner, Norin, Ambolt and myself, our Chinese 
colleague, Mr. Parker C. Chen, was an active contributor to the collections. The 
respective responsibility for the various sections will emerge from the text. 

The collections are to be found in the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities in 
Stockholm. The finds from Lop-nor that were made during the motor-car expedi- 
tion of 1934 are loans and will, according to contract, be returned to the Chinese 
authorities. These latter finds bear the numbers 1 — 44 in the descriptive lists. 

It was at first planned that the prehistoric material of the expedition should be 
published separately in series with Palaeontologia Sinica. This is, moreover, what 
will be done with the main part of it. There are several reasons why the prehistoric 
finds from Sinkiang are included in this volume, the chief being their small num- 
ber. As the content of this book was already very heterogeneous it was thought suit- 
able to include also the prehistoric material to form a kind of background to the 
historical finds. The arrangement has thus become consistently topographical in- 
stead of chronological. 

I have made practically no mention of the circumstances and the general course 
of the various journeys during which these collections have been brought together. 
I have restricted myself to a description of finds and ancient remains. The reason 
for this is that Dr. Hedin plans a comprehensive chronicle of all the members' 
journeys for our Report Series. 

The present volume is for the most part descriptive. It makes no pretensions to 
completeness in what I may call the 'synthetic' parts. 

I am fully aware of the many defects in this publication, above all the dispropor- 
tion between the amount of the finds and the bulk of the book. This will certainly 
meet with criticism, but in adopting Sir Aurel Stein's method with complete de- 
scriptive lists accompanying the text I was convinced of the great facilities his 

method offers to a student who wants to go into details. For purposes of reference 
and from the point of view of a general survey Stein's publications are unsur- 
passed, though a certain amount of repetition is of course unavoidable. That the 
planning of this publication is far below Stein's standard I am the first to confess. 
And that in other respects my treatment of the subject has been somewhat dry and 
lacking in imagination is of course solely my responsibility. 

In coming, now, to thank all those who have contributed to the completion of the 
book I must first and foremost address myself to Sven Hedin, without whose ini- 
tiative it would never have been possible. I owe a great and deep dept of gratitude 
to this Nestor of Asiatic exploration in my capacity of participant in his last big 
expeditions in Asia. With his youthful enthusiasm, boundless optimism and pro- 
found experience he was an unfailing source of inspiration, and a sure and steady 
support. Impossibilities simply did not exist for him. Difficulties that seemed in- 
superable to us others, he overcame. Here, at home in Sweden, he has never tired of 
encouraging me and guiding me in my work, and has always met my faults and de- 
fects with incredible patience and forebearance. 

As this book is devoted to the archaeology of Sinkiang, it is also my pleasant 
duty to express my homage to him as one of the first Europeans to make archaeo- 
logical discoveries in this vast country, which by reason of its remoteness had been 
in every respect an unknown territory for Occidentals. We Swedes shall not forget 
that his contribution also in the region of Central Asian archaeology has been that 
of the pioneer, and that his researches here have priority over those of many 
foreigners who have since reaped laurels in his footsteps. 

On my return from Asia, Professor J. G. Andersson showed the greatest kind- 
ness in placing at my disposal in the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities (Ostasia- 
tiska Samlingarna) not only working room, but also all the advantages that this in- 
stitution has to offer. Before a State subvention was granted for the scientific 
examination of our collections he provided funds to enable me to make a start. It has 
been a great privilege for me in connection with the text of the section on painted 
ceramics to have the criticism of one with such profound knowledge of these matters 
as he. I am glad of this opportunity of expressing my warm gratitude to him. 

Most of the work on the grave-finds from Lop-nor here described took place dur- 
ing Prof. Andersson's last journey to China, when Professor Bernhard Karl- 
gren held the position of Curator of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities. To 
him I owe many thanks for his unfailing kindness and his readiness to help me in 
linguistic and historical questions. I am also obliged to him for criticism of a part of 
the text. 

My former colleagues on the expeditions have all contributed in one way or an- 
other to this publication, either by collections or by good advice. Especially must I 
express my gratitude to Nils Horner for his collections of archaeological objects 


from Lop-nor, and for the readiness with which he has always helped me in quest- 
ions touching hydrography and topography. It is largely thanks to him that I have 
been able to reproduce any maps of Lop-nor here. The same applies also to my 
Chinese companion and friend Mr. Parker Chen, who, besides, helped me with the 
translation of a certain part of a Chinese archaeological work. Erik Norin, too, 
has given me valuable advice concerning the maps, and has kindly carried out some 
petrographic analyses. To Gerhard Bexell and David Hummel I also owe valu- 
able information, and the former, moreover, devoted time to determining some 
animal bones for me. Gosta Montell, who serves as editor of this series, has 
spared no pains to lessen the practical difficulties connected with the printing of 
the book, and has also been kind enough to criticize the text of several chapters. 

One of my companions on the expeditions deserves special thanks for the constant 
helpfulness and good comradeship he showed in the field during the rather difficult 
campaign in swelteringly hot summer days in the Lop desert in 1934. I refer to 
Georg Soderbom. Without his aid perhaps the greater part of the newly discover- 
ed grave district would have remained unknown. He also executed a number of 
sketches for me, some of which I have reproduced. 

During a large part of my reconnaissances in 1928 I had the good fortune to tra- 
vel in company with Henning Haslund. His cheerfulness was always stimulating 
during tiresome days in the desert. I feel a warm obligation to him for the excellent 
way in which he facilitated my work. 

Another field companion should not be forgotten in this connection. From Prof. 
Andersson I had 'inherited' one of his archaeological 'collectors', Chin by name, 
who followed me during my travels in Sinkiang in 1928. He always worked to my 
satisfaction and showed me a loyal affection. In 1930 he safely brought the expe- 
dition's Sinkiang collections from Urumchi through the Gobi to Peking. 

I wish also to offer my cordial thanks to Miss Vivi Sylwan, who with great 
enthusiasm undertook the description and preparation of all textile finds from Sven 
Hedin's expedition, for her co-operation during the time the material was being 
cleaned and prepared here in Stockholm, and for all her good advice and suggest- 
ions. I am especially indebted to her for the wide knowledge she has lavished upon 
all the textile descriptions in the lists of antiques. Their careful accuracy makes 
them an invaluable addition to this publication. I hope it will not be long before 
Miss Sylwan has finished her monograph on the woollen textiles from the Lop-nor 
graves, which volume will be followed by another dealing with the silk fabrics. 

The co-operation of Mr. Hj. Ljungh in the work of assigning various material 
has proved very fruitful. The result of this first co-operation has taken the form of 
an appendix added to this volume. His careful examinations have considerably en- 
hanced the value of the chapters concerning the Lop-nor graves, and I am much in- 
depted to him for his energetic work in throwing light on these important questions. 

For the second appendix I have to thank Professor Sten Konow in Oslo. This 



eminent authority on Indian philology very kindly placed his great knowledge at my 
disposal to settle the questions relating to a strip of silk with Kharoshthi script. 

My thanks are also due to Professor Helmer Smith of Upsala, Mr. W. A. 
Unkrig of Frankfurt-am-Main and Dr. Kaare Gronbech of Copenhagen for 
their kindness in assisting me with the reading of some Tibetan and Mongolian 

Dr. Gunnar Jarring of Lund has controlled the transcription of the Turki 
names so as to bring them into line with international usage, and for the tran- 
scription of Mongol names I have had the privilege of utilizing Mr. Unkrig's deep 

Professor Gaston Backman of Lund has been extraordinarily obliging in exam- 
ining the anthropological material from the graves. Unfortunately, his publication 
has been delayed by unforeseen circumstances, so I have been unable to make use of 
his results; but his report will probably be ready in the. near future. 

Dr. R. Bergenhayn of the Invertebrate Department of the Museum of Natural 
History has with great thoroughness carried out microscopic determinations of 
shells and beads and similar articles of adornment made of shells. 

To Dr. T. Du Rietz, who subjected the prehistoric flint material to ocular exam- 
ination, I am indebted for valuable hints. 

Miss I. Ekberg has been of great assistance to both Miss Sylwan and myself in 
the preparation of the textiles and other tasks in connection with the arranging of 
the collections. She is also the author of Indian ink drawings and the coloured 
plates in this book, and has in addition helped me with proof-reading. I have also 
had kind assistance with this from my wife and my sister. 

The maps have been drawn at A.-B. Kartlitografen, Stockholm. Some of the pho- 
tographs for the collotype plates have been taken by N. Lagergren; the majority 
by myself. For three of the photographs in the text I have Mr. Chen to thank. The 
collotype plates were executed at Malmo Ljustrycksanstalt, other cliches by Berg- 
strom's Klicheanstalt, Stockholm. 

Finally, I wish to express my appreciation of the work of Mr. Leonard B. Eyre 
and Mr. Donald Burton, who have had the probably not always easy task of cor- 
recting each a part of my English text and as far as possible getting its rough turn- 
ings to sound English. 

Stockholm, February 1939. 

Folke Bergman. 


MFEA Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 

(Ostasiatiska Samlingarna). 
Br. breadth. 

For abbreviations referring to publications cf. the bibliography. 

L. length. 
Th. thickness. 
W. width. 





Very little is known about the prehistoric periods of Sinkiang. Sven Hedin 
gave us the first hint of the existence of what may be called a stone age in the 
Lop desert. In his collection of antiquities from 1900-01 there are two worked 
stones. One is a core or nucleus of agate-looking stone from one side of which flakes 
have been split of f, the other is a flake of yellowish flint (Bergman 1935 c, PI. 
IX: 2 — 3). Their small size is typical of the stone age objects of Eastern Turkistan 
and Mongolia which have been found by other explorers during the last three de- 
cades. Judging from the form nothing can be said as to the proper age of Hedin's 
two objects, and they do not originate from any definite stratum but have been pick- 
ed up from the wind-eroded surface of the ground. 

Stein's collection of about 450 stone artifacts from the Lop-nor region is more 
representative but even here we are left in uncertainty if we want to obtain any 

more precise chronological determination. They have been described and discussed 
by R. A. Smith. 

Stein also discovered stone implements in a couple of places among the sands of 
Taklamakan south-east of Ckok-tagh in the neighbourhood of Maral-bashi (Stein 
1928, p. 85). He found two cores, an arrow-head, a point, eight flakes and some 
nondescript worked stones. Smith does not discuss them in his paper on Stein's 
other prehistoric finds. That they should be palaeolithic as suggested by Stein is 
not explained, and seems unlikely. 

Pelliot purchased two jade axes at Qum-tura near Kucha; they are now in the 
Musee de Saint Germain (Pelliot, p. 9). Through the kindness of the authorities 
of the Museum I have obtained photographs of these axes (which proved to be three 
in number). They will be discussed in connection with the Lop-nor axes. 

The new material discovered during the course of Sven Hedin's Sino-Swedish 
Expedition, with the exception of the finds made by Dr. P. L. Yuan and Mr. 
Huang Wen-pi, will be described here. Yuan found some painted pottery north 
of the Bogdo-ola range, and at Hami (mentioned by Bishop); some painted pottery 
discovered by Huang at Yar-khoto is referred to in connection with my Toqsun 

After the departure of the main part of our expedition from Sinkiang, Pere Teil- 


hard de Chardin in 1931 travelled along the highroads connecting Hami, Turfan, 
Urumchi, Qara-shahr and Aqsu as a member of the Citroen-Haardt Expedition. 
This famous student of geology, palaeontology and archaeology came across three 
different localities with what he describes as neolithic stone artifacts. The first place 
is situated at San-tao-lin-tze (usually called Taranchi) 81 km. WNW of Hami, the 
second near Ch'i-chio-ching-tze at the bifurcation of the road from Hami, one 
branch going to Turfan and the other to Ku-ch'eng-tze. 1 Both of these localities lie 
in the T'ien-shan mountains. His third place was at Aqsu, on the southern edge of 
western T'ien-shan bordering the Tarim Basin, from where he reports a series of 
prehistoric dwelling places with numerous broken stones, fragments of hand-made 
pottery and also small patches of ashes. The inventory from here differs from 
those of the other places and has no connection with known cultures. The age of the 
Aqsu sites is of course hard to determine. The two places in T'ien-shan seem to 
belong to the same neolithic cultural complex as the one so widely distributed 
throughout Mongolia and Manchuria. 

One of the Chinese students, Mr. Y. H. Liu, who accompanied our expedition in 
1928, found flint implements at Ch'i-chio-ching-tze of a type very much resembling 
those from Inner Mongolia. It is possible, though not absolutely certain, that Teil- 
hard came across the same locality as Liu. 

Even with the addition of these new facts our knowledge of the cultural con- 
ditions in Sinkiang in prehistoric time remains imperfect. 


In describing now my own discoveries of prehistoric remains in the province of 
Sinkiang I must point out from the beginning that the arrangement is not strictly 
chronological. With a few exceptions I have followed a topographical grouping, 
which partly coincides with the order in which the sites were found. 



The first site with archaeological remains which I came across in Sinkiang was 
in the tiny oasis of Miao-erh-ku, the first real settlement one reaches when coming 
from the east along the northern caravan route through The Black Gobi. This small 
Turkish village, which probably also bears a Turki name though we never heard of 
it, is situated about 85 km. ESE of Hami on the southern side of the easternmost 

1 As to the curious type of tool from here which Pere Teh-hard depicts in his Fig. 13, I have found a similar 
one in Inner Mongolia, at Baycn-bogdo about 130 km. N of Pao-t'ou. It has not the small beak which Perc 
Teilhard believes to be the real 'point' of these objects. I cannot see why these tools should have such a fine 
and special finish with one bifacial cutting edge and one 'scraper edge' formed by the flaked-off 'core-side', 
if they were intended to serve only as burins. My belief is that they were a combination of knife and scraper. 


T'len-shan, here called Qarliq-tagh, and is surrounded by desert expanses on all 
sides. The village was flourishing at the time of our first visit in January 1928, 
when the finds were made, but at our second visit, in February 1934, it had been 
destroyed in the civil wars in Sinkiang. 

Where the small brook passing through the village comes to the row of low rocks 
near to the south of Miao-erh-ku there is on its western side an insignificant ruin 
of a mud hut of dubious age, PL I b. (This is not the brook passing the temple from 
which the village has taken its name, but situated to the west of it). Around this 
ruin some pottery fragments were picked up from the surface of the ground on an 
area about 100 m. in diam., and they occurred also in the upper 10 cm. of the 
loessic soil. 

Some of the sherds are painted, but unfortunately they are all quite small. The 
ware is red and reddish yellow in different shades; the thickness varies between 3 
and 13 mm. The painted ornamentation consists of black lines or red stripes, PI. 
2: 1 — 4. PI. 2:3 is from a handle and shows a spruce-twig pattern, also occurring 
on another handle. 

The plain sherds are as a rule more coarse than the painted ones, but the colour 
of the ware is about the same in both cases. 

Of the coarser wares one sherd from a rim (No. K. 13328:44) has small incised 
lines above the handle, and several sherds have a more or less thick raised border 
with finger impressions, PL 32: 6. In PI. 32: 5 such a raised border has been given 
the form of an arch, probably to form a handle. PL 32: 7 is from a very small cup 
with a single row of incised commas around the neck. 

Plain handles of different sizes are common. Most of them are loop-handles 

which have been applied vertically, but there is also an example of a horizontal lug- 

The bottom fragments all show flat bottoms, the walls forming a very obtuse 
angle with the bottom. Otherwise we know very little of the shape of the vessels; 
their size ranges from small cups to medium-sized jars. 

Most of the potsherds are probably of prehistoric age, but among the unpainted 
ware there seem to be specimens of later date (Han or later?). 

The only stone object found here is a part of a rude hammer with a large per- 
foration near the centre for the handle, PL 4:21. Its blunt edge shows traces of 
wear. It is very uncertain if it is of prehistoric origin. The only analogy known to 
me is a fragmentary hammer found by Birger Bohlin at Hui-hui-ch'eng-tze in 
NW Kansu together with a T'ang coin <MFEA No. K. 13557:5). 


Sengim-aghiz, the mouth of the Sengim valley, is situated 33 km. east of Turfan 
and 9 km. north of Qara-khoja on the border between the foothills of T'ien-shan 


Fig. i. Painted 

potsherd from 


Size 2/3. 

and the Turfan depression. Near to the south of the small mosque in 
the very mouth of the valley we found a few painted potsherds on the 
ground. Time did not allow of any true investigation. 

The ware is red and hard-burnt; the clay has been mixed with few 

but rather coarse grains of sand. The colour is homogeneous through 

the ware. At least some of the fragments have a slip of darker red on 

both sides; the decoration consists of black lines. PI. 2:5 is from the 

rim of a wide bowl; the same arrangement with two parallel vertical 

lines recurs on two more sherds. 1 A couple of sherds are from 

the rims of wide bowls, probably quite low. PL 2 : 6 shows a more complicated pattern 

of bent lines. Fig. 1 is from a thin-walled vessel, but the other sherds are 7 — 8 mm. 


Professor J. G. Andersson has kindly drawn my attention to the general resem- 
blance between these few sherds and his finds of painted pottery in Kansu from an 
intermediary stage between his second and third period. This material is still un- 

Among Professor T. J. Arne's material from the Turkoman steppe we find cer- 
tain general similarities as regards the ware, the colours and the ornamentation. I 
refer to our PL 2:6 and a sherd from Chakhir-tepe (Bylin-Althin, Fig. 16). I have 
no intention, however, of drawing any far-reaching conclusions as to cultural rela- 
tions out of this single conformity between one small potsherd from the Turfan re- 
gion and another small potsherd from the Turkoman steppe near the Caspian Sea. 
Not only is the material insufficient, it is also of such nature that it cannot be made 
the basis of any sound conclusions. 


When approaching the Toqsun oasis along the main road from Turfan a place 
yielding some painted potsherds was discovered in April 1928. The road cuts right 
across the site; as some human teeth were found it may be a destroyed grave. It is 
situated about 100 m. to the north of the Toqsun river and less than 1 km. to the east 
of the bridge across the river in question. The ground is made up of loess-like clay, 
which further to the east is eroded to form small yardang 2 ridges. 

The potsherds are homogeneous both as regards ware and decoration, and the 
vessels have probably been of only one type. 

The ware is rather thin, light brick-red in colour and of pretty good quality. 

The decoration of the outside of the sherds consists of vertical black lines reaching 
from rim to bottom, Fig. 2 and PL 2:8 — 9. On the inside of the rim there is a row 

1 Cf. the pattern on a vessel from Zhob, Baluchistan (Stein 1929, PI. X, MM.Ni 1). 

2 Yardang is the Turki word for the small curiously table-shaped clay terraces which wind erosion has mo- 
delled out of the old land surface, e. g. in the Lop desert. 


Fig. 2. Two painted potsherds from Toqsun. K. 133331:20 above. — : 17 below. 

Stippled = red, black = black. Half size. 

of black triangles, Fig. 2. The black colour is applied on top of a red slip. On the 
long loop-shaped handles the decoration is made up of oblique bands of two or three 
lines. These bands are arranged either parallel to each other or in zig-zag, PI. 2:7. 
The handles have reached from the rim to a point below the widest part of the 
body. The profile of the neck forms a slightly concave curve gently passing over in 
the globular body. There are no sherds from the very bottom, but it seems as if the 
bottom had been rounded. If a flat part has existed it must have been very small. 

The Toqsun vessels have been small and they must have represented the same gen- 
eral type as the one depicted on Fig. 3, but the neck is lower and less marked. The 
handles are identical. The original to Fig. 3 was excavated from a tomb 2 li NW of 
the Yar-khoto site (40 km. ENE of Toqsun) by Mr. Huang Wen-pi of our exped- 
ition. This pot is of great importance, as the arrangement of the decoration on the 
body recalls the one on the Charchan vase PL 1, thus linking this beautiful specimen 
with the Toqsun pottery. But both the Yar-khoto pot and the Toqsun sherds must 
be much younger than the Charchan vase, this being proved by the marked differ- 
ence in the artistic quality of the decoration. The Toqsun, and also the Yar-khoto 
pottery, give the impression of being a late and degenerate phenomenon. They do not 
fit in with any of the known types of polychrome wares. 

Huang assigns his painted pot to the last two centuries B.C., and further states 
that it cannot be anterior to B.C. 500. 

He has also found some painted potsherds inside the Yar-khoto ruins (figured on 
his pp. 2 — 3). He regards them as probably neolithic "but still used in the time of 


... i 

Fig. 3. Painted clay pot 

(black and red) from 

Yar-khoto. H. 144 mm. 

After Huang 1933. 

Christ". A stone axe from a grave to the north of the ruins he 
is inclined to regard as a survival from neolithic time. The red 
clay vessels on his Figs. 2-20 he supposes to have originated 
in old times but assumes that they were still in use in the time 
of Christ. 

I have not examined Mr. Huang's finds. My impressions 
are thus formed only from his illustrations. It seems to me as if 
Huang has placed these finds in rather late periods. The date 
around 500 B.C. for his painted pot appears to be nearer the 

Huang's cylindrical clay vessels as shown on his Figs. 12-17 
are very similar to some of Andersson's pots from the Chen-fan region in Kansu 
(of the Sha-ching stage) where they occur together with bronze ornaments of the 
Ordos style. Andersson dates them around 500 B.C. or somewhat later. 

These cylindrical clay vessels have indeed a non-ceramic shape, and Huang's com- 
parison between them and a lacquered wooden vessel from Lop-nor is quite correct. 
However, this similarity in shape does not necessarily mean a correspondence in 
time. The Lop-nor wooden vessel is certainly a Chinese import and can hardly ante- 
date the last century B.C. The cylindrical clay vessels may have drawn their form 
from much older wooden vessels of non-Chinese origin. 

If the cemetery from where Huang excavated both the painted pot and the cy- 
lindrical vessels is homogeneous there can be no long interval between these differ- 
ent kinds of pottery. We may place both around the middle of the last millenium 
B.C. Now my Toqsun sherds are stylistically more degenerate than Huang's painted 
pot, but there can hardly exist any pronounced chronological difference. 

The finds from the western part of the Turfan Basin thus seem to answer to 
Andersson's Sha-ching group, though there is no conformity among the painted 
wares from these two regions. 


When in Charchan in August 1928 I acquired from a Chinese merchant the 
beautiful earthenware vase shown in PI. 1. According to his statement it had been 
found in the Kohna-shahr bordering the present oasis of Charchan, i. e. a site 
which I will discuss in the last part of this volume. It was impossible to get any ab- 
solute confirmation as to the exact place of discovery. Every kind of minor articles 
of any age which the local people of Charchan offered me for sale was said to ori- 
ginate from Kohna-shahr (the Old Town), and in most cases this was true. These 
objects were however, of an age not previous to the Han dynasty, mostly from the 
Sung and Yuan dynasties. The vase must certainly be considerably older than the 


Han period. It seems very unlikely to me that it has been brought to Charchan from 
any distant place. If it was not actually excavated from inside the Kohna-shahr it 
must nevertheless have been in the Charchan region. 

As seen from the description in the list on p. 21 f. and PI. 1 the body is spherical 
and the neck slightly widening upwards. The painted decoration covers the whole 
surface except the lowest part, and consists of black and yellowish white on a red 
slip. The neck has a lattice pattern and the body a sort of "flames" and fringes. The 
painting is well done and gives a pleasant effect. The colour print does not give full 
credit to the mellow and warm tones of the original. The ware is yellowish red, 
rather thin, and of good quality recalling that from Toqsun. 

Both the shape and the elegant polychrome design is rather unique, and thus it is 
at present difficult to determine its proper age with any higher degree of certainty. 
It does not fit in with either of Prof. Andersson's groups of painted wares from 
NW China or with the polychrome pottery of India, the Near East or SE Europe. 

On the inside of the rim there are traces of black triangles like those on the 
Toqsun sherds. There are other general similarities, too, such as the vertical group- 
ing of the decorative elements, though the Toqsun vessels have had a more degene- 
rated shape and also a much simpler decoration. It therefore seems likely that the 
Charchan vase is older than the Toqsun pottery, and judging from its general style, 
the colours and the ware, it seems to be a good specimen of chalcolithic ceramic. 



K. 13328: 1. Potsherd from rim of vessel. Near 

rim a painted ornament of black, 
open triangles. A handle has probably emerged 
from the actual rim. Red ware. Th. 5 mm. PI. 2: 1. 

K. 13328:2. Potsherd from rim of thin-walled 

vessel. Light-red ware with a dark 
line painted along the rim. 

K. 13328 : 3. Potsherd from the widening mouth 

of a vessel. The inside of the 
mouth has a moulding and is painted with black, 
vertical lines. Red ware. 

K. 13328: 4. Sherd from the collar of an earth- 

enware vessel. Painted black verti- 
cal lines reach only 1 cm. below the rim. Dark-red 
slip on light-red ware. 

K. 13328:5. Small potsherd from the neck of 

a small vessel. Near rim some 
short vertical lines in black. Light-red ware. 

K. 13328:6. Potsherd from rim of wide bowl. 

Along inside of rim a red band 2 

cm. wide. The whole exterior was probably paint- 
ed red. Thick, light-red ware. 

K. 13328:7-8. Fragm. of two loop-shaped 

handles of earthenware vessels. 
Red slip with black "spruce-twig pattern". Light- 
red ware. Br. 15 and 21 mm. — :8 PL 2:3. 

K. 13328:9. Fragm. of handle that has emerg- 
ed from the rim of a vessel. 
Traces of black painting. Red ware. 

K. 13328:10. Fragm. of thick handle, painted 

dark red on the outside. Br. 27 

K. 13328: 11. Potsherd, apparently from a high- 
collared vessel. On the inside four 
black lines, probably vertical. Red ware. 

K. 13328: 12. Small potsherd with black lines 

forming a net. Red slip. 

K. 13328: 13. Small potsherd with dark-red slip 

and narrow black lines, probably 
forming a "spruce-twig pattern". Light-red ware. 
PI. 2:4. 






K. 13328: 14-27. Fourteen small potsherds fromlf 

several vessels, all with a few 
black lines painted on red (more or less dark-red) 
slip and of very much the same red ware. Th. 
3—5 mm. — : 16 PI. 2:2. 

K. 13328:28. Potsherd from fairly large vessel. 

A violet line forms an angle, with 
a small dot in the corner; outside the angle the 
surface is painted with some light-brownish colour. 
Light-red ware. 

K. 13328: 29-40. Twelve potsherds with traces of 

painting in black or dark red. The 
ware is of different shades of red. 

K. 13328:41-43. Three potsherds with traces of 

dark-red painting on light-red or 
yellowish-red ware. 

K. 13328:44. Potsherd from rim of fairly large 

bowl. Has had a loop-shaped verti- 
cal handle. Red ware. 

K. 13328: 45-47. Three potsherds with an applied 

moulding, more or less marked, 
with deep finger impressions. — '.46 is of coarser 
ware than the painted sherds. — 145 PI. 32:6. 

K. 13328:48. Potsherd from shoulder of small 

vessel. A curved moulding with 
oblique impressions. Hard-burnt red ware. 

Potsherd from fairly large vessel 
with semicircular moulding form- 
with deep oblique impressions made 
Same ware as — : 46. PI. 32:5. 

Potsherd from rim of very small 
vessel. On the short neck a row 

of small vertical incised lines. Yellowish ware, 4 

mm. thick. PI. 32: 7. 

K. 13328:51. Potsherd from rim of vessel with 

marked incisions across the rim. 
The surface has a greenish coating; moreover, the 
ware differs from the rest. 

K. 13328:52. Thin potsherd with striation from 

the finishing of the surface. 

K. 13328: 53-55. Three potsherds, probably from 

same vessel. Incised garlands and 
ribbons made with three-toothed instrument. These 
and — 152 might be of somewhat later date than 
the rest. 

K. 13328:56. Potsherd of large, thick-walled 

vessel with some carelessly incised 
lines. Hard, light-red ware. 

K. 13328:57. Potsherd from rim of bulky jar. 

The rim is turned over and joined 
to the shoulder. Thick, light-red ware. Diam. of 
mouth has been about 19 cm. 

K. 13328: 49- 

ing a handle, 
with a stick. 

K. 13328:50. 

K. 13328: 58-63. Six small potsherds from rims of 


K. 13328 : 64. Potsherd from globular body of 

small vessel with a semicircular 
handle 15 mm. long. Light-red ware. 

K. 13328:65-88. Twenty- four more or less frag- 
mentary, loop-shaped handles of 
earthenware vessels. Most of them with flat, some 
with oval section. Red ware of different shades. 
Br. about 3 — 2 cm. 

K. 13328:89. Small potsherd with a vertical lug. 

From both sides a hole has been 
drilled, but the two do not meet. Traces of black 
painting. Red ware. 

K. 13328:90. Fragm. of handle, probably of 

same kind as — 149. 

K. 13328:91. Fragm. of vertical lug, larger than 

— 189 and without holes. Reddish- 
brown ware. 

K. 13328:92-97. Six potsherds from flat-bottomed 

vessels of red ware. 

K. 13328: 98. Small fragm. of vessel with steam- 
holes in bottom. Light-red ware. 

K. 13328:99-120. Twenty-two potsherds, some of 

fine, some of coarse red ware, 
— : 118 brownish grey. 

K. 13328:121. Spindle whorl made of brownish 

potsherd. Diam. 47 mm. Th. 7 mm. 
K. 13328: 122-124. Three round potsherds. 

K. 13328:125. Fragm. of earthenware object, 

hardly a pot. Yellowish-red ware. 

K. 13328: 126. More than half of a hoc or ham- 
mer of dense grey stone with 
a big hole from one broad side to the other. The 
contour has been oval. At the complete end traces 
of wear. L. has been about 15 cm. Br. about 10 
cm. Th. 4 cm. PI. 4: 21. 


K. 13329:1. Small potsherd from the rim of 

a vessel. Top and outside of the 
rim painted black. From this border run two verti- 
cal black lines set close together. Red ware, hard- 
burnt and intermixed with some coarse grains of 
sand. PI. 2:5. 

K. 13329:2-3. Two small sherds, apparently from 

same vessel as — : 1. Both have 
two black lines set close together. 

K. 13329:4-7. Four small potsherds from rims of 

bowls. Traces of black line along 
the rim of two of them. 


K. 13329:8. Postherd with several black lines 

painted on a red slip. The broader 
lines form obtuse angles, the thinner lines cross 
each other. PI. 2:6. 

K. 13329:9-16. Eight small potsherds with traces 

of black lines. Probably same 
vessel as — : 8. 

K. 13329: 17. Potsherd with black lines arrang- 
ed as — :8, though a little narr- 

K. 13329: 18-19. Two small potsherds with black 

lines, probably same vessel as 
— :i7. 

K. 13329 : 20. Two joined potsherds with narrow 

black lines. The ware half as thick 
as the rest. Fig. 1. 

K. 13329:21. Small potsherd with traces of 

parallel black lines. 

K. 13329: 22. Small fragm. of loop-shaded 

handle of clay vessel. Traces of 
black painting. 

Toqsu n. 

K. I333 1 '• i- Long handle from earthenware 

vessel. On a red slip there arc 
three groups of slanting black lines, each group 
consisting of three nearly parellcl lines. The rims 
were also painted black. Light-red ware. L. 11 cm. 
PI. 2 : 7. 

K. 13331 : 2. Upper part of handle of same type 

and decoration as — : 1 but less 
clear. Probably only two lines in each group. The 
handle emerges from the actual rim of the vessel. 

K. I333i:3- Upper part of handle like — :2, 

with traces of a group of three 
slanting lines in black. 

K. [3331:4. Fragm. of long handle, narrower 

than the previous ones, with three 
groups of black lines, four in each, arranged in a 
zig-zag. Br. 18 mm. 

K. I333 1 : 5* Fragm. of handle similar to — :4 

but the groups of black lines con- 
sist of three lines each. Br. 17 mm. 

K. 13331:6. Fragm. of handle with a black- 

painted zig-zag band consisting of 
two borderlines with shorter oblique lines between. 
Br. 18 — 20 mm. 

K. 13331 : 7-*$- Nine smaller fragm. of handles of 

similar type and decoration as the 
previous ones. Br. 10 — 22 mm. 

K. 13331:16. Seven small fragm. of handles 

with painting almost effaced. 

K- 133Z1 '■ 17- Potsherd from rim of small vessel 

with slightly marked neck. From 
the rim a handle once emerged. The slip on inside 
reaches to 2 — 3 cm. below rim. The exterior de- 
corated with vertical black lines; the inside rim 
has a row of black triangles. The handle was 
painted with black slanting lines. Light-red ware 
intermixed with a few grains of sand. Th. about 
4 mm. Fig. 2. 

K. 13331 : 18. Small potsherd from rim of vessel 

from which a handle once emerg- 
ed. Of the painting only the triangles on the inside 
rim are visible. 

K. 13331 : 19. Fragm. of the nearly globular 

body of a small earthenware vessel 
with the base of a handle. Red slip and vertical 
black lines. Light-red ware (terra-cotta). The 
bottom must have been nearly round. 

K. I333 1 : 20-38. Nineteen potsherds from rims of 

small vessels of same type and de- 
coration as — : 17. — :20 Fig. 2. (Diam. at the 
mouth originally 10 — 11 cm.). 

K. 13331:39. Thirteen small potsherds from 

rims of vessels similar to the pre- 
ceding, painting not very well preserved. 

K- 1333 1 '• 40-84. Forty-five potsherds from same 

kind of vessels as the preceding. 
— = 40 PI. 2:9, — =42 PI. 2:8. 

K. 1333 1 : 85-86. Various small potsherds, some of 

them with traces of the same kind 
of painting as the preceding, and all of similar 

K. 13331:87. 
K. 13331 = 88- 

Small sherd of greenish-grey flint 
with a few retouches. 

A few small fragm. of bone and 
human teeth. 


Purchased. According to statement, found in the 

K. 13334- Painted pottery vase with spherical 

body and high cornet-shaped neck. 
A little above the widest part there is a small 
handle on each side. Light yellow-brown ware, 
rather thin, contains a small amount of fine-grain- 
ed sand. The neck is painted light yellow with a 
lattice pattern in black. The yellow slip reaches 
2 — 3 cm. below the rim on the inside; close to the 
rim are traces of black triangles. The body has a 


red ground-colour and is patterned in black and 
light yellow. Immediately below the neck is a hori- 
zontal border consisting of two lines with a wavy 
triple line between. Below this are seven groups 
of a sort of flame pattern. The "flames" are 
painted light yellow and curved like inverted S's. 
On the right side of the top of every "flame" six 

black lines follow its contour, converging towards 
the lower point of the flames. On the left side 
of each flame and from their lower point there 
is a group of 7 — 9 black lines following the border 
of the flame and converging towards the top. 
H. 22 cm. Diam. 16 cm. Diam. of rim 8.7 cm. H. 
of collar 8 cm, PL 1. 


The painted wares of Miao-erh-ku, Sengim-aghiz and Toqsun seem to have little 
in common with one another. The two first mentioned places seem to be more related 
to each other than to Toqsun. None of them, however, shows pronounced affinities 
with painted wares in China proper or in the Near East, possibly with the exception 
of Sengim-aghiz. Now the Sinkiang material is indeed so limited that this circum- 
stance is in itself sufficient to exclude the drawing of any parallels with polychrome 
pottery from other regions, and no proper conclusions can be founded on it. Never- 
theless, the presence of even these few items is significant as showing that the 
painted chalcolithic pottery does exist in this vast province, a fact that was unknown 
before the Sino-Swedish Expedition started its surveys. It might be worth while to 
touch upon the question of the importance of Sinkiang to the spread of the painted 

When Professor J. G. Andersson discovered the occurrence of aeneolithic cult- 
ures with painted pottery in N. China less than twenty years ago the scientific 
world was startled. Until then the prehistory of China was practically unknown, 
and painted pottery had come to light only in SE Europe and the Near East. As 
there existed certain striking similarities between some patterns among the earlier 
Chinese wares and those already known it lay close at hand to draw parallels be- 
tween East and West. The Chinese painted pottery was declared to be an offspring 
of the Near Eastern painted pottery of late neolithic time, and the art of vase paint- 
ing was stated to have reached China with a cultural stream across Central Asia in 
late neolithic (aeneolithic) time. 

Professor Andersson, trie discoverer, has advanced only carefully formulated 
theories on these questions and repeatedly emphasized their conjectural nature, 
and that sufficient facts to prove the phenomena are in many cases unavailable. 
Some of those who have subsequently dealt with the same problems have been more 
confident, though they no doubt have less experience of the original Chinese ma- 
terial than has the discoverer. 

Andersson certainly believes in the migration from West to East of the art of 
vase painting and, furthermore, has pointed out that it probably marks the intro- 
duction of a new, superior culture, which he has explained as a step forwards in the 
perfection of agriculture. 


Menghin has afterwards (1931, p. 561) characterized the carriers of the Huang- 
ho cultures as "Schweinezuchtern" and not as agriculturists. But everything goes to 
prove that the Yang-shao people carried on agriculture side by side with pig breed- 
ing, and we know that they even cultivated rice. 

Through Andersson's discoveries North China has been included in the vast Euro- 
Asiatic chalcolithic cultural complex characterized by painted pottery and the first 
appearance of copper. 

Nowhere did the art of vase painting reach such a perfection in chalcolithic time 
as in the Chinese province of Kansu. The ability to work metals seems to have reach- 
ed China at a somewhat later stage. 

As time has passed a lot of new material has been added from many places, 
above all Iran, Baluchistan, India, and apparently also from Russian Turkistan. 
In the East several new sites have been explored inside the already known domain 
of the N. China polychrome pottery, and also outside this region a few specimens 
of painted wares have come to light, inter alia in Jehol and Inner Mongolia. The 
addition in comparative material has, however, hardly simplified the question of the 
connection between East and West in aeneolithic time, rather the opposite. 

So many speculations and far-reaching theories have been advanced connecting 
the spread from West to East of the painted pottery with the migrations of certain 
peoples from SE Europe to NW China, that it is time to come down to earth again 
and confess that we cannot know anything about such things. As a matter of fact 
we know very little about the very material on which such hypotheses ought to be 
founded, as only a part of the Chinese pottery has been made available through 

Now the vase painting is a rather complicated phenomenon. It presupposes a high- 
ly developed ceramic art with skilled workmen well acquainted with the fabrication 
of hard-burnt wares; furthermore knowledge of the production of certain colours, 
and familiarity with the brush. All these circumstances taken together constitute 
such a complex phenomenon that it is very unlikely that the art of vase painting has 
evolved in different centra in chalcolithic time. 

If we accept the theory of the art of vase painting as an importation, both the 
distribution and the nature of the earlier painted wares in China make it clear that 
the way of entrance has been from the north-west, i. e. across Central Asia. 1 Un- 
der such conditions the spread of the knowledge of vase painting must have passed 
through certain parts of the present province of Sinkiang. The geographical 
position of this province predestinates it to be an intermediary link between 
West and East, even though the Pamirs seem to block the southern part 
from any sort of intercourse with the countries west thereof. Especially north 

1 The view set forth by Janse that the art of vase painting arrived in N. China from India via Indo-China or 
Yunnan is less probable. Nothing in the geographical distribution of the painted wares points to the south or 
south-west (Janse 193s). 


of the T'ien-shan range the relatively easily traversed Dzungarian region lies open, 
and here large-scale nomadic migrations have passed in later ages. In fact this is 
the only way possible for a migrating tribe of any size moving from east to west or 
vice versa. 

Now everything goes to prove that the carriers of the painted pottery cultures 
were agriculturists, and it is very hard to imagine a migration of a sedentary people 
across the whole width of Central Asia from e. g. Anau in the west to Kansu in the 
east, a distance of at least 4 200 km. For a nomad tribe such a distance is not exag- 
geratedly long. But nomads carry no pottery. The discovery of intermediary centres 
east of Anau and west or north-west of Kansu would certainly make the migration 
theory more plausible. Now our finds denote the presence of painted wares in Sin- 
kiang during a prolonged period. 

We may be quite confident that one day, when archaeologists are allowed to 
work systematically in Russian Turkistan and Chinese Turkistan, so many sites with 
painted pottery will be discovered that the spaces between them will become insigni- 
ficant. It is our lack of knowledge which makes the migration theory appear more 
difficult of comprehension than necessary. 

A first step towards filling the present gap in our knowledge of Russian Turki- 
stan is the report of such sites in Ferghana. 

The Russians have apparently discovered painted pottery on the Qizil-yar steppe 
near Khakil-abad (the Shahr-i-Khaiber site). This pottery is said to be reminis- 
cent of Anau I. It is published by Latynin (reviewed in "American Anthropolog- 
ist" 38, 1936, p. 285, and 1938 p. 674, with the original plates). It seems as if the pat- 
terns on the potsherds were both incised and painted. 

We hardly need to consider the possibilities of a transcontinental trade as the car- 
rier of the vase painting art, and it is impossible to assume the importation into N. 
China of only a few vase painters. The Yang-shao painted ware is rather homogen- 
eous over the whole area of its distribution, and a pretty rapid spread of this 
cultural element must be presumed. 

The very important question of the chronology of the Chinese facies of this 
large cultural complex has been founded on comparisons with Near Eastern and 
SE European localities, and one has arrived at somewhat diverging results accord- 
ing to the locality which has been regarded as furnishing the closest similarities. 
As a matter of fact the similarities are in many cases not too convincing. If a reli- 
able absolute chronology for the Chinese facies is to be obtained it must be based 
on the Chinese material itself, and though this may be difficult at present it will 
certainly one day be possible. The general trend among students of these questions 
has been to lower the age given to the Chinese painted wares, and there seems to be 
much in favour of this. But we are still awaiting Professor Andersson's definite 
treatment of the chronological question. 


Prehistoric site TheRouteofthe TheRouteofthe 

The Route of the Centre South /approx,/ North /approx./ 

Fig. 4. Map of eastern Sinkiang with prehistoric sites and the courses of the Silk Roads. 

In the light of these surveys of our expedition the Turfan Basin stands out as a 
centre for the painted pottery in Sinkiang. This fertile region, the main part of which 
lies below sea-level, was also the foremost cultural centre in historical time. The 
other sites are also grouped around T'ien-shan. In spite of the scarcity of known 
sites it seems reasonable to suppose that their distribution marks the general line 
of direction along which the art of vase painting was spread in successive waves. 
In the Yu-men corridor and SE of Suchow some still unpublished sites with painted 
pottery were discovered by Bohlin and Bexell of our expedition. These places are 
links between the Sinkiang sites and Andersson's Kansu localities. 

Future researches will certainly reveal many new sites with painted pottery in 

Sinkiang, but we can hardly expect them to contain such large quantities of high 

class polychrome wares as those in Kansu, Shensi and Honan. 

The scarcity of finds may partly be due to the circumstance that Sinkiang was 
merely a transit province. 

Physically this province alternates between patches of fertile oases and stretches 
of desert, which are largely too sterile even for a nomad pastoralism. Hence Sin- 



kiang in historical times has never been the seat either of really strong states of 
sedentary culture or of great nomad hordes. Its main importance has instead been 
its position as a transit region through which migrations have swept, where trade 
has flourished and where the spread of some of the great religions has manifested 

On the other hand only a trifling part of this large province has been reconnoitred. 
Only a couple of the important oases, where settled life has probably existed 
since the introduction of agriculture, has been surveyed. Teilhard's discoveries at 
Aqsu would seem to indicate the existence of apparently neolithic remains outside 
the area of present cultivation. We therefore await with utmost interest the results 
obtained by the next archaeological expedition with prehistory on its programme 
which goes to this far-away part of the world, so difficult to approach. In this 
connection the description of the localities found by me may be of some guidance. 

In a future publication on the archaeological material from western Kansu and 
Inner Mongolia I hope to deal again, and more extensively, with the question of 
painted chalcolithic pottery. 


Besides the three places which yielded some painted pottery fragments there are 
other prehistoric sites characterized by the worked flints. In those cases where these 
flint artifacts occur together with potsherds the potsherds are unpainted. 

Firstly I will mention a place at Ch'ai-o-p'u in T'ien-shan, secondly a dwelling 
site at Singer in Quruq-tagh, thirdly the Lop-nor finds, and lastly a place in Astin- 
tagh in the Charchan region. 

A. CH'AI-O-P'U. 

Along the main road from Turfan to Urumchi there is a small village to the 
west of Davan-ch'eng called Ch'ai-o-p'u. It is situated in the middle of the inter- 
montane plain bordered on the north by the mighty snow-peaks of Bogdo-ola. One 
or two kilometres to the east of the village, and close to the north of the road, a few 
worked flints were picked up from the ground. There are five small cores, three 
diminutive flakes and a small scraper. One of the cores has an edge shaped as a 

These flints, insignificant as they may appear, could as well have been found in 
the Gobi desert, where this kind of small, neatly worked flints is very common. 


Singer is at present the easternmost permanent settlement in Quruq-tagh. It is 
occupied by a couple of Turkish families. On April 13th 1928 I discovered pre- 


historic stone artifacts in the small dune accumulation on the western side of the 
springs that supply the village and are situated near to the south-west of it. On the 
western slope of this sandy elevation in the ground, where reeds and tamarisks grow, 
partly forming mounds, we located three different spots near each other that mark- 
ed the sites of ancient dwellings. There the sand was coloured by soot and ashes 
on spots i—5 m. in diameter. On a couple of these places where fires had been burn- 
ing the ground was a little higher than the surrounding. In the sand pebbles and 
small boulders were found. These were very brittle from the effects of heating. 
They were not arranged in any special order but had apparently served as hearths. 
One of them contained some much decayed bone fragments, a couple of potsherds 
and a quartzite knife, the. finds being made to a depth of 10 cm. Most of the loose 
material that once covered this site had blown away, and the artifacts were there- 
fore found lying on the ground together with various unworked stones. They had, 
so to say, sunk to the bottom. Only where the surface was protected by the some- 
what more resistant hearths had part of it been preserved. This is thus an example 
of dune dwellers. 

The potsherds found are of brownish or reddish ware, not very coarse, and of a 
general neolithic appearance. Only a couple of them have an incised line or applied 
nipples as decoration. 

I found twenty-three cores or nuclei of flint or flintlike stones partly fragmentary, 
and over 300 small elegantly shaped flint flakes, most of them with sharp edges, 
others having retouched edges. 

The drills PL 4: 1—2 are made of this kind of small flakes, their tips being re- 
touched from alternate sides, the idealcross section of the tip forming a parallelo- 
gram or rhomb. The small finely trimmed piercer or awl of white flint shown in PL 
4: 3 is of a unique shape. 

The most interesting group among the implements is comprised by the arrow- 
heads, which occur in an unusually large number and show an admirable workman- 
ship, PL 3: 1 — 17. The slender willow-leaf shape is also very elegant, and some of 
them have an extremely sharp tip. PL 3: 12—17 are less sharply pointed, and as 
some of them are of a coarser make they are probably unfinished. There are also 
fragments of arrow-heads both of greater and lesser perfection. 

This type of arrow-head is known from the Lop desert (PL 4: 13 and Stein 1921, 
PI. XXX, C. 122. 0054, and Stein 1928, PL XXII, L. I. 012 etc.). I have never 
encountered this type in Inner Mongolia. 

The small flint objects PL 3: 10—20 I call knives because one edge is straight 
and the other convex, though they may easily have served as arrow-heads as well. 
This type is known from Inner Mongolia and the Kansu corridor. PI. 3:21 — 22 
show two somewhat larger knives. 

It is hard to distinguish between fragments of this kind of knives and fragments 
of the larger arrow-heads. 



Fig. 5. The flint 

object No. K. 

13332:112 from 

Singer. 2/3. 

There are fragments of knives which when complete were larger 
than those depicted on PI. 3, but none of them seems to have been 
of the elliptical or rectangular shape known from Prof. Andersson's 
China collections. 

The scrapers, eleven in number, are made of broad and short flakes, 
the shape varying from oval to nearly circular. They are all very 
small, the largest measuring 4x3 cm. The same diminutive scrapers 
were found at Chiqin-sai (cf. p. 35 f.) and they are extremely common 
in Inner Mongolia. As the majority are of about the size of a thumb 
nail they must have been hafted with bone or wood. 
A kind of roughly worked bifacial instrument showa in Fig. 5 was found in 
three specimens. A similar one comes from the Lop desert, PI. 4: 17. I have found 
many of this type but mostly of finer workmanship in Mongolia. Their actual use 
is somewhat uncertain, though it seems possible that they served as small cleavers. 
Pere Teilhard calls them points with retouched heel (Teilhard Fig. 10). 

Various coarse flakes, reject and refuse chips and flint blocks occurring all over 
the surface layer of the site indicate that the implements were worked on the spot. 
Erik Norin, on seeing this material, was eager to help me to ascertain from 
which localities the Singer people draw their supply of raw material for the manu- 
facture of their implements. He therefore made a few specimens the subject of a 
petrographic analysis, and he has kindly placed the following statement at my dis- 
posal : 

"1) Yellow-brown dense phtanite, occurring along the southern side of Qizil- 
singer-tagh, is a slightly metamorphic type of carbonaceous chert which forms the 
base of the Upper Cambrian limestone series. In my stratigraphy called Ci^. 

2) Light greyish phtanite. Same occurrence as No. 1. Is a slightly metamorphized 
type of the light coloured chert which forms the lower part of the last mentioned 
horizon. In my stratigraphy called Cu. 

3) Dark greyish green flint ('halleflinta'). An effusive lava or tuff of kerato- 
phyric composition. Also occurring in the neighbourhood of Singer. 

These kinds of stones have also a wide distribution to the south of Buruntu- 
bulaq and between Buruntu-bulaq and Altmish-bulaq." 

This examination thus proves that the raw material used by the stone age people 
of Singer was taken from a source close at hand. 

Other stones used are quartz, quartzite, flint of grey, green and white colour, 
agate, felsite, chert and porphyry, all occurring near Singer. 

A flat slab of garnet-micaschist rubbed down smooth on one side may possibly 
have been used as a grinding stone, and two strongly weathered fragments of sand- 
stone are from a mealing-stone. The occurrence of mealing-stones does not necess- 
arily mean that the people carried on agriculture here. The stones may have been 


used for mealing some edible seeds. In the main the people here had probably to rely 
on hunting for their living. 

There are a few differences between the Singer material and that which I know 
from Mongolia, but there are more analogies, and the composition of artifacts is 
the same in the Singer site and in the Mongolian sites. It therefore seems appropri- 
ate to characterize them as belonging to the same cultural complex, i. e. the Gobi 
culture or the Mongolian-Manchurian late neolithic. 


C h' a i - o 
K. 13330: 1-2. 

K. 13330 : 3- 

K. 13330:4-5. 
K. 13330:6. 

K. 13330: 7- 
K. 13330 : 8. 

K. 13330: 9- 
K. 13330: 10. 



Two cores of grey flint. — : 1 is 
oval in section and neatly point- 
ed. L. 38 and 29 mm. 

Core of leparite(?) one side un- 
touched, the convex edge forming 
a scraper. L. 30 mm. 

Two small, almost cylindrical 
cores of agate and leparite(?). L. 
20 mm. 
Small flint flake. 

Small oval flint flake. 

Flake of chalcedony with retouch- 
ed edges. 

Small scraper of green flint. 

Sherd of greenish-grey flint. 

K. 13332:1. Small potsherd of brownish ware 

with a straight, incised line. 

K. 13332:2-3. Two small potsherds of fairly 

large vessels of rather thin brown- 
ish ware. 

K. 13332: 4. Forty-nine potsherds of brownish 

or reddish ware. 

K. I333 2 : 5-*5- Eleven cores of flint, agate and 


K. 13332: 16. Eight fragm. of flint cores of 

various sizes. 

K. 13332: 17-18. Two roughed-out cores of agate 

and felsite. 

K. 13332 : 19. 275 fine small flakes of flint, agate 


K. 13332:20. 47 small flakes with retouched 


K. 13332:21. Small narrow flint flake, but 

rather thick, and with one edge 

K. 13332:22. Flint piercer made of small flake. 

Rather blunt point. L. 33 mm. PI. 
4: 1. 

K. I333 2: 23-24. Two flint piercers with broken 

points. Same type as — :22. 

K. 13332:25-26. Two flint piercers, willowleaf- 

shaped like arrow-points. L. 20 
and 30 mm. 

K. 13332:27-34. Eight awls or piercers of flint 

and agate. Of slightly different 
type. — 129 PL 4:3, — :34 PI. 4:2. 

K- 13332 : 35- Small flint flake with one edge 

retouched and the median ridge 
chipped on one side. 

K. 13332:36. Fourteen small flint flakes with 

the more or less high median ridge 
chipped on one or both sides. 

K. 13332:37. Curved flint flake with the high 

median ridge chipped on one side. 

K. 13332: 38-41. Four very slender, willowleaf- 

shaped arrow-points of phtanite 
and flint. Perfectly finished. — 141 is made from 
a small flake. L. 49 — 34 mm. Br. 13 — 7 mm. PI. 


K. 13332:42-47. Six leaf-shaped arrow-points of 

flint and quartzite. Shorter than 
the previous ones. L. 39—25 mm. Br. 13— 11 mm. 
PI- 3 : 5—10. 

K. 13332 = 48- 
K. 13332:49. 

Very thin leaf-shaped arrow-point 
of grey flint. 19X9 mm. PI. 3: 1 1. 

Leaf-shaped arrow-point of flint, 
coarsely made. 38X20 mm. PI. 
3: 12. 







■ * 


K. 13332:50. Leaf-shaped arrow-point of agate, 

rather thick. 38X15 mm. PI. 3: 13. 

K. 13332: 51-52. Two leaf-shaped arrow-points, or 

maybe piercers, of quartzite and 
flint. L. 26 mm. 

&■ »3332: 53- Small oval arrow-head(?) of 

dark-grey flint. Rather blunt. 14X 
8 mm. PI. 3 : 18. 

K. 13332: 54. The broken-off tip of a well-made 

arrow-point of quartz. 

K- x 333 2: 55-57. Three leaf-shaped arrow-points of 

chert and quartzite. L. 43 — 33 mm. 

PI. 3:14—16, 

K. 13332:58. Very blunt arrow-head, or possib- 
ly knife, of grey flint. 34X18 mm. 
PI- 3=17- 

K. r 333 2 : 59~6°' Two coarse, unfinished arrow- 
points of quartzite. 

K. 13332:61-63. Three pointed sherds of chert and 


K. 13332:64-67. Four fragm. of flint arrow-points 

or small knives. 

K. 13332: 68-69. Two small knives of quartzite, one 

edge straight, the other slightly 
convex. 39X13 and 33X8 mm. PI. 3: 19 — 20. 

K- 13332:70- One half of a small knife of 

yellow phtanitc. Made from a 
flake. Br. 11 mm. PI. 4:5. 

K. 13332:71. Knife of greyish-green chert. One 

edge more convex than the other. 
Coarsely made. 85X24 mm. PI. 3:21. 

K. 13332 : 72-73. Two coarse knives of quartzite, 

probably unfinished. — -.72 made 
of a naturally thin piece of stone. PI. 3:22. 

K. 13332 : 74-85. Twelve fragm. of knives of 

quartzite and flint. 

K. 13332 : 86-95. Ten fragm. of coarse knives of 

quartzite, chert and flint. 

K- x 333 2: 96-106. Eleven scrapers of flint, -quartzite 

and felsite. Nearly oval or round. 
From 40X29 to 15X16 mm. — : 103 PI. 4:4. 

K. 13332: 107-108. Two flint scrapers with un- 
finished retouching. 

K. 13332:109. Thick quartzite flake with some 

retouches along one edge. 55X28 

K. 13332:110-111. Two small fragm. of flint 


K. 13332:112-1 14. Three bifacial implements of 

flint and quartzite, one end 

straight, the other convex. 42X32, 36X31 and 34X 
27 mm. — : 112 Fig. 5. 

K. 13332:115. Part of a core(?) of dark-grey 

porphyry, the thin edges chipped 
on each side. 

&• 13332:116. Nine small objects of quartzite 

and flint, worked on both sides. 
Partly knives or cutters, partly fragm. of in- 
determinable implements. 

K. 13332:117. Seventeen discs of coarse sherds 

of quartzite and flint, more or less 

Eight pointed sherds of quartzite, 
partly unfinished arrow-heads. 

Eight coarse flakes of flint and 
quartzite, the edges more or less 

Various coarse flakes of different 
coloured flints and quartzite. 

Various refuse of flint, agate and 

K. I333 2: 122-123. Two small fragm. of a grinding 

stone of sandstone. 

Fragm. of grinding stone(?) of 
garnet-micaschist. One side ground 

A few bone fragm. and charcoal 
from a hearth. 

K. 13332: 118. 
K. 13332: "9- 

K. 13332:120. 
K. 13332:121. 

K. 13332 : 124. 

K. 13332: 125. 
K. 13332: 126. 

Potsherd from rim of vessel with 
slightly curved neck and two 
marked nipples below the neck. Reddish-brown, 
rather hard-burnt ware, cf. — : 1 — 4. 

K. 13332: 127-128. Two small potsherds from the 

upright rims of two vessels, 
same ware as the preceding. 

K. 13332: 129-132. Four potsherds of same ware as 

the preceding. 

Core of grey flint, nearly cylind- 
rical. L. 40 mm. 
Part of core of quartzite. 

Arrow-point of quartzite, leaf- 
shaped, rather thick. L. 45 mm. 

Part of thin natural disc of 
quartzite; the convex edge has 
probably been used for cutting. 

K. 13332: 137. Fragm. of bifacial object of 

quartzite. Cf. — :ii2. 

Partly worked block of felsite. 

Thick sherd of quartzite with 
worked edges. 

K. 13332: 133. 

K. 13332: 1 34- 
K. 13332 : 135. 

K. 13332: 136. 

K. 13332: 138. 
K. 13332: 139. 



From the Lop-nor region prehistoric finds were collected by Horner and Chen 
in the winter season 1930— 31 during their important surveys of the Lop desert, 
which resulted, inter alia, in the only existing map of Lop-nor in its present 
northern position. In 1934 Mr. Chen made a few additional finds along the lower 
part of Qum-darya, and in the same season I found some places with worked 
stones etc. mainly in the desert south of Yardang-bulaq. 1 They are all mentioned 
in the descriptive list together with the stray finds from the historical period; in 
this chapter only the main types will be discussed and such combinations of finds as 
probably mark dwelling sites. 

Hypothetical dwelling sites. 

The most important objects for dating prehistoric cultures are as a rule the cera- 
mic wares. Unfortunately very few potsherds have been collected together with 
worked flints in the Lop desert. In Horner's collection there is one instance, 
K. 133^3. and in my own collection there are three instances, Nos. 22, 25 and 28. 

These potsherds are rather homogeneous as to their general appearance and more 
worn by the moving sand than the sherds from the time of Lou-Ian. This 
circumstance shows either that they are of a quality inferior to that of the Lou-Ian 
pottery or that they have been exposed for a longer time. Both possibilities suggest 
an earlier age than the Lou-Ian occupation. The ware is light brownish with red and 
grey stains. Rather coarse-grained sand has been used for mixing with the clay. 
Most of the sherds are plain. No. 28: 1 has a raised border below the rim, and 28: 2 
has had a raised decor of applied bands with striations. It is not impossible that 
the decorated sherd PI. 29: 2 is of prehistoric origin, though its surface is well- 
preserved. A few more potsherds found separately and without accompanying stone 
implements may also belong to this group. 

We will now examine the worked flints from those localities which may be regard- 
ed as probable dwelling sites. I take only those places where there is no admixture 
of metal or definitely Lou-Ian time pottery. The first four are situated near to the 
south of Qum-darya below Yardang-bulaq. The places are mentioned in sequence 
from west to east; cf. the maps Fig. 36 — 37. 

No. 22 is just a couple of diminutive flint flakes beside a single potsherd, and No. 
25 has one potsherd, an irregular flint core, a couple of flakes, the coarse knife or 
bifacial implement PI. 5: 10 and two large flint blocks with chipped-off surfaces. I 

1 On Hedin's earlier maps the name Yardang-bulaq has been applied to a well otherwise called Dolan-achiq 
io km. NNW of the true Yardang-bulaq, which is situated only about 3 km- NW of Yaqa-yardang-bulaq. At 
Dolan-achiq there are no yardangs. 


.a V 



mention these two localities because I found them myself and I therefore know that 
everything on the spot was collected. 

No. 28 consists of a few more objects. I came across them south of camp B 61 on 
wind-eroded yardang-ground about 500 m. from the southern bank of the river. They 
were lying scattered in 2 m. deep hollows as well as on adjacent yardangs covering an 
area of about 60 m. in diameter. There are no typical cores and only three small 
flakes. PI. 4: 13 is a willow-leaf arrow-head of agate of the same shape and make 
as those from Singer in Quruq-tagh. PL 4: 14, a fragmentary arrow-head of green 
flint, has the base shaped into a short tang, a feature that does not occur among the 
flint points of Inner Mongolia; Stein gives a picture of one complete specimen from 
his Fort L. E. Besides an uncertain small scraper there are small knife-like imple- 
ments worked on both sides, PI. 4: 6, 4: and 5: 9, and a small bifacial instrument 
PI. 4: 17. A couple of larger flint pieces arc "raw material" for making chips, and 
there is a certain number of refuse chips. 

Mr. Chen found the place No. 30 on the south bank of the river. The four cores 
and the four small flakes of agate and flint are very similar both in shape and 
material to those found closer to the lake. 

In Horner's and Chen's collection from 193 1, containing about 280 objects, there 
are artifacts from five probable dwelling sites. 

Horner found a rich site about 14 km. WSW of the Lou-Ian station in a sandy 
depression in wind-eroded clay. The place bears the number K. 13375 m tne descrip- 
tive list and 375 on the map Fig. 37. The following objects were collected: a frag- 
mentary flint core or nucleus, sixty-five flint flakes, many of them with retouched 
edges as PI. 5 : 3 — 4. Two narrow piercers or awls are made from small flakes. Be- 
sides there are some unworked chips. Now this is only the pick from the site and the 
material is of course rather limited to be labelled as representing a true dwelling site. 
This is still more the case with the following places. 

K. 13395 (395 on the map) consists of a few flint flakes found near the southern 
border of the delta NNE of the Lou-Ian station. 

K- 13359 (359 on the map) is also only the pick from a site with hundreds of 
worked flints in a large wind-hollow, 4—5 m. deep, situated near the western bor- 
der of the big salt crust. He collected three flint cores (PI. 4: 18) and twenty-nine 
flakes, some of which have one or both edges retouched. 

The objects K. 13363 were found in a region with several stray finds of a neolithic 
nature to the NE of the preceding place (cf. Nos. 362—365 on the map, and Horner 
also noticed antiquities in this region which were not collected). Only a small pot- 
sherd and four flint flakes were taken from this site where flakes are said to be 

K - I343*» finally, a place situated on the eastern side of the easternmost of the 
three freshwater bays in the northern part of Lop-nor. Here the neatly shaped bi- 


H. I 

a. Tomb structure between Yaqinlii|-k6l and Qura-darya. 


b. Miao-erh-ku. The potsherd!? K. 13328 were found on the low terrace in front of the hills, 

«■ - 


. ■ i 





PI. 11. 

B. Landscape south of Yaqinliq-kSl and cast 
uf The Small River. 

- ««t* 


^^"^ **r 

h. Dead foresl near in 
the south of Ouin-clarya. 


c. Grave 10. The coffin parity 
broken up. 


t ■ 

facial instrument PI. 5 : 1 was found together with the drill PL 4 : 7 and an untrimmed 
flake. The first object may have served as a knife or cleaver. 

Scattered finds. 

Cores or nuclei of flint are not uncommon in the Lop desert. Even in Dr. Hedin's 
old collection there is one, and here some specimens have been reproduced on PI. 
4: 16, 20, 22 and PL 5: 14. As a rule these cores are less regularly shaped than 
those from Inner Mongolia, partly owing to the fact that they have been flaked off 
in more than one direction. Most of them are micronuclei. 

The flakes struck off from the cores are very common. They are slender, as a rule 
very small, and elegantly made. The larger specimens, which are up to 8 cm. long, 
may have been used as knives without any extra handle, whereas the ordinary sized 
flakes have probably been fitted into grooved handles of bone or wood and used 
both as knives and sickles. 

No cores answering to the long flakes have been found. This is only natural, as 
cores get used up through the flaking-off process. On flakes protected from wind 
erosion the untrimmed edges still retain their sharpness. 

PL 5:6 has both edges retouched, and the spoon-shaped end may possibly have 
been suitable as a small scraper, which is also the case with PL 5 : 7, where the med- 
ian ridge is chipped from both sides, forming a zig-zag. PL 5:5 shows a thicker 
flake with a similarly treated ridge. 

Drills and awls were made from the flakes. PL 4: 7 is a typical drill, the retouches 
along the tip being placed on alternate sides. K. 13386:6 is another drill, and PL 
4:8 shows an agate drill made of an irregular flake with two blunt points. 

In our collections from Lop-nor there are only some atypical scrapers. This is a 
difference between Singer and Lop-nor. Stein gives a picture of a good scraper 
(1928PL XXII, Cxciii. 0158). 

The occurrence of true arrow-heads is also very rare. Besides those mentioned 
from No. 28 there is only PI. 4: 12 from the northern border of the delta. 

The two somewhat similar flint objects PL 5:2 and 5:8 are either coarse knives 
or unfinished points. 

The last group of Lop-nor implements are the polished axes of green chert or 
other jade-like stones. The largest specimen is the beautiful axe PL 5: 16 which was 
found by a Turkish servant on the eastern side of The Small River south of Yaqin- 
liq-kol (point 2 on the map Fig. 36). It measures 185 mm. in length. PL 5:11 is of 
exactly the same type with convex cutting edge, but only 50 mm. long, but the rest 
of the small axes have very straight cutting edge, PI. 5: 12 — 13, 15 and 18 — 21. PL 
5: 21, of light brown chert, is the only axe which is thoroughly polished all over. 
The others have only the cutting-edge properly finished but no real butt and only 

3 33 



slightly marked narrow-sides. This is also true of the three jade axes which Pelliot 
obtained at Qum-tura near Kucha. The largest of these is 14.6 x 7.4 cm. and corres- 
ponds to our PL 5 : l6j the other two are 5.8x4 and 5.7x3.2 cm. respectively and 
correspond to the ordinarily sized Lop-nor axes. The exact finding places of Pel- 
liot's axes are not recorded. If they were found somewhere near to Kucha, where 
they were purchased, they indicate that the stone age culture which is known from 
the Lop desert was distributed over a large area of the Tarim Basin. In their general 
shape the small ones call to mind the axes found by Andersson in the Sha-kou-t'un 
cave together with Yang-shao painted pottery. This circumstance does not necess- 
arily imply any cultural or chronological connection. Though the straight edges in 
both cases denote late facies. It might be worth mentioning that this short but 
broad axe-type is missing in Inner Mongolia — at least in those parts where I have 
travelled — and also in Honan and Kansu (Bergman 1935 a). 

Though the general type of the flint blades and cores from Lop-nor is the same 
as that occurring in the other Sinkiang localities and in Inner Mongolia, they may 
easily be distinguished when placed side by side. The Lop-nor objects are as a rule 
much sand-worn, showing that they have been lying exposed to wind erosion for a 
considerable length of time, whereas corresponding articles from the other sites 
mentioned show few or no traces of being sand-worn. Moreover, the raw materials in 
the Inner Mongolian objects are much more varied. 

No petrographic analyses have been made of the Lop-nor material. Dr. T. dc 
Rietz has, however, kindly undertaken an ocular examination of some of the worked 
stones from here. Most of the stone material passes under the name of flint. Agate, 
jasper, chalcedony and chert also occur. In the market most of the stones here called 
green chert would pass as jade, and I at first labelled them as jade. 

There do not exist any stones in the lacustrine and fluvial sediments of the Lop- 
nor basin. Raw material for the manufacturing of tools and weapons had to be 
brought from the surrounding mountain regions, i. e. Quruq-tagh in the north or 
Astin-tagh in the south. Norin has found a geological formation containing siliceous 
beds at the base of the Cambrian (lydite, radiolarite), which stretches along the 
whole length of Quruq-tagh from Korla to Altmish-bulaq. Some Lop-nor objects 
are made of this kind of "flint". It seems likely that siliciferous stones suitable for 
making artifacts are to be found in the Astin-tagh as well. (Cf. the site Chiqin-sai). 
The Quruq-tagh formation was in any case the nearest place where flint could be 


As seen from the above the finds of worked flints from the Lop-nor region are 
rather few, both in number and types, and as there is practically no ceramics no defin- 
ite chronological deductions can be undertaken. All stratigraphical evidence is lack- 
ing, and in many cases we do not know from what kind of deposit the objects origin- 
ate. No traces of palaeolithic implements have been met with; such can only be ex- 



pected outside the clay desert. The true implements existing point to a pretty late 
prehistoric facies. 

As to the distribution of these remains it seems as if they occurred in a somewhat 
larger quantity in the region south of the present delta than elsewhere. Nevertheless, 
with our present knowledge we can only state that the flint artifacts cover about the 
same area as do the finds from the time of Lou-Ian. It thus seems likely that there 
can be no long interval between the time of the stone age occupation and that of 
Lou-Ian. Nothing contradicts an assumption that flint implements were still used by 
the autochthon population when they first got into contact with the Chinese about 
2.000 years ago though they probably had passed the stage of true stone age already 
at that time. 

There are instances when stone implements of neolithic types have been found in 
ruins from the time of Lou-Ian (e. g. the axe PI. 5: 11 in the fortress L. K.). But 
the implements may have been deposited there before the construction of the forti- 
fications, and no definite chronological criteria can be reached in this way. The four 
stone arrow-heads from Cemetery 5 which are depicted on PI. 12: 3— 6, on the other 
hand, are apparently contemporaneous with the burial place. Their obviously inferior 
workmanship as compared with other arrow-heads from the Lop-nor region makes it 
appropriate to characterize them as survivals of a true stone age. 

Until we have discovered a site with full inventory and the finds resting in situ 
we had better postpone further discussion of the Lop-nor stone age. The hope of 
finding such a site is extremely small. Only lucky circumstances would account for 
the preservation of such ancient strata in this desert where wind erosion is more 
powerful than in almost any other place. 


When in July 1928 Haslund and I approached Charchan from the upper sources 
of Charchan-darya we followed the ordinary road which skirts the western extre- 
mity of Astin-tagh at Chuqur-davan. In the valley of Chiqin-sai and not very far 
from the northern foot of the mountain a few worked flints and a couple of pot- 
sherds were found on a small open space in the valley. The place is situated about 65 
km. south-east of Charchan. Cf. the map Fig. 4. 

Three of the potsherds recall the plain pottery from the Singer site in Quruq-tagh, 
whereas another two show traces of incised lines made with a dentated tool. 

There are forty-seven diminutive flint flakes, some of which have retouched edges, 
two small cores from which such flakes have been struck off, and eight very small 

The objects are of the same types as those common in Inner Mongolia, which are 
ascribed to the neolithic age. 


This small site is of interest as being the first one discovered on the southern rim 
of the large Tarim Basin. 


K. 13333: 1-2. Two small potsherds with traces 

of incised pattern, a wavy double 
line between two straight lines, and probably a 
garland incised with a dentated instrument. Light- 
red ware. 

K. 13333:3-5. Three small potsherds of red and 

reddish-brown ware recalling the 
Singer ware. 

K. 13333:6-7. Two fragm. of small flint cores. 

K. 13333:8. Thirty-nine small flint flakes. 

K- 13333:9. Eight small fine flint flakes with 

retouched edges. 

K. 13333: 10-16. Seven small scrapers of grey flint. 

K- 13333:17. Various flint refuse and coarser 




Menghin characterizes the Lop-nor stone age finds made by Stein as probably 
belonging to the Gobi culture and an "epi- und opsimiolitische Fazies der Reittier- 
ziichterkreise"; he does not believe that this culture knew cattle breeding (Menghin 
J 93 r » P- 3 r 5)- AH this seems somewhat daring, as not even the slightest trace of any 
"Reittier" bone has been found together with these implements. And the implements 
themselves are few and of rather common types. 

The differences between the Lop-nor artifacts and those from other Sinkiang sites 
are not large enough to denote anything but local variations inside the same cul- 
ture. And the same is true regarding the whole Sinkiang material when compared 
with that from Mongolia. They all belong to the same Gobi culture. This collective 
name seems very appropriate as long as we can assign no more precise chronologi- 
cal limits or any classification in well defined groups. 

Very much the same natural conditions prevail in Sinkiang and in Mongolia, and 
the same desert covers large parts of both countries. This Gobi culture was most 
likely carried by nomads who moved with their herds in this extensive area of step- 
pes and deserts. But it is still too early to make a pronouncement as to the kind of 
domesticated animals they relied on. 

The painted wares in China first appear in aeneolithic time. Any extensive remains 
from true neolithic time have not been discovered in China as yet. In Mongolia and 
Manchuria sites with neatly worked flints and unpainted hand-made pottery are 
quite common. Unfortunately most of the Mongolian finds occur on the eroded Gobi 
surface, and we have very few stratigraphical fix-points. The chronology and the 
relation to the painted pottery cultures are therefore uncertain. Nevertheless, there 
are some general indications which make one inclined to regard the Mongolian flint 


sites as genuinely neolithic and somewhat anterior to the painted pottery. As the 
Sinkiang finds which are characterized by micro-implements of flint must be 
placed in the same extensive Gobi culture as the Mongolian finds, their first appear- 
ance must be anterior to the oldest painted ceramics in Sinkiang. 

The scarcity of finds does not necessarily mean that the province of Sinkiang was 
poorly inhabited in prehistoric time. The fact that our collections of stone age 
articles from Sinkiang are far less numerous than those from Mongolia is at least 
partly explained by the different modes of travelling that we used during the 
expedition. In Mongolia we used camel caravans, making — as a rule — pretty 
short marches, and thus getting much time for investigating the ground. In Sin- 
kiang we were travelling in carts for long stretches of the highways, partly under 
military supervision, and covering the long stages in ordinary local tempo, which 
allows of very little field research work. Moreover, large parts of the ground 
traversed under more favourable conditions were hidden by sand dunes or thick ve- 
getation, which is more seldom the case in the parts of Inner Mongolia visited by 
us. If we make due allowance for what has just been said we shall not attach too 
much importance to the distribution of finds as shown on the map Fig. 4. 


Let us now turn to the historical time and concentrate our attention to the Lop- 
nor region. 









he first mention of Central Asia, and probably also the Tarim Basin, is a 
very brief notice in the fifth chapter of Shih-chi, referring to the year 623 
B. C. (de Groot 1921, p. 21). It seems that twelve western kingdoms were 
conquered at that time by Mu 01 Ts'in. This political domination may have resulted 
in some cultural relations in one direction or other, but it is hardly likely that any 
transcontinental trade developed. At the time when the Chinese records begin to 
shed some light on the north-western part of the present Kansu province we find the 
II Yueh-chih living in the Kansu corridor. This people may have traded with Chinese 

goods, bringing them into the Tarim Basin. The Yueh-chih, or Tokharians or Indo- 
II Scythians as they arc called later on in more westerly region?, seem to have been a 

people of certain qualities, and why not able traders. 

So far we have no definite proofs of such possible relations. When the Hsiung- 
nu under Mao Tun had the whole Tarim Basin and the Yueh-chih country under 
their sway, every kind of intercourse was cut off, and at that time, between 174 and 
160 B. C. the main part of the Yueh-chih tribe was chased out of their pastures in 
Kansu. There is thus no traceable Chinese influence in the Tarim Basin previous to 
the end of the second century B. C, when the big Chinese expansion began into 
Central Asia. 

When in B. C. 140 Emperor Wu of Han 1 ascended the throne, China's northern 
frontier region was being harassed by frequent raids of the Hsiung-nu or Huns. 
Perceiving the grave frontier situation, the Emperor dispatched Chang Ch'ien on 
an embassy to the Yueh-chih tribe, at this time living to the west of the Pamirs, 
hoping to stir up their old hatred towards the Hsiung-nu and to induce them to 
start hostilities with the common enemy. Chang Ch'ien failed in this undertaking, 
but his -journey to the western countries resulted in the discovery of Central Asia, 
of which the Chinese had until then had very vague or no knowledge. We will 
mention this in the following. 

Failing in his bid for assistance from the Yueh-chih, Emperor Wu had to rely on 
his own resources. Luckily for the Emperor, a man of unique abilities placed his 

» The Han dynasty: 206 B.C.— 221 A.D. 


sword at his disposal. This was the young general Ho Ch'u-ping, whose illustrious 
name has never faded in the historical books of the Chinese. In a three year cam- 
paign, between 121 and 119 B.C., he wrested north-western Kansu from the 

In order to make the exposed Kansu corridor secure against the inroads of the 
nomads, very extensive fortifications were constructed. The Great Wall was ex- 
tended to a point north-west of Tun-huang. Several military garrisons were found- 
ed, and along the Edsen-gol 1 valley, which afforded the easiest approach for attack 
from the north, the Chinese caused the building of walls, signal towers and fort- 
resses, and these were also garrisoned. This was the district of Chu-yen where I was 
fortunate enough to discover, in 1930—31, a large number of Han records on wood. 

What had been a road of invasion for the Huns since the expulsion of the Yiieh- 
chih now became a road of expansion for the Chinese. 

Though China still had to suffer from Hsiung-nu inroads during several cent- 
uries, it was this strong and active anti-Hun policy of Emperor Wu which started 
the downfall of the Hsiung-nu power in Asia. 

Chang Ch'ien's mission to Central Asia has received its due credit from all 
students dealing with the early inter-relation between China and the West. When 
this famous ambassador returned from his eventful journey to the Chinese capital 
in B. C. 126 or 125 he was full of surprising news about rich foreign countries in 
the west, whose existence had until then been unknown to the Chinese. A whole 
new world now lay open to the powerful Emperor Wu. After this the fighting 
down of the Huns was not only a question of pacifying the frontiers. It acquired a 
deeper significance. Until then the frontiers had for the Chinese represented the 
end of the civilized world. But Chang Ch'ien's report spoke of many rich count- 
ries behind the fringe of barbaric tribes surrounding China, and the hope of open- 
ing relations with these far off countries accelerated the campaign against the 

Especially the tales of the 'blood-sweating' horses of Ferghana seem to have 
aroused the particular curiosity of Emperor Wu, and he did not hesitate to dis- 
patch two very expensive military expeditions across the vast distances of Central 
Asia with the sole object (at least so it is said) of bringing back those famous 
steeds. By means of equipping his cavalry with superior horses the Emperor hoped 
to beat the Hsiung-nu nomads at their own tactics. After the success of the second 
expedition to Ferghana the prestige of the Chinese was firmly established along the 
routes through Central Asia, and it was followed by a remarkable development of 
trade. The quest of the strange, coupled with mercantile interests, drew Chinese 

1 Following Mr. Unkrig's suggestion, I use this new spelling for the river name usually written Etsin-gol or 
Edsin-gol. The true literary form is Edscn-gool. The local pronunciation of the first part varies between Edsine, 
Echine and Ejine. 


> I 


traders and adventurers out on the great routes westwards, and these now became 
"Silk Roads", as the main item exported by the Chinese was silk. 

It is really only through the historians of the Roman Empire that we have any 
theoretical knowledge of China's silk trade. When the Romans had conquered Syria 
in B. C. 64 they learnt about a far away eastern people producing silk. This people 
they called Seres from the product by which it was known, but they were ignorant 
as to the situation of their country. The name Seres seems, however, to have been 
applied collectively to all those peoples of the East which were engaged in the silk 
trade as intermediaries, such as the Tokharians, the Wu-sun and the Sakians. 
Later on it came to denote the real silk producers, i. c. the Chinese. 

It was more the Roman demand for silk than the Chinese demand for Western 
products that kept the trade going, and we may be sure of one thing: the Chinese 
got huge profits out of the silk trade, to say nothing of the peoples further west 
who served as intermediaries. 

To the rich and luxury-loving Romans Chinese silk became a necessity. But they 

were not satisfied with the Chinese textiles in the form in which these arrived in 

Syria. The bizarre scrolls and fantastic beasts which made up the Chinese designs 

R of the polychrome stuffs did not appeal to the Roman's strict sense of classical art. 

The textiles were therefore rewoven, but as the Chinese silk thread is thinner and 
longer than any existing fibre it was the most appreciated of all textile materials. 

Fortunate discoveries in the Crimea and at Palmyra have brought to light speci- 
mens of real authentic Chinese silk of the Han period, which most likely reached 
these places along the Silk Roads across the whole width of Asia (Toll, Pfister). 
Besides silk, the Chinese exported certain art objects of bronze (cf. note on p. 165). 

"In the Vicus Tuscus in Rome there was during the early centuries of our era a 
market for Chinese silk. The traffic of this silk was the most far-reaching large- 
scale commerce of antiquity. Since the silk might be produced in the littoral of the 
Yellow Sea and since Roman fashionable society existed for its demand in Spain. 
Gaul and Britain, the trade drew the threads of its exquisite material as a bond of 
economic unity across the whole of the Old World from the Pacific to the Atlantic." 
(Hudson, p. 68). 

Glass was one of the few articles exported by the Romans to China. In most 
instances they had to pay for the Chinese silk in gold. In China glass ranked among 
the precious materials beside jade and crystal. Until some ten years ago the earliest 
Chinese-made glass was supposed to be of the middle of the fifth century A. D. Now 
we are aware that the manufacture at least of glass beads was known in China al- 
ready several centuries before our era. (Kummel 1928, Seligman 1938.) 

The powerful imperialism of Emperor Wu was the necessary foundation for the 
establishment of the overland silk commerce. But once established, it seems to have 
been able to survive severe stress from political disintegration — probably, as sug- 


gested by Hudson, because the profit to be derived from it had become obvious to 
even the more barbaric peoples along the routes. 


In considering the course of the main roads along which the silk trade flourished 
I restrict myself to those parts which fall inside the eastern Tarim Basin and its 
nearest surroundings. They have been tentatively marked on the map Fig. 4. Lateral 
roads also existed but they have been left out of the discussion here as they are of 
more local interest. 

Ch'ang-an, the Han capital of China, may be regarded as the true starting point 
of the Silk Road, and its western terminus was probably Antioch in Syria. This 
means a distance of nearly 7000 km. 

At Tun-huang the road divided into two branches, and later on a third was added 
(Chavannes 1905, pp. 528 ff). Baron von Richthofen, the famous German geo- 
grapher, has coined the name Silk Road for these ancient caravan routes, and this 
name has since been widely used by Westerners, though hardly by the Chinese 

From Tun-huang the southern route ran inside or along the Astin-tagh as far as 
Miran, and thence followed the southern rim of the vast Taklamakan desert to 
Khotan, Yarkend and across the Pamirs. 

The northern or new road was opened in the period 1 — 5 A. D. and ran north- 
westwards from Tun-huang (or the old Yu-men-kuan outside Tun-huang) to Tur- 
fan, whence it may have followed the present trunk road via Urumchi to the Hi 
valley. It is said to have rejoined the Road of the Centre at Kucha. The course of 
this road between Yu-men-kuan and Turfan is absolutely unknown, and I have 
marked it on the map Fig. 4 only after much hesitation. 

The present trunk road from Turfan to Qara-shahr and Korla cannot have been 
of any use for the through traffic with silk until after A. D. 127, the year when 
Yen-ch'i (Qara-shahr) submitted to Chinese power. But by this Tun-huang — Turfan 
road silk reached the Wu-sun in the Ili valley and around the Issiq-kol, and may 
have been forwarded westwards by the Wu-sun. 

After the capture of Hami in A. D. 7$ the present cart roads Anhsi — Hami and 
Tun-huang — Hami — Turfan were opened by the Chinese for a short period, but 
this part was very insecure as long as the Huns exercised any power south of the 
T'ien-shan mountains. 

The Road of the Centre, which is probably of the same age as the southern one 
became by far the most important line of communication for the overland trade be- 
tween China and the West from the end of the second century B. C. until the change 
in the course of the lower Tarim made it untraf ficable sometime during the second 


quarter of the fourth century A. D. In this connection we will consider only this 
middle branch. 

In 19 14, Sir Aurel Stein succeeded in tracing the course of the ancient road be- 
tween Lou-Ian and the old Yu-men-kuan (situated NW of Tun-huang), i. e. the 
desert part of the Road of the Centre. It makes a detour to the north to avoid the 
largest expance of the salt-crust which marks the old extent of Lop-nor, but it has 
nevertheless to cross it for a stretch of about 30 km. 

The route traced by Stein was not the only possible one. A short-cut across the 
salt-crust along a line running SE — NW and followed by Mr. Chen in 193 1 (cf. the 
map Horner 1935, Fig. 2) probably affords easier going than Stein's route, be- 
cause it touches several "islands" in the salt-crust. That it was used also in Lou- 
lan's time is made probable through the finds discussed on p. 168. Although even 
this short-cut has six waterless stages. 

The Road of the Centre was the shortest of the three branches of the Silk Road. 
The advantage of its being shorter than the rest was lessened by the extreme dif- 
ficulty of crossing such a wide waterless desert. Above all, the big petrified sea-bed 
with its hard salt-crust must have presented a terrible obstacle to all travellers and 
their beasts of burden. Nothing could be more dead than this desolate salt expanse. 
It is an absolute desert, from which every form of life is banished. 

Not much experience of desert travelling is needed to understand that the only 
means of conveyance in ancient days must have been camels, and that the journey 
along the 190 km. long desert route found by Stein was possible only in winter. In 
the hot season this route is and was absolutely impassable. 

Some observations made by Hedin during his motor trip through the southern 
hills of Pei-shan in the winter 1934—35 seem to point to the existence of now de- 
serted roads in this mountain region. The northern branch of the Silk Road, which 
was opened in the period 1—5 A. D. passed through the Pei-shan region, and so do 
several roads running N— S between Tun-huang and Hami, and it may have been 
cairns of these roads that Hedin came across. It is very likely however, that the 
caravans of ancient days, when travelling from Tun-huang to Lou-Ian, followed 
some northerly route going inside the low Pei-shan ridges, where there may 
have existed some springs and even wells. Such a route was probably traffic- 
able for a longer period of the year than Stein's road. But even here traffic must 
have been practically nil during the hot summers — as is the case on all Central 
Asian desert distances of any length where rest-houses with provisions for the ani- 
mals do not exist. 

I am not sure that these desert routes were chosen just because of their short- 
ness. Time was certainly of still less value 2000 years ago than it is now in this part 
of the world; and every sensible trader avoids deserts, if possible. When the big 
overland traffic started, the Hsiung-nu were blocking the more easily negotiated 


roads along eastern T'ien-shan. The Chinese had consequently to choose a more 
southerly route, and thus the Road of the Centre came into existence. 

To facilitate the desert crossing arrangements with advanced depots NE of the 
Lou-Ian station were made, and travellers, at least those of any importance, were 
met with supplies before reaching the first settlement at Lop-nor. The native Lou- 
Ian people had to perform this task and they had also to serve as guides. They 
apparently misused their position and waylaid Chinese caravans together with the 
Huns and were thus a great obstacle to trade and traffic. Such events are described 
in Chinese records, and they forced the Chinese to deal drastically with the indi- 
genous Lou-Ian population. 

As far as is known, the ruined watch-tower called L. J. formed the last station 
on the Lou-Ian side of the salt-crust. At present there is still fresh water as far east 
as this point, and it is more than likely that the station L. J. was erected at the very 
last place where drinking water was obtainable in the days of the opening of the Silk 
Road. It served as a landmark for the travellers, it was the first (or last) place with 
supplies, and here was probably some arrangement for crossing the river. 

At the fortifications L. F. and L. E. which are next met with on the straight 
road to Lou-Ian station there must also have been river-branches, and the structures 
were certainly erected there for strategical reasons: to create an obstacle for ene- 
mies approaching along the main road, but also to facilitate the river-crossing for 
peaceful travellers and to furnish them with accommodation and supplies. 

The position of T'u-ken near the northernmost source of fresh water is of im- 
portance in this connection as it protects the flank of the Silk Road from attacks 
from the north. 

In time of peace the "through traffic" may have passed via L. J. to the north of 
the delta without touching the Lou-Ian station and the fortifications in a line to the 
north-east of it. In this case T'u-ken would be one of the main stations between Yu- 
men-kuan and Ying-p'an. 

From Lou-Ian the road must have followed the bed of the lower Tarim (the 
present Qum-darya) passing Ying-p'an and then along the line of watch-towers to 
Korla. From there on, the ancient and modern highways cover each other practi- 
cally the whole way to Kashgar. 

When travelling by car between Korla and Bugur in 1934 I noticed ruined watch- 
towers in only three places along the road, and heard of a fourth, but there may of 
course exist more. 

The first one stands on the western outskirt of the Korla oasis immediately to the 
south of the road. The second one lies a little to the east of the first one and to 
the north of the road. It is marked on Stein's map as a ruined post. The third 



tower is situated on the NE border of the Charchi oasis. It stands on a 2 m. high 
platform and is itself about 4 m. high, the base being about 5 m. square. The con- 
struction did not reveal any details which could be used for determining its age. 
Judging from the far advanced decay of the structure it must be of considerable 
antiquity. We may guess that it was built in the period between B. C. 60 and the be- 
ginning of the first century A. D. when the Chinese Protector General of The 
Western Regions was residing in Wu-Iei, which is identified with Chadir 45 km. 
west of Charchi, at a time when the traffic along the Silk Road was flourishing. 

According to information from local people there is another ruined tower in 
Eshme, the small oasis between Charchi and Chadir. 


Lou-Ian is the Chinese rendering of an indigenous name of a small kingdom 
comprising the region around lowermost Tarim. The first time it is mentioned is in 
a letter from Mao Tun, Khan of the Hsiung-nu, to the Emperor of China in B. C. 
176. In some cases the name is written Lao-Ian. In the documents in Indian 
Kharoshthi which have been excavated from ruins in the Tarim Basin, the name 
bears the form Kroraina or Kroraimna. A later form is Raurata. Prof. Karlgren 
has kindly informed me that the old pronunciation of the name Lou-Ian was glu- 
lan, which corresponds very closely to the Kharoshthi forms. 

After having erected military bases at Chiu-ch'fian (Suchow) and Tun-huang 
the Chinese continued their expansion westwards. As the Lou-Ian people maltreated 
the members of passing Chinese caravans a military expedition was dispatched to 
Lou-Ian, and in 109 B. C. the king was forced to pay tribute to China. 

Its geographical position gives to the Lou-Ian kingdom a strategical importance 
far surpassing its importance in other respects. Stretching from the Quruq-tagh 
mountains in the north to the high range of Astin-tagh in the south, it serves as a 
key to the whole Tarim Basin, and from Lou-Ian the rich Turfan Basin is also 
easily reached. 

It is unnecessary to follow the ups and downs in the Chinese domination of the 
Lou-Ian kingdom in this connection. These happenings have been recorded both by 
Stein and Herrmann. 

Among the Chinese the name Lou-Ian was changed to Shan-shan in the last 
century B. C, but revived for the naming of the military station founded by So 
Mai 1 about 260 A. D. (i. e. Hedin's city of Lou-Ian, Stein's L. A. or Lou-Ian sta- 
tion). It was also used as a name for the settlements around L. A. In the Kha- 
roshthi documents we never meet the name Shan-shan, only Kroraina or Kroraimna, 
and it thus seems that the real name never changed, which is quite natural. 

1 So Mai, not So Man, is the correct form, according to Prof. Giles (BSOS 6, p. 829). 


Chavannes and Herrmann are of the opinion that the capital of the Lou-Ian 
kingdom was removed from the northern region of the Lop desert to Charkhliq in 
B. C. 77. The premiss for this supposition is a paragraph in the Wei-lio. Stein on 
the other hand believes that the capital was situated in the southern part of the basin 
the whole time. According to Giles Miran was the old capital and Charkhliq the new 
one. Cf. p. 224 f. 

I feel inclined to agree with the argument set forth by Chavannes and Herr- 
mann. The old capital may possibly have been more of a camp than a permanent 
residence, but on the other hand it seems most likely that the Lou-Ian station was 
the main centre even before the arrival of the Chinese garrison. 

Herrmann has tentatively marked the site of the old Lou-Ian capital on a map 
(Herrmann 1931, p. 57) 20 km. NNW of the Lou-Ian station. This is certainly 
rather daring even with the wording "Hauptstadt? (unerforscht)". 

This part of the desert has now been traversed by so many that all ruins of any 
importance are certainly known. Many other parts of the Lop desert, however, 
have never been visited and still less searched for ancient remains, and the discove- 
ry of such an imposing site as "Order's necropolis" hints at the possibility of find- 
ing still more remains. 

In the literature the name Lou-Ian has been mostly used to denote the largest of 
the ruins found by Hedin in 1900 — 1901. In this treatise I have followed Stein 
in consistently referring to this ruin as the Lou-Ian station in order to distinguish 
it from the Lou-Ian kingdom. 

Stein has already pointed out how the establishment of a Chinese military colony 
in the Lou-Ian kingdom is foreshadowed in a proposal to the Imperial Council by 
General Pan Yung, the son of the famous Pan Ch'ao, about A. D. 119. I quote 
the whole passage in the masterly translation of Chavannes, as the text is very 
typical and contains several details of interest (Chavannes 1906, p. 248 f.). 

"Autrefois, dans la commanderie de Touen-houang il y avait une garnison de 
trois cents hommes; il faut maintenant la rctablir et instituer a nouveau un hiao- 
wei en second, protecteur des contrees d'Occident, qui residera a Touen-houang, 
comme cela etait autrefois pendant la pcriode yong-yuan (89 — 104 p. C.) ; d'autre 
part, il faut envoyer un tchang-che des pays d'Occident, a la tete de cinq cents 
hommes, organiser une colonie militaire a Leou-lan; du cote de l'Ouest, (cet offi- 
cier) dominera les chemins qui menent a Yen-k'i (Karachar) et a K'ieou-tseu 
(Koutcha) ; du cote du Sud, il fortifiera le courage de Chan-chan et de Yu-t'ien 
(Khoten) ; du cote du Nord, il tiendra en respect les Hiong-noa; du cote de l'Est, il 
sera voisin de Touen-houang. Voila ce qui est vraiment avantageux. 

Un chang-chou demanda a (Pan) Yong: 'Si maintenant on etablit un hiao-wei en 
second, quel en sera Tavantage? Si en outre on nomme un tchang-che pour faire 
une colonie militaire a Leou-lan, quel en sera le profit?' (Pan) Yong repondit: 
'Autrefois, a la fin de la periode yong-p'ing (58 — 75 P- C.), on entra pour la premi- 



ere fois en communication avec les contrees d'Occident 1 ; on commence par envoyer 
un tchong-lang-tsiang qui resida a Touen-houang ; ensuite on institua un hiao-wei 
en second qui demeura a Kiu-che (Tourfan) et qui put done ctre un administrates 
pour les barbares tandisqu'il empechait les Chinois de commettre aucun empietement 
a leur prejudice; e'est pourquoi les barbares etrangers s'attacherent a lui et les 
Hiong-nou redouterent son prestige. Maintenant, le roi de Chan-chan, Yeou-houan, 
est un descendant des Chinois par les femmes; si les Hiong-nou menent a bien leurs 
projets, Yeou-houan mourra surement ; or, quoique ces peuples soient semblables a 
des oiseaux et a. des betes sauvages, ils savent cependant eviter ce qui leur est 
funeste; si nous faisons sortir (des soldats) pour constituer une colonie militaire a 
Leou-lan, cela suffira a nous gagner leurs coeurs. A mon humble avis, e'est une 
chose avantageuse'." 

As we know, Pan Yung's proposal was only partly effected in his time. Not until 
about 260 was a military colony established by So Mai at Lou-Ian, apparently 
identical with the Lou-Ian station discovered by Sven Hedin. 

n t 

_I 1 



As the question of the hydrography of the lower Tarim is of paramount import- 
ance for the discussion of the archaeological remains in the Lop desert and the 
existence of the Silk Road I find it necessary to touch on this subject here. 

Horner has paid much attention to the hydrography of the lowermost Tarim 

and the new lake Lop-nor, and if I can make any statements that may constitute 

an addition to the present knowledge this is only thanks to Horner's unreserved 

readiness to communicate his observations to me, for which I am deeply indebted to 

The lowest part of the Tarim river has a fluctuating course. The large number of 
place names such as Yangi-su, Yangi-kol, Yangi-darya etc. (The new water, lake, 
river) is a confirmation of this. The instability is due to the level ground, the strong 
wind erosion, and the large amount of silt carried by the water until unloaded in the 
changing inundation areas serving as "clearing basins". 

In itself this instability is not so remarkable. River branches in many other deltas 
where similar natural conditions prevail show the same tendency to change their 
beds. The instability of the Tarim possesses a particular interest as it has caused 
the ruin of a flourishing local civilization, and above all because it brought on a dis- 
placement in the course of the Silk Road. The river changes also become so ob- 
vious as they cause a shifting in the position of the terminal lake. As the volume 
of water is insufficient to fill the whole lake basin the lake has to shift its position 

1 The text is apparently incorrect here, as has been observed by Herrmann (1931, p. 93). 


when the river course changes. The lake together with the lower part of the Tarim 
has therefore been compared with a pendulum. 

We cannot follow all the minor changes in the river course, as there does not exist 
any map covering the whole region of the lower Tarim. Such a map can only be 
made from the air. It has been possible, however, to determine the major changes 
of the main water courses, especially thanks to Dr. Hedin's untiring efforts. 

The southernmost position, which the terminal lake of Tarim can occupy coincides 
with Qara-qoshun, and the northernmost position must nearly coincide with the 
present new lake Lop-nor. Between these southern and northern limits Lop-nor 
alternates. There have possibly existed intermediary stages, but we have no definite 
facts about them. Cf. the map Fig. 36. 

It is hardly necessary to relate here how these river displacements were investig- 
ated, as a special volume of the Report series will treat the Lop-nor and the lower 
Tarim region. I will only summarize some main points bearing on the subject of 
archaeology and draw some conclusions. 

During the latter part of the second century B. C. the main part of the joined 
waters of the Tarim and the Konche-darya had an easterly course, probably along 
what is now Qum-darya. The water apparently continued to flow thus until about 
330 A. D. The latest dated document from Lou-Ian bears the year 330 A. D., and it 
seems to mark the end of the Lou-Ian occupation. It is very likely that the aband- 
oning of Lou-Ian was caused by a decreasing water supply in the Tarim of that 
region, i. e. the river had taken another course around that time. If this supposition 
is correct, we have here the first known displacement of the river. 

Our knowledge of how the river behaved from the fourth to the nineteenth centu- 
ries is very limited. In historical records there is nowhere any mention of a revived 
Lou-Ian. Certain observations made by Stein, Horner and myself indicate that the 
Quruq-darya bed carried water for at least one shorter period in relatively modern 
times (Stein 1921, pp. 359 sq and 386, 1928, p. 286; Horner 1935 p. 152). Possibly 
that river course was also active some time between 600 and 1000, as indicated by 
the occurrence of some graves. 1 Hedin noticed living poplars in two places and living 
tamarisks in one place near the then dry bed of Quruq-darya to the east of Yar- 
dang-bulaq (Hedin 1905, pp. 59, 61, 63). Subsoil drainage from Quruq-tagh may 
partly account for these phenomena, but it is also likely that a temporary wet period 
of Quruq-darya was the single cause of these signs of vegetable life. 

In 1877 Prjevalsky discovered the Qara-qoshun lake in the southern part of the 
Lop-nor depression, a lake formed by the Tarim and the Konche-darya; during high 
water periods Charchan-darya was also a tributary to this lake. Until lately Qara- 
qoshun has played the role of ancient Lop-nor on the maps. 

Richthofen objected to the identification of Qara-qoshun with the ancient lake 

The travels of the Ncpalese Hbal Rgyal-sum via the Lou-Ian station would seem to have occurred during 
this period (Konow 1934, p. 138 f.). 





Lop-nor on Chinese maps. On these the lake is placed in the northern part of the 
basin. Hedin has further elucidated this question, and after having proved that 
Lop-nor must be an alternating lake which "wanders" he even predicted the return 
of the lake to a northern position. He could at that time scarcely have thought that 
his prophecy would be fulfilled during his years as an active explorer and that he 
himself was destined to follow so closely this last pulsation in the life of the river. 
Nature herself provided the proof of the correctness of his theory. 

Around 1921 the last displacement of the lower Tarim and its terminal lake began. 
Dr. Hedin was the first geographer to learn about this occurrence, when passing 
through Turf an in February 1928. At that time the displacement was completed, the 
joined waters of the Tarim and the Konche-darya following the old Quruq-darya 
bed (now bearing the name Qum-darya) 1 and forming a large lake on the big salt 
crust in the lowest part of the Lop depression. 

The shape of this new lake Lop-nor, according to Horner, is that of a hanging 
bag measuring nearly 90 km. from north to south and having a width varying from 
about 14 to 45 km. Its surface covers some 1500 to 1800 square km. 

Hedin and Horner have proved that because of the sedimentation and wind 
erosion the lower Tarim is bound to be a changing river, and Lop-nor an alternating 
lake. There are no traces of any late crustal movements that could have caused such 
changes in the hydrography of the region. 

In the case of the last return of the whole volume of the Tarim to the dry bed of 
Quruq-darya human activities may have played a certain part. They were certainly 
not decisive but they may have accelerated the natural development, and in the eyes 
of the natives they have come to be regarded as the cause. Stein writes as follows : 
"In I9 T 4 I heard the Loplik at Abdal complaining of the construction of a new big 
dam above Tikenlik as the cause which had kept the summer flood of the Tarim 
from reaching their marshes" (Stein 192 1, p. 422 note 28). When I visited Tikenliq, 
in September 1928, the local people talked about how the drying-up of Yarkend- 
darya somewhat above the height of Tikenliq was due to constructions of new 
canals a little higher up the river. The water in Chong-kol and its surrounding 
swamps may then have risen so high that more water than usual flowed over into 
Konche-darya, which because of this addition to its volume broke through at a weak 
point in its bed at Temenpu, from where it soon came to follow the old bed of 

The volume of water in the present lower Tarim is subject to marked seasonal 
changes. Because of the flat ground these changes affect the extension of Lop-nor 
to a very high degree. Thanks to Horner's mapping we know the approximate out- 
line of Lop-nor during the winter season 1930 — 31. During other times of the year 

1 The name Qum-darya, or Sand River, is not new. It was recorded already by Kozlov as a second name 
of Quruq-darya, which means The Dry River. 


a. Cemetery 5 ("Ordck's necropolis') from EXK. 

1). Cemelery 5, Total view from S 25 K. 


a. Eastern part of Cemetery g. 

b. "The columned Hall of the Dead". Cemetery 5, 

the configuration or at least the size of the lake may be quite different. However, 
the maximum extent of the terminal lake 1921 — 1930 is also fairly well known. 

The lake Qara-qoshun, when still existing, was never so closely surveyed, and the 
outline of its eastern extremity was never determined. 

In view of such changes in the extent of the lake it is very hard to determine the 
position of the water level at the time of Lou-Ian, and matters are also complicated 
by human activities, especially irrigation in the delta region. 

Horner found at the salt terminal lake traces of a shore-line 0.8 m. above the 
water level at the beginning of 193 1, and this shore may have belonged to the lake 
of Lou-lan's time or possibly to a post-Lou-Ian lake. Other observations of his indi- 
cate that the water level in the Lou-Ian oasis cannot have exceeded the present 
one in the same area by more than a metre or two, probably not that much. 

The extraordinary physical conditions prevailing in the Lop desert create a good 
many relatively rapid changes in the morphology of the ground. Besides the major 
river changes occuring at intervals of centuries, there are other changes going on 
almost constantly. 

The wind with the sand as the carving medium is forcefully grinding the dry clay 
or mud surfaces of the ground into deep hollows and trenches, leaving curiously 
shaped yardangs as temporary witnesses of an older land surface. After Horner's 
investigations it is clear that the bulk of the fine sediments, so easily eroded by the 
force of the wind, is of a fluvial rather than a lacustrine nature. 

As the strong winds almost constantly come from north-east and north-north- 
east, the loose material carried away moves in the same direction. In the south- 
western part of the desert, sand dunes are thus formed. The amount of such sand 
accumulations is bound to increase. From the distribution of stray finds from Lou- 
lan's time it is also obvious that the sand is so increasing. 

The wind erosion in the northern part of the basin during a dry stage is of great- 
er importance for the configuration and situation of the delta which will be formed 
when water returns than for the configuration and situation of the terminal lake 
then formed, because the salt crust where the last of the water evaporates offers 
an efficient resistance against wind erosion. The present new delta is very different 
from the delta of Lou-lan's time, and even when it has become old and "stabilized" 
it will remain different. 

The river branches of the present delta show a very marked tendency to turn to 
the north-east. This circumstance is due to the fact that the wind-scoured troughs 
run in this direction. These troughs between the yardang-formations are of course 
much deeper now than 2000 years ago, if they existed at all at that time. It is there- 
fore quite certain that the present delta does not cover exactly the same region as 
the delta of Lou-lan's time. The occurrence of numerous ruins and cemeteries in 
curious nooks and corners of the present delta also indicates that the delta was not 
so split up in numerous branches at the time of Lou-Ian as it now is. By and by the 

4 49 


present delta will stabilize and become less intricate. No old forests exist in the 
present delta though there are some along dry river courses to the south of it. The 
Lou-Ian station is still as dry as it was before the return of the water into Qum- 
darya, the nearest point where drinking water is obtainable being situated about 7 
km. from the ruined station. 

As to the situation of the lake Lop-nor of Lou-lan's time we know only that it 
must have been somewhere in the large salt-encrusted area. 

Stein rightly emphasizes the importance of the ruined fortress at Merdek when 
trying to reconstruct the hydrography of Lou-lan's time (Stein 1921, p. 453). The 
existence of a ruin here proves that a branch of the Tarim must have flowed close 
to the line of the Ilek (i. e. the easternmost branch of the old lower Tarim) during the 
earliest period of Chinese control of the Tarim Basin. This explanation is much more 
reasonable and presents itself more readily than Herrmann's construction of a 
"River of The South" passing Merdek in a west-easterly direction. The river course 
assumed by Stein need not have been very large, only something like my Small 
River. Under the present hydrographical conditions all the north-southerly beds of 
the lower Tarim are dry, the whole amount of water following the Qum-darya. 

The correctness of Stein's explanation of the source whence Merdek drew its 
water supply was endorsed by my discovery of "The Small River" in 1934. As will 
be described in detail in the following I found this narrow river course branching 
off from Qum-darya far above the true present delta, taking a south-south-easter- 
ly course, and probably never reaching a terminal lake. It approaches the now 
dried-up beds of the lower Tarim to within 8 or 10 km. The archaeological remains 
found along this branch prove that it existed at the time of Lou-Ian. To a certain 
extent it must have flowed parallel to the branch which watered Merdek. 

At the end of the chapter on ruins there is a further discussion on hydrographi- 
cal questions. 


In Lou-Ian there existed a flourishing mixed culture during a few centuries around 
the beginning of our era. 

This culture arose thanks to favourable geographical circumstances which 
gave Lou-Ian a key position on the shortest line of communication between China 
and the West, the so-called Road of the Centre, a part of the Silk Road along which 
China exported above all her precious silk materials, and along which she received 
many cultural influences from Western countries, and from India, among other 
things, Buddhism. However, the life-giving water in the lower Tarim river, which 
alone made settlements possible here, changed its course and came to follow another 
bed. Lou-Ian had to be abandoned. The desert spread its deadly hand over every- 
thing that the population had left behind when they moved away. Soon Lou-Ian was 



forgotten. Nobody seems to have settled in the central Lou-Ian area since this time, 
which is highly important for the archaeologist as we thus get a reliable terminus ad 
quern. The aridity of the desert climate has, moreover, marvellously well preserved 
the remains of the forgotten Lou-Ian, not only such easily perishable articles as 
textiles and wooden objects but also the dead in their coffins, and we are thus now 
able 1600 years after the fall of Lou-Ian to behold the features of the people who 
lived there. 

From a Chinese point of view Lou-Ian is a remote border district and very pro- 
vincial. In a wider context, however, Lou-Ian has a significant chronological bearing. 
For this reason the present volume lays particular stress on Lou-Ian. 




In November 1933 Dr. Sven Hedin started from Kuei-hua-ch'eng, Sui-yiian, on 
a motor car expedition through the Gobi desert to Sinkiang. He travelled on behalf 
of the Central Government in Nanking, his task being to examine the possibilities 
for motor traffic along those ancient lonely desert trails that had hitherto been 
trodden by camel caravans. I had the extraordinarily good fortune to accompany 
the eminent explorer on this motor journey through the deserts and wastes of Cen- 
tral Asia as I had accompanied him in 1927 — 28 on camel-back. 

His program also included a survey of the new course of the lower Tarim river in 
Eastern Turkistan and its terminal lake Lop-nor. This part of the expedition started 
in April 1934, from Konche or Yii-li-hsien, a small village about 45 km. SSE of 
Korla, whence Dr. Hedin followed the river Konche-darya and its continuation 
Qum-darya, travelling in native canoes. In the course of his journey by water Dr. 
Hedin met one of his former Turkish servants called Ordek, then aged seventy-two, 
who had devotedly served him for several years around the turn of the century. 
In 1900, for instance, Ordek had played some part in Dr. Hedin's finding the Lou- 
Ian ruins, a discovery which led to the archaeological surveys of the Lop desert. 
These ruins are still of outstanding importance as the principal archaeological site 
of the region. 

Ordek now told Dr. Hedin how the Lou-Ian discovery had inspired him to start 
a private tour of exploration, stimulated by the hope of finding fabulous treasures 
of gold and silver in the desert, a dream common to most natives living in Central 
Asian oases. Fifteen or twenty years ago (1914— 19)* he had started eastwards 

1 Indications discovered recently make it highly probable that it was anterior to 1911. 




■ ' 


from the marshy lake Avullu-kol (eastern part of lower Tarim) and in the sands 
between there and Yardang-bulaq he had come across a hill covered with "a thou- 
sand" coffins. Now the Turki expressions "one thousand" and "ten thousand" are 
not to be taken literally — numbers are very seldom definite among the Turks — 
they arc only meant to express a large amount. The wooden coffins, he said, were 
piled on top of one another, and their interior was richly carved and painted. The 
well-preserved corpses were dressed in silk, and there was also some kind of writings 
on ornamented paper. He was absolutely sure of his statement as to the location of 
this marvellous burial place: 10 km. south of the Qum-darya at the height of Yar- 

We certainly had considerable doubts about his description of the site and its con- 
tents, or, more correctly, we made the usual allowances for the fancies of the Turkish 
mind. Afterwards, indeed, it was easy to recognize how Order mixed his fantastic 
tale with details that he had noticed and remembered from Lou-Ian. We were too 
credulous, however, in believing his statement as to the situation of the place, we 
only doubted his ability to trace it after so many years. Otherwise the fanciful 
description sounded inviting, especially as no explorer had ever ventured into exactly 
that region. 

Order also talked about ruins of watch-towers which he had located, and both 
Dr. Hedin and I got an impression that the facts hidden behind Order's tales, 
when properly examined, might help to widen our knowledge of the Lou-Ian civi- 
lization and, maybe, also clear up some questions about the course of the ancient 
Silk Road, the latter problem being of special importance as Dr. Hedin had long 
hoped to be able to survey the possibility of reviving the Silk Road for motor traf- 
fic, and had in fact made it one of the tasks of this last expedition. 

I was therefore told off to locate and survey the ancient remains known to 
Order. He was to act as guide. Fortunately, Mr. Georg Soderbom was sent with 
me on this special tour, and as always he proved to be of invaluable assistance not 
only in making all the practical arrangements, as will be seen from the following 

On April 29th 1934 Soderbom and I started from the main camp of the expedi- 
tion, which was situated near the easternmost extremity of the Charchaq hills on 
the left shore of Qum-darya and about 19 km. W. of Yardang-bulaq, on our search 
for Order's sites. We sailed down Qum-darya to a point about 4 km. below 
Yardang-bulaq which became our camp B 61. The spot was selected by Order as 
a suitable starting-point for his reconnaissance. His searches were much hampered 
by severe sandstorms, and during those days on which I went with him or recon- 
noitred alone to the south of Qum-darya I obtained a very vivid impression of the 
dull monotony of the sand dunes and confusing maze of yardangs and dead tama- 
risk mounds. The region is far from easily investigated. On these tours I picked up 
small bronze and flint objects of various kinds as well as some potsherds, and 


Ordek and his companions did the same. These objects are described as Nos. u— 
29 in the lists on pp. 171 f. 

The burial site which Ordek at the beginning of the tour described so vividly 
could not be found. We moved higher up the river again and made lake Pataliq-kol 
our new starting-point. This is a freshwater lake near to the south of Qum-darya 
and connected with it by a narrow channel. Our camp here bears the number B 64. 

It soon became evident that Ordek was unable to locate the burial site. As time 
went on he contradicted himself more and more, and even had resource to super- 
natural powers to explain the "disappearance" of the cemetery, so that I began to 
regard it as existing only in his fancy. Soderbom, however, with his shrewd under- 
standing of Central Asian mentality, refused to abandon the chase. He finally in- 
duced Ordek to begin searching from the south, i. e. from the old course of the 
lower Tarim, from which he had started out when first visiting the place, and he 
also succeded in persuading Ordek to associate with some other Turks, which he 
had been unwilling to do before. Without the clever aid of my old friend Georg 
Soderbom the burial place migh have remained an unsolved riddle hidden in the 

It would take too long to recount all that happened here. Suffice to say that we 
spent nearly one month searching for the main burial site. 

Before Ordek returned from his last reconnaissance, on which he finally located 
the main site coming from the south and guided by some shepherds, we learned 
from other shepherds, who had recently reached Qum-darya from the south, that 
there existed a few graves near the river. They were said to be situated still higher 
up, not far from the main camp of the expedition, the first one near a small lake 
called Yarliq-kol. In the field this grave was designated as Grave A, and as such 
it is treated in my preliminary paper (Bergman 1935 a, p. 58 f) but it has subse- 
quently been found convenient to call it Grave 10. 


Before discussing the individual graves it is appropriate to give a brief account 
of the surveys of graves that have been undertaken by previous visitors to the 
desolate Lop-nor wastes. 

Ellsworth Huntington was the first to observe the presence of ancient graves 
in the Lop desert. When, in January 1906, he travelled from the Lou-Ian station 
westwards he found a grave in the zone of piedmont gravel close to the north of the 
then dry bed of Quruq-darya. He made no excavations, however. 

Thorough excavations were undertaken by Sir Aurel Stein in 1914, when many 
cemeteries were discovered containing different kinds of graves. The one grave 



found by Huntington is identical with Stein's L. T. The collections brought to- 
gether from Stein's graves are rich and varied; in particular, the extraordinarily 
fine textiles with their marvellous colours and patterns have aroused great interest 
among students of textiles as well as among those interested in Chinese and Cen- 
tral Asian art in general. Their fundamental importance has only been increased by 
the discoveries of contemporaneous textiles in other places in Inner Asia, notably at 
Noyan-ola. 1 Altogether Stein found eight cemeteries containing over fifty single 
graves and ten mass-graves, with many individuals in the latter. There will be occa- 
sion to make frequent reference to Stein's graves in the following chapters. 

In I 93 I » Dr. Erik Norin of our expedition made a rapid search of Stein's ce- 
metery L. H. and recovered two complete pottery jars. Unfortunately they were lost 
during the transport through Siberia together with a large amount of my own maps 
from Sinkiang. On a mesa in the neighbourhood of his camp 485 Norin saw a tomb 
with a skeleton and rags of a coarse garment. It had probably been opened already. 
There were no traces of any coffin. If this is not identical with one of Stein's 
graves, which has been marked in the map Fig. 37 2.8 km. WSW of L. J., it must be 
very close to it. 

A few kilometres to the west of the same camp Norin's servants collected for 
fuel a donkey's burden of thick branches from some dead fruit trees. 

The Chinese archaeologist Huang Wen-pi, also a member of. Dr. Hedin's ex- 
pedition, in 1930 found graves in three places near the northern part of the Qum- 
darya delta, and some of them he apparently examined. Judging from his written 
report to Dr. Hedin, there ought to be an autochthonous tomb about 6 km. WSW 2 
of the ruin T'u-ken (in the same region he found bronze arrow-heads, pottery and 
stone implements). About 10 li W of this place there are several graves, and about 
60 li WSW from there another grave (mass-grave?), the last-mentioned being 
situated 8 li NW( !) of the river. His locations are far too brief and uncertain to 
allow of any identification with known sites, and his distances are much exagg- 
erated. In one instance 70 li of his must correspond to about 12 km. instead of 30 
— 40 km. 

When Horner and Chen surveyed the new lake Lop-nor and the Qum-darya 
delta, they located graves on two mesas, all more or less destroyed by age, but they 
did not undertake any excavations. 

Horner's first burial place is situated 5 km. N 30 E of his camp 79 in the delta, 
i. e. about 29 km. NNE of L. A. and 9 km. WNW of L. E. A leg of a pottery 
Ting tripod was found there (K. 13392). On the map Fig. 37 it bears the number 

1 This Iranscription is more correct in English than the Russian form Noin-ula. 

2 This position is according to my own deductions. 


• aeivoge — ... seom 


-■ i 

Fig. 6. The silk coat from Grave 10 (dotted line - the overlapped part of the coat). 

His second place was on an imposing mesa called LM 3 near his camp 80, i. e. 
about 2 km. to the west of Stein's castrum L. E. There were three square pits in 
the ground, two of which might have been gravepits as they measured 2 x 2.8 and 
—5 x 3 m. Beside an open coffin of poplar wood, measuring 2 x 0.5 m., there was a 
fragmentary coffin, and some thick boards, probably from other coffins. Horner 
observed some dark potsherds on the surface of the ground. This burial place is 
marked 390 on the map Fig. 37. 

On the higher part of the same mesa he found remnants of a cave, which will be 
discussed in connection with the other ruins, cf. p. 155. 

All the previously known graves have been found in the region of the present delta 
and along the northern side of Qum-darya. 

I shall now proceed to deal with the burial-grounds discovered by myself in 1934. 

C. GRAVE 10. 

Grave 10 is situated near the southern bank of Qum-darya some few kilometres 
above our main camp, i. e. about 20 km. to the west of Yardang-bulaq and close 
to a small lake called Yarliq-kol. The coffin had fallen out of a yardang. The photo 
PI. He was taken on our arrival; the hollowed-out poplar trunk that formed the 
coffin had then been a little broken up by Ordek, the corpse being thus partly ex- 
posed. The hollow trunk was 2 m. long, and the open ends had been closed with oval 
lids made to match the openings and fastened by small converging dowels. All knot 
holes in the wood were filled with plugs. The inside of this primitive coffin was 
lined with thick felt. I had the impression that the felt was a lining for the coffin 
rather than a wrapping for the dead. 




Fig. 7. High 
boot worn by a 
"Tokharian" on 
a fresco paint- 
ing from Bc- 
zcklik. (v. Lc 

Coq : Chotscho, 
PI. 22.) 

The body was that of an old man measuring only 1.48 m. It 
was mummified; only a part of the skull had lost its skin. On the left 
side of the back of the head a tuft of grey hair was twisted into a knot 
behind the ear. The incisors were much worn, the lower molars were 
missing, and in the upper jaw there were thirteen teeth in all. The 
skull was rather small, and seemed to be dolichocephalic. 

The mummy was dressed in a long coat of yellow-brown undyed 
silk of the same twill weave all over, and lined with coarse cotton 
fabric in tabby weave. The overlapping front part was laid to the left, 
though it was made to be fastened with a ribbon on the right side 
below the sleeve. The long sleeves reached down over the hands. On 
the left side there is an open slit f ram the lower edge to the waist. For 
details see the drawing Fig. 6. 
The trousers were of sheepskin, the wool turned inside, reaching a little below the 

knees, and having a string running through cut openings round the waist. He wore 

no shirt. 

The foot-gear consisted of high leather boots and felt socks. The boots, PI. 6:3, 
are heelless, with pointed toe, and made to fit either foot. The boot-legs are high 
in the front, where there is a strap which has been used to tie them to the knee and 
thus keep them in place. At the middle of either side a vertical seam runs from top 
to sole, a detail not found in modern boots but used in mediaeval times and occurring 
on the Bezeklik frescos as worn by Tokharians and Persians (?) Fig. 7; they 
are also fastened with a cord or strap in front (Le Coq 1913 PI. 33 and 38b show 
the same construction). A painted panel from a house in Dandan-oilik shows a man 
in Persian dress with boots of similar cut (Stein 1907, PL LXI). The long vertical 
seam is found on a Russian boot from the 16th century (Fornvannen 1931, Fig. 23), 
on a relatively modern Bokharian boot with high heel (Olufsen, p. 473), and on 
Yakut boots (Jochelson, Fig. 40 a — b). 

Near the left knee was attached a triangular piece of brown felt on one side of 
which were fastened the bones of a sheep's foreleg, apparently a little charred. The 
felt is shaped to imitate the flesh of the foreleg, PI. 6:2, and the whole object is 
no doubt meant to represent provisions for the dead man. Two vertebrae of a fish 
were also found. 

Immediately below the right hip, and under the coat, the felt doll PI. 6:1 was 
fastened with the strings still attached to its waist. The doll probably had its feat- 
ures painted on the piece of light stuff that is sewn to the front of its head. It no 
doubt represents a woman, and was presented to the dead man as a symbol of a 
feminine companion. For similar phenomena cf. pp. no and 137. 

We have very few clues by which to date this burial. One of the Miran graves 
has exactly the same kind of coffin, Fig. 52, but this circumstance is of no real 
significance. To date it within the same chronological limits as the other Lop-nor 


graves would a priori seem justified, but it has nothing in common with the rest. 
There is, moreover, one circumstance that points to a somewhat later time than 
that of Lou-Ian. We know that the width of the silk woven in Han time and im- 
mediate post-Han was very nearly 50 cm. and that this width was kept fairly con- 
stant, there are several examples of this in the silk materials in this collection. Now 
the width of the silk used in the coat in Grave 10 is 60.5 cm. We do not know exactly 
when the width of silk was increased above the Han standard, only that it probably 
happened sometime between the end of the Lou-Ian period and an early part of the 
T'ang dynasty. On the other hand, it is certain that this burial is pre-Mohammedan, 
i. e. previous to the 10th century. It has possibly some connection with the unexam- 
ined graves around Yaqinliq-kol to be mentioned below. 


10: 1. Man's coat of undycd silk twill, lined 

throughout with undycd cotton fabric 
in tabby weave. Silk six-leafed warp twill. Full 
width 60.5 cm. Fabric alternately on right side and 
back, according to selvages. Cotton fabric rather 
coarse. Full width 39.5 cm. 

The coat is cut in kimono shape over the should- 
ers, the material being all in one from the lower 
edge of the front pieces to that of the back. The 
back has a middle seam ; broad front pieces, biased 
over the chest, are crossed as far as the side 
seams, right under left. The right front piece has 
a ribbon of cotton fabric attached, to be tied with 
another ribbon fastened inside the left side seam. 
The left front piece has been tied with two pairs 
of ribbons, remaining in the front piece, with a 
corresponding ribbon at the right side seam on the 
exterior of the coat. 

The lower part of the coat has an open slit as 
far as the waist at the left side. A wide piece at 
the slit is joined to the front, lying under the back 
piece, which covers is. Both front and back are 
biased outwards and downwards. 

Within the slit are several pleats. The lower 
part of the coat is sewn together on the right side. 
Several inserted pleats and biasing here add to 
the width. The sleeves, having reached over the 
hands, are biased from the wide armpits towards 
the hands. Each sleeve is joined right across to- 
wards the middle. At the wrist is a small fold 
turned in, 7.5 cm. on right, about 9 cm. on left, 
forming a kind of cuff. 

Around the neck, along the biasing of the front 
pieces is a strip, 7 cm. wide, divided by a fold, 
towards the neck 3.3 cm. wide, towards the coat 
2.7 cm. wide. 

The lining on the whole follows the cut of the 
outer material. Fig. 6. 

10:2. Pair of high leather boots, made to 

fit either foot, the toes pointed. The 
legs much higher in front, where pieces of leather 
straps are still preserved. The side seams run from 
top to sole. The vamp is joined to the leg with a 
horizontal seam ending at the side seams. The sole- 
consists of two layers of leather, joined to the up- 
per with a sandal-seam (i. e. the upper being 
turned outwards and sewn direct on to the sole). 
Other scams arc turned in with an inserted strip 
of leather along the scam. The top edge of the leg 
is finished with a folded strip of leather. No heels. 
One boot repaired at lower part of the foot. The 
shape of the foot is now somewhat deformed as 
the leather has dried. H. 52 — 53 cm. L. of sole 
26—27 cm. W. of sole 6.5 — 7 cm. PI. 6:3. 

10:3. Doll of brown felt, made of two 

pieces sewn together and stuffed. Over 
the front of the head a piece of coarse fabric is 
sewn on. Round the waist is a cord of brown wool, 
which has been tied on to strips of dark brown, 
coarse fabric. Small attached piece of hide with 
the hair left on indicates puberal hair. PI. 6: 1. 

10:4. Nearly triangular piece of brown felt 

with cast seam round the edge. On one 
side, bones of a sheep's foreleg are fastened with 
rough strings. The bones may be a little charred. 
43X29 cm. PI. 6:2. 


Four small bones, probably from — 14. 
Two fish vertebrae. 



About 7 km. west of Grave 10 I was shown another burial place situated between 
the lake Yaqinliq-kol and Qum-darya, a couple of kilometres to the south of the 
latter. On top of a small yardang* were the remnants of a rectangular structure 
2.3 x 1.6 m., made of horizontal logs piled up between four corner posts, PI. I a. 
At each end of it was a less distinctly marked rectangle, and in one of them parts 
of a child's skeleton were exposed. The middle part had had a roof of logs, which 
had now fallen in. The orientation of the structure was N 24 W — S 24 E. At 
the northern end stood two poles, each bearing an antelope head, probably denoting 
that we had to deal with a Mohammedan burial place. Ordek confirmed this view, 
though he was ignorant of its age or to whom it belonged. The wood in the logs 
was certainly much weathered, which revealed a certain age, but as the structure did 
not resemble any of the graves of the Lou-Ian time known to me, I was quite con- 
vinced of its Mohammedan character, and I therefore left the place untouched in 
order to avoid creating ill-feeling among the local people. 

I have since learned that Ural-Altaic peoples, whether Mohammedans or not, 
put up animals' skulls on graves, and that this custom is apparently of considerable 
age and not necessarily associated with Islam. The use of horns of argali and ibex 
as offerings on Mohammedan tombs in our own day may be a survival of this 
custom. I therefore feel more and more inclined to believe that this burial place is 
of greater antiquity than I ascribed to it when on the spot. 

Near to the east of Yaqinliq-kol I was shown another place said to contain a 
grave. The only thing to be seen on the dry tamarisk mound which was indicated 
as the place was the skull of a horse wound round a couple of times with ropes. 

A little higher up the river, and close to its right shore, 8 — 9 km. NW of the 
grave shown in PI. I a, Mr. Chen found another grave. It was situated on the flat 
ground. The greater part of a coffin was exposed, and it was surrounded by upright 
poles. It did not resemble the graves seen by Mr. Chen in the delta of Qum-darya. 

Grave 10 and this group of tombs seem to be younger than the Lou-Ian occupat- 
ion, and they may all be pre-Mohammedan. For Grave 10 I suggest the approxi- 
mate date 600 — 1. 000, and the three graves around Yaqinliq-kol may possibly fall 
into the same period. If we accept this supposition we have to draw the conclusion 
that Qum-darya carried water sometime during this period, and for a sufficient 
length of time for people to come and settle here. 

It is useful to draw a modern parallel. Qum-darya has by now carried water for 
17 — *8 years. Nowhere along the desert part of it are there so many settlers as 
among the numerous winding river branches and small lakes around Yaqinliq-kol 
and Qum-kol where "The Small River" branches off. It is the good grazing (but only 
partly the fishing) that has attracted the shepherds from the old course of Tarim 
to move hither with their herds during the summer months. I heard of no "sum- 


mer residences" below Yaqinliq-kol, but shepherds used to wander even east of the 
meridian of Yardang-bulaq. It is still too far for them to move to the delta, where 
grazing, certainly, is good. If the present hydrographical conditions get stabilized 
and remain so for sufficient length of time, the delta region will be resettled. 
Should the river change again in our time the Lou-Ian region will remain untouch- 
ed, whereas the ground around Yaqinliq-kol and The Small River will preserve 
traces of the present occupation to future archaeologists. This region around the 
branching off of The Small River apparently offered about the same natural ad- 
vantages to human settlers in ancient times as it does now; but ancient settlements 
here, sometimes between 600 and 1.000, do not necessarily mean the existence of 
settlements around Lou-Ian at the same time, and nothing in the archaeological 
collections indicates this. 


Between Grave 10 and Yaqinliq-kol we passed over eroded clay ground with low 
yardangs, dry tamarisk cones, and, in the moist depressions near the river, fine 
reeds. The route lay to the north of three small lakes in depressions at least 6 m. 
deep, PI. V b, their water being of extreme salinity. The largest was about 1500 
m. long, and between 100 and 500 m. wide. Between the two first lakes the ground 
had a thin covering of sand. In the same place there were dry poplars and low 
remains of tamarisks; all the trees had died when quite young, and most of them 
were still standing, PI. II b. In one place a group of eight old, seemingly dead, 
poplars had fresh green leafs. 

Between the last salt lake and Yaqinliq-kol there is a riverlike depression running 
about N — S, with small pools and reeds in the bottom, probably a bag-shaped ex- 
tension of Qum-darya. One of our men called it Ara-tarim. No continuation of it 
was found further south. A belt of slightly salt-encrusted sand where I noticed pot- 
sherds of a neolithic character, separates this depression from Yaqinliq-kol. This 
freshwater lake, which communicates with Qum-darya, extends in a N — S direct- 
ion and is of very irregular shape on account of the numerous reed beds. Its 
length is about 4 km., the width hardly exceeds 2 km. 

Near the eastern shore there is a satma or reed-hut, where Sait mollah and his 
family has been spending the summer for the last four years. In winter they live at 
the now dry part of the lower Tarim. Owing to the drying up of lower Tarim the 
settlers there have had to abandon agriculture and turn exclusively to a pastoral 
life. As we had occasion to observe, the neighbourhood of The Small River and 
the southern shore of Qum-darya had good pastures, which were utilized by the 
settlers along the lower Tarim. Even before the last river-displacement cattle- and 



sheep-breeding was of importance along the lower Tarim side by side with fishing 
and agriculture. 

Turning to the south we passed the southern end of Yaqinliq-kol and entered an 
area of small dunes, 2 — 4 m. high, and created by NE winds. Single dead tama- 
risk cones, and a very few dead poplars broke the monotony of the flat desert. 

3 km. S of the southernmost part of the lake I found a small bronze knife (PI. 
30: 11), a couple of potsherds, and an iron fragment on a clay surface that was 
free of sand. 

After proceeding 6 km. we touched the eastern border of a reedy marsh, 2 — 3 km. 
wide, and with an extension in NNW — SSE. It was called Qum-kol. At high water 
the pools and lakelets were said to form a river course of some size. This was our 
first encounter with what I call "The Small River". 

Later on in the summer of 1934 Mr. Parker C. Chen mapped the southern 
shore of Qum-darya, and he then discovered how The Small River branched 
off from Qum-darya about 12 km. above Yaqinliq-kol, forming an intricate system 
of lakes and marshes, one of its branches being in direct communication with 
Yaqinliq-kol. (Cf. the map Fig. 36.) 

Our route continued through the dune area to the east of The Small River PL 
II a, the dunes being 6 — 10 m. high. Along this part of the route a Turkish servant 
picked up the beautiful jade axe PI. 5: 16. the largest axe known from the Lop de- 
sert. After 11 km. we reached a satma, which served as the summer abode of 
another Turkish family. Here the river makes a couple of bends eastwards. We 
crossed the river for the first time, the bed being hardly 10 m. wide, but it was 
surrounded by small irregular lakes and reedy marshes which robbed the stream 
of much water; and there may be other branches which we did not touch. Young- 
tamarisks were growing abundantly, and grass and reeds afforded excellent pastur- 

Less than 3 km. due south of the last-mentioned satma there is another one 
belonging to a young able Turk bearing the name Abdurahman. From his place 
onwards the river seems to follow a single bed for several kilometres. The water 
was running fast over small thresholds in a bed not exceeding 10 m. in width. 

About 2 km. SSE of Abdurahman's place the dune area, for a short distance, 
closes in on both sides of the river. After that we traversed big expanses of mixed 
reeds and tamarisks; two abandoned sat mas were passed. The river was lost 
sight of on our left. About 12 km. due SE of Abdurahman's place we reached 
another Turkish settlement situated at a small lake called Pataliq-kol; it was fed 
by the river and had many curiously winding bays, as seen in PI. X a, a photo 
which also clearly shows the high-water marks on the muddy shores. 

From there the river takes a southerly course for 10 — 11 km. with sand dunes on 
both sides at a distance not exceeding 1 km. Burial place 4 — to be described pre- 
sently — is situated on this part of the river "valley", and near to it we found the 



better part of a large pot of red earthenware (Fig. 8), several other 
red potsherds recalling Han ware and the fragmentary hair pin of 
bronze No. 3:1. 

Near to the north of burial place 6 the river turns eastwards for 
3 km. but regains its southerly course at a place called Qosh- 
yaghach, where remains of old reed beds were to be seen. Here we 
made our base camp, as this was the nearest water to Order's 
burial ground, cf. map. Fig. 18. 

On the evening of June 2 we started from here for the cemetery, 
taking a north-easterly course, across crescent-shaped sand dunes from 1 to 2.5 m. 
high. Near the river there was a place with exposed clay, but otherwise the ground 
is completely covered with sand; the dunes consist of a fine-grained, greyish-yellow 
sand, on the flat surfaces this sort of sand is overlaid with a thin layer of coarse, red 
sand forming larger ripples than the other kind (see foreground of PI. Ill b). 

Fig. 8. Upper 
part of earthen- 
ware jug found 
near camp B 69. 
1/6—34. Largest 
diam. 38 cm. 

("Order's necropolis"). 

/. Description of the site. 

The cemetery that had been so long sought for was found to be situated 4 km. 
from the water of The Small River, on a smoothly rounded hill, rising as a well- 
defined landmark above the otherwise flat desert, the monotony of which is broken 
only by the elegantly shaped sand dunes, and a few scattered hillocks with living 
tamarisks. As one approches the hill, the top of it seems to be covered by a whole 
forest of upright toghraq 1 trunks, but standing too close together and being too 
straight to be dead trees. They were presently found to be erect posts with the tops 
splintered by the strong winds, PI. III. 

On the surface of the hill, particularly on the slopes, there were a lot of strange, 
curved, heavy planks, and everywhere one stumbled across withered human 
bones, scattered skeletons, remains of dismembered mummies, and rags of thick 
woollen materials, PI. IV b. Some of the mummies had long, dark hair and well 
preserved faces. From others a ghastly-looking skull grinned out of a partly pre- 
served blackened skin. The burial site made a most macabre and strange impression. 

The hill consists of a large yardang or mesa, which is completely covered with 
drift sand. The crest is simply a sand dune that has become stationary, and 
the sand is still accumulating between the close-standing posts. The top of the hill 
is now 7 m. above the surrounding ground, its area is about 70x35 m., and its 

1 Toghraq is the Turki word for the wild poplar. 



'.I A 



longer axis lies N 6o° E — S 6o° W, i. e. in the direction of the prevailing hard 

The western extremity of the hill is bordered by a slightly curved palisade of 
thin, not very straight poles, seen in PI. Ill b to the left. A little to the east of th? 
crest of the hill runs another palisade or stockade made of thick round posts with 
the tops all at the same level. The central part is sand-covered. PL Ilia, IV a and 
Villa show different aspects of this structure. Close to the base these logs are kept 
together by horizontal bars fixed to them by means of strong bast ropes. 

The small western palisade apparently served as a boundary of the burial place, 
but the function which the big palisade running across the hill once fulfilled is less 
evident. Was it meant ta separate different groups of graves? 

Immediately to the east of the big palisade the free posts stand pretty close to- 
gether, almost all of them very high, on an average 4.25 m., and of uniform thick- 
ness, about 25 cm. in diam. All of them are polyhedric, with 7 — 13 surfaces, PI. 
IV b. When the sand is removed around the base of the posts they are found to be 
painted red. All the colour of the exposed part of the posts has of course disappeared. 
Once, however, this "Columned Hall of the Dead" was glowing in bright red colour. 
The wooden monuments were certainly painted not so much for aesthetic as for 
magic reasons, red being the colour of blood, i. e. life. Red ochre was used. 

The poles to the west of the big palisade are more irregular as to height, thickness 
and shape, PI. VII c. A few of them have a diam. of up to 50 cm. The topmost part 
of most of them is thinner than the lower part, there being a marked step between 
the two parts, clearly visible in PI. VII c. A couple of them are pointed or tapering. 

An interesting feature is the oar-like monuments, many of which still stand on 
their original sites, some are completely buried in sand, whereas fifteen have fallen 
down on the sides of the hill, cf. PI. IX b in the foreground, and Fig. 10. There are 
examples with exaggeratedly large oar-blades, such as Fig. 10:3, and those just 
referred to in the photographs, and others with more normally proportioned blades, 
Fig. 10 : 2, 4. Below the blades there is usually an ornamental belt of engraved horizon- 
tal lines, once painted red. The type of Fig. 10: 3, for instance, may be compared to 
some extent with the oars used by the Lopliqs of to-day, whereas such a type as 
Fig. 10: 2 is quite different. In any case the occurrence of these oars shows that the 
people buried here used to row. 

The easternmost part of the hill is nearly flat, and has only one upright post. 

It is the only one standing with ornaments of horizontal grooves, about 1 cm. wide, 

cut at regular intervals (cf. PL IV a on the left of the photo). Others of a similar 

kind have probably been placed there, since four or five are lying lower down the 

Ordek told me that when he visited the place on the previous occasion, about 
twenty years ago, there was a kind of hut or house on this flat part of the hill. Its 
walls and roof were made of planks. The latter had been covered with ox-hides and 




: t 









Fig. io. i) front and side view of wooden "sculpture". 2 — 4) oar-shaped monuments. Cemetery 5. 

From drawings by Mr. G. Soderbom. 


clay. The inner sides of the walls had been painted red. The floor had been covered 
with the skulls of many oxen and pieces of hides. Digging in the centre of the struc- 
ture, he had come across a coffin containing a female corpse. 

Of this grave, which I have marked in the plan Fig. 9 after Ordek's indications 
on the spot, and which was probably the most prominent grave at the place, only 
some scattered planks of large dimensions are left. Some of them, and some frag- 
mentary poles, show traces of having been painted with designs in red and black, 
Fig. 11. 

To judge from the surviving fragments, the decoration in black and red seems to 
have been quite simple, consisting of straight lines. Fig. 1 1 E has a figure somewhat 
recalling a candlestick with many arms. Does it represent a very stylized tree? The 
occurrence on a Han dynasty tile of a similar representation is worth mentioning 
(Janse 1936, PI. 111:2). 




Fig, IX. Parts ol planks and posts from the eastern part of Cemetery 5. Hatching = red, black = black. From 

drawings by Mr. G. Soderbom. 

A lot of ox-skulls were also scattered around this part of the hill. A pair of 
ram's horns were bound together with some coarse vegetable fibre. 

All over the northern, eastern and southern slopes of the hill were scattered planks 
and boards from disjointed coffins of various sizes together with fallen posts and 
poles and oar-shaped monuments, PI. IX b. The curiously shaped, heavy boards, curv- 
ed and with a groove at each end (seen on PI. VIII b) at first puzzled me very much. 
It was not until the discovery and excavation of the intact coffin 5 A that I realized 
the significance of these boards : that they were the sides of coffins. The largest 
found were 47 cm. broad. There had been altogether 120 coffins in this burial 
place, but, as will be seen from the plan in Fig. 9, only eight could be located in 
situ. It is a remarkable fact that all the coffins are of the same construction (de- 
scribed in connection with Grave 5 A from which description it will also be realized 
how easily these coffins fall to pieces). 

More than one hundred standing posts are marked on the plan. I counted seventy- 
five fallen posts. Of the oar-like monuments fourteen were standing and fifteen lay 
prostrate. The sand forming the crest of the hill may hide some more "oars" or other 
lower monuments. 

Though treasure hunters had ravaged wantonly on this site they could not be the 
only cause of the destruction. The wood of the coffins was as dried-up, sun-bleached 



I < 

and sand-worn as that of the posts still standing, showing that they had been ex- 
posed for a considerable time. Owing to the loose material that formed the hill it 
cannot have been very long before the ever active wind erosion uncovered some of 
the coffins, buried at a shallow depth, especially on the most exposed sides of the 
hill, that is, with the prevailing strong winds from the north-east and east, the 
eastern end and the northern and southern long sides. It was these very parts of 
the hill that contained most of the disjointed coffins and fallen posts etc. On the 
top, however, the sand has accumulated, and thus protected the remains there. 

The cemetery was of course in use for several generations, and the covering of 
sand may in some instances be used for determining the relative age between the 
constructions. Thus, the big palisade must be older than the coffins which have 
been buried in the sand covering the centre of the palisade. The coffins 5 G and H 
on the very top of the hill must be somewhat later than the rest. 

When working at the spot I was considering the possibility that there had been 
some kind of roofing on the posts, or at least on some of them, especially those at 
the eastern end, where they seemed to be arranged symmetrically as columns. 
However, I was never quite convinced. Afterwards, when studying the photographs 
such as, for instance, PI. VII c, and observing the uniform height of many of the 
posts standing close together, I again felt inclined to believe that there had been 
some roofing over a part of the hill. If it ever existed, such a roof must have been 
made of some very light material such as reeds, and must have been completely 
blown away long ago, as no traces whatsoever remained. The presence of a roof 
over parts of the burial place would in a way explain the very shallow depth at 
which some of the coffins were buried. 

No clear connection could be observed between the arrangement of the high posts 
and the situation of the coffins in situ. In several cases there was, however, a short 
thin pole or peg standing just in front of one end or both ends of a coffin. The 
same arrangement was observed by Hedin at the single graves in the Qum-darya 
delta. In two instances a large "oar", similar to that shown in Fig. 10: 3, was placed 
at one end of a coffin at Cemetery 5. 

Originally the large posts may possibly have surrounded certain graves, having 
been erected there either as funeral monuments or as roof supports, but as the ce- 
metery grew more crowded successive encroachments were made into the area of 
the first constructed graves. During an early stage in the use of the burial site the 
big palisade or stockade might have separated two parts of the burial-ground. When 
studying the plan Fig. 9 one has the impression that the whole construction is 
facing east. Near the east of the central part of the big palisade, for instance, the 
posts of uniform size are standing in a semicircle, and in front of this was situated 
the destroyed hut with its grave. 

During our digging in this semicircular space a pile of wooden pegs came to 
light; they were made of branches 3 — 4 cm. thick, pointed at one end, and resembl- 


ing tent pegs. Many of the same kind were lying on the surface of the eastern, flat 
part of the hill. Their actual use was never discovered. 

Only a few metres from where these pegs were found three heavy planks were 
standing on end in the sand, (two of them visible in the foreground to the right in 
PI. IV a). These might possibly be the remnants of a destroyed grave of a construc- 
tion differing from the ordinary one prevalent on this site. Some planks of the same 
short, stout kind, and burnt at one end, were lying on the surface nearby. Whether 
they were intended to be used for firewood by the treasure hunters or had been 
burnt in ancient times it is impossible to say. 

//. Wooden Sculptures. 

The wooden monuments are all more or less shaped by man, the oars and the 
pole seen to the left in PL IV a being those most elaborately worked. We also found 
three human figures of wood, and one "sculpture" Fig. 10: i which is difficult to 

The two reproduced in PI. Vd are the best preserved ones; 1 both show traces of 
red painting. The figure of the man was found in the sand on the lower part of the 
southern slope of the hill. It has a carved face with strongly marked features of a 
rather non- Mongolian character, PL V c. The arms are wanting; it was once ithy- 
phallic. Height of figure 143 cm. 

The female figures PL V a and d have flat, oval faces, their features having 
probably been painted. The arms are very thin and badly proportioned. The calves 
of the one with complete legs (PL V d) are quite thick, and the legs are a little 
knock-kneed. The height of this figure was 134 cm.; Order found it less than 100 
m. to the east of the hill. 

The other female sculpture, PL V a, was found on the eastern slope of the hill 
in a very weather-worn state of preservation; it had apparently been lying exposed 
for a very long time. The lower part of the legs was worn away, but it still 
measured 158 cm. in height, i. e. it must originally have been somewhat over natural 

All three of them are very crude but considering the limitations inherent in the 
material, they are in a way naturalistic. It is probable that these figures have stood 
in some relation to the coffins, though the circumstances here afford no evidence 
thereof. Stein has found similar ones, though smaller, when excavating in burial- 
grounds nearer Lou-Ian. At the foot of grave L.Q.2 he found a wooden female fi- 
gure, 70 cm. high without legs, with a flat face and painted with red ochre (Stein 
1928, PL XV, L.Q.ii.or). In grave L.S.6 he discovered a female stone figure, only 

1 These two sculptures I brought to the base camp of the expedition at Qum-darya. where I last saw them. 
Whether they were brought to China with the rest of the collection or not is unknown to me. 


3 ' 

io cm. high (Stein 1928, PI. XXVI, L.S.6.01), and in grave L.S.5 and from the 
burial-place L.T. he describes a female figure of wood from each place, of the same 
kind as the first mentioned. The one from L.T. is identical with that reproduced in 
the fig. facing p. 262 in Huntington's The Pulse of Asia. 1 

The three figures found in Cemetery 5 are of course too large to have been en- 
closed in the ordinary coffins. It is not impossible, however, that they may have 
been housed in such a hut as the one described by Order (pp. 62, 64), but they can 
equally well be regarded as representations of gods associated with the burial-place 
in general and not related to any particular coffin. 

///. The finds. 

The objects from Cemetery 5 will be treated in the following order: firstly the 
finds made in the coffins in situ, secondly the objects collected from displaced 
coffins, it being however possible to recover a part of the inventory; thirdly, the 
remaining objects found on the surface or in the sand, all of them originating no 
doubt from coffins destroyed by nature or by man. 

In the descriptive list at the end of this section a number containing a letter after 
the main number 5 denotes a special coffin, thus 5.F: 7 means article 7 from grave 
F of Cemetery 5. Whereas an ordinary number, for instance 5 : 33, denotes a sur- 
face find from the same burial place. 

Coffin 5. A. 


The only quite untouched grave was 5 A. It was found immediately to the east 
of the big palisade. The eastern end of the coffin was quite near the surface, the 
other end was covered with one metre of drift-sand that had accumulated around 
the big palisade. The coffin was lying in the direction S 76°W — N 76°E, at both 
ends a thin pole stood as a mark. After the sand had been removed the coffin was 
found to be completely covered with a couple of ox-hides with the hairs still 
remaining. The lid consisted of ten short boards laid across the coffin, cut to 
follow its outline, and kept in place only by the hides, which had apparently 
been applied in a wet state because they fitted very closely around the lid- 
members, when therefore the hides were removed the lid came off with them. 
In PL VI a, unfortunately an inferior photo, the lid with the hides is seen lying to 
the right of the coffin. The coffin was made of two very massive planks, each 
carved out of half a trunk; at both ends a segment of the natural roundness of the 
trunk had been left intact. The inside shows a distinct concavity, and the outside a 

1 This refers to the first edition; in the second edition this plate has been omitted. 




«Umii^itiMfuwauivhi|iuu w « tu^iuku, . v* v Lt (.«**- 



Fig. 12. Coffin 5 A. A) from above, ltd removed. B) side 
view, lid in place. C) section of middle part. D) end view. 

corresponding convexity, Fig. 12. The planks lean against each other, the ends 
touching, thus forming a lenticular space between them; there are two narrow vert- 
ical boards fitted into grooves at the ends of the planks. There is no bottom, and no 
nails or dowels have been used to fix the different members. 

At the burial the dead had been placed in proper position on the ground, the coffin 
then being assembled over him. 

The tight-fitting hides had protected the wood so perfectly that it looked quite 
fresh, and no sand had entered the coffin. 

The body, that of a mummified young man, was resting on its back with the 
head at the eastern end of the coffin, which was just big enough to enclose the 
dead. Except for the face and the feet, the entire corpse was wrapped in a coarse 
mantle of yellowish-white wool (PL VI a) measuring 210x155 cm., and having a 
thin fringe formed by the warp threads along the lower end. Near the head the 
right edge of the mantle was tied up into a small bag containing grains of wheat. 

The head was covered with a large rounded head-dress of thick white felt, PI. 
10:2, with five feathered pegs inserted as a decoration on the left side and kept 
together by a cross-piece wound with sinew-fibres. The head-dress reached below 
the ears, and was fastened by means of a cord under the chin. 

Round the hips he wore a narrow loin-cloth, only 5 cm. wide, of the same 
woollen material as the mantle, and having long fringes at both ends, PI. 11:3. 
It was tied in front on top of the penis, which was placed upwards. A red thread is 
inserted at each end. The mantle, too, has two short red stripes in the weft. Can 
there be any meaning in these single, red elements in the otherwise undyed fabrics? 
They are too insignificant to be regarded as embellishments. 

The feet were dressed in a kind of clumsy shoes or moccasins of ox-hide with 
the hair remaining. They were tied around the ankles with thick strings, and in the 
knots small feathers were inserted. This footgear had never been in actual use. The 
same observation was made in two other cases. The same type is shown in PI. 26: 6 
from Grave 36. The headgear also looks quite unworn. 



The only personal ornament buried with this mummy was a rounded, flattened 
bead of opal, threaded on a thick white cord that was tied twice round the right 
wrist, PI. 9: 12, the fringes of the ends hanging down on the outside, the bead being 
placed on the inner side of the wrist. 

Outside the mantle, and at the outer side of the right thigh, the small basket PL 
14: 5 was found. It has a rounded bottom, is neatly woven of dicotolydonous stems, 
stiff grass and some root-fibres with a design made up of the glossy outside of split 
grass, forming horizontal and zig-zag bands. The mouth was closed with a layer of 
white felt tied on with woollen strings. There is also a string handle. The basket con- 
tained a small amount of a dried-up substance, which according to Mr. Hj. Ljungh 
once was a porridge of millet. 

Under the back, inside the mantle, a bunch of four arrows, about 70 cm. long, 
were found tied together, each of them with two tufts of feathers, but without 
arrow-head, PI. 7: 13. Probably they were not real arrows but only symbolical ones. 

In the right hand of the mummy there was a tamarisk twig, 52 cm. long. 

At the throat there were found pieces of the ears of calves, and the whole front 
of the body was strewn with grains of wheat and twigs of Ephedra. These latter 
had sunken down on the open front of the body as seen in PI. VI c. 

Except for this opening in front the mummy was perfectly preserved. It was 170 
cm. long. The teeth were not very much worn, showing that he must have died 
quite young. The brown-black skin stuck closely to the broad cheek-bones; the long 
eyelashes and thick eyebrows still remained, and the long dark-brown hair was 
tied at the back with a red string. 

A big fracture on the forehead, clearly visible as a black spot in PI. VI c, may 
have had some connection with his apparently early death. The expression on his 
face was that of a wild grimace as if he had suffered a violent death. 

This burial is typical of all the rest at this place, and its close resemblance to 
several of the graves found by Stein and to Hedin's Grave 36 is evident. 

Coffin 5. B. 

The planks of this coffin were practically straight, of nearly uniform thickness, 
and the end-boards were consequently broader than in coffin 5. A, cf. Fig. 13. Other- 
wise the construction follows the same principle and is an exact parallel to Stein 
1928, Fig. 173. 

Around this and the adjacent coffin 5. C, both lying in S 65°W— N 6$°E at a 
depth of 1 m., the high posts stand close together. Three of tyem had to be taken 
down during the excavations to prevent accidents, as they were standing in very 
shallow pits in spite of their height of 4.25 m. PI. VII a. 

The coffin was plundered so long ago that the shaft had been totally filled with 
drift sand, and contained only fragments of its former outfit. Only two cross-pieces 


were left of the lid, the ox-hide cover was gone, and sand now filled the coffin, with 
its mixed-up human bones. Of the dress remained a piece of a yellow woollen mantle 
and parts of a loin-cloth in tapestry weave, yellow with a brown pattern forming 
steps, PI. 13:4. and wi *h fringes along the lower cdgt. The pattern is of special 
interest owing to its conformity with the decorations of so many baskets, denoting 
that it may have been woven locally; the tapestry technique is, however, of Western 

There were also a few fragments of wooden pegs with small incised triangles 
filled with red colour, one of them probably a comb tooth, some Ephedra twigs and 
the lower jaw of a vulture. Mr. G. Bexell has been kind enough to determine the 
jaw as belonging to the species Gypdetus barbatus. 

Coffin 5. C. 

Situated very close to the previous one but 30 cm. higher. Near the eastern end 
of the coffin there was a small polyhedric and red-painted pole wound spirally with 
a string of camel's wool. 

Only the east end-board and the northern long side were intact of the coffin, 
which was of exactly the same type as the one at its side. It measured 1.96 m. in 
length, and was entirely filled with somewhat moist sand. 

The only object left in the coffin was the lower part of one of these mysterious 
wooden objects depicted in PI. 7:2 — 7; round it a brown woollen string was wound. 

Coffin 5. D. 

On the eastern side of the big palisade and very close to it we came across a 
coffin lying in N S5°W — S 55° E - Tne south-eastern end-board and two lid mem- 
bers at the same end were wanting, this end being near the surface, whereas the 
other end was covered with 0.9 m. of sand and lying 1.5 m. lower than the coffin 



Kg. 13. Coffin 5 B. A) from above, lid removed, B) side view, lid in place. C) end view. 




5. A. It was built on the same principle as 5. B and 5. C. Length 2.3 m., width at the 
middle 42 cm. Ox-hides had covered the lid, and the wood looked very fresh. Most 
of the coffin was filled with sand, and it contained no objects. The corpse was 
apparently dragged out through the open end, and such objects accompanying it as 
were of no interest to the plunderers were left lying around. There we picked up ob- 
jects such as a small basket (5. D: 2), the rear part of a reed arrow-shaft with three- 
winged feathers (5. D: 3), two complete and two fragmentary arrow-shafts with 
two tufts of feathers and decorated with small incised triangles (5. D:4 — 7), one 
half of a wooden object that has been wound round with strings, PI. 8:9, the two 
halves of an object in the shape of an animal's leg, PI. 8: 3, a long feather wound with 
red wool probably a part of the adornment of a head-dress, and several bunches of 
cut Ephedra twigs tightly wound with woollen yarn, PI. 1 1 : 6. The latter as well as the 
two last-mentioned wooden objects must have some symbolical or ritual significance, 
which will be discussed in the following. 

Coffin 5. E. 

Near the western side and the southern end of the big palisade a coffin of the 
same kind as 5. A was buried in an E — W direction lying between an oar-shaped 
monument and a big pole. Only the western end of the lid was intact. Length of 
coffin 2.4 m., width at middle 40 cm., height 30 cm. 

The corpse was not totally destroyed by the plunderers; for instance, were the 

mummified legs and the footgear still in place, the latter was taken by us as a sample 

(5 E: 2), being of the typical shape. They had been tied with long, thick cords of 

brown wool. The mantle was of coarse brown wool. It has two short red stripes 

just like the mantle in 5. A. At the right side of the corpse there was a red-painted 

arrow, PI. 7: n, too crooked to have been suitable for shooting which would seem 

to indicate its symbolical meaning. Grains of wheat, twigs of Ephedra, a second 

arrow, and the wooden object PI. 8:4 were also recovered from inside the coffin. 

The legs of the corpse were hairy (brown colour), and below each knee was tied 
a string. 

Coffin 5. F. 

Immediately to the west of coffin 5. E was another coffin situated in N 6o° W— 
S 6o° E, the head placed towards the last-mentioned direction. Length of coffin, 
which was identical with 5. A, 2.6 m., largest width at top 45 cm., height of side 
boards 35 cm. The eastern end had been opened by treasure-seekers, and half of 
the lid was gone. It had been covered with hides. The head was missing on the 
poorly mummified corpse, which was wrapped in a coarse grey mantle. Near the 
upper end the edge was tied into three small bags, two of which contained Ephedra 


twigs, and the third grains of wheat and millet. Near and below the right hip and 
outside the mantle we found the small basket 5. F: 1 of the ordinary type. It once 
contained a porridge of millet. 

The shoes were of the same kind as those in 5. A and 5. E. A loin-cloth of greyish 
white wool of the narrow type with fringed ends was much decayed. At the right 
side of the corpse, and inside the mantle, there were four long arrow-shafts with 
double tufts of feathers, PI. 7: 14, and a thin branch of tamarisk. Many Ephedra 
twigs had been strewn on top of the buried corpse. One feature that I did not 
find in any of the other coffins was an extra mantle placed as a matting under the 
corpse; it was badly preserved, woven of coarse wool with irregular stripes of 
brown and yellow. 

From here came also the complete "horse-leg" PI. 8:5 retaining both lashings. 
A diminutive bronze ring is fastened on the lower string. 

The similarities with the funeral deposit in grave 5. A make it highly probable 
that the body in this coffin was that of a man. 

Localities 5. G — 5. L. 

Besides the completely preserved and untouched grave 5 A, and the plundered 
graves 5 B— F, where the coffins were left in situ, there were six further instances 
in which groups of objects could be gathered which had no doubt been buried 
together in the same coffin. They have been numbered 5. G — 5. L, each letter de- 
noting a special coffin or mummy. Like 5. B — 5. F these inventories might be in- 
complete, in several cases they certainly are, being all that was left after the 
treasure-seekers had had their "pick" or at least thrown away some of the objects. 

I do not intend to describe each of these graves separately as no coffin was left in 
situ, I will only draw attention to some objects of special interest. 

5- G: 3, depicted in PI. 7:9 but more clearly visible in the drawing Fig. 14: 3 is 
a straight peg carved to represent a snake swallowing a spool-shaped peg. The back 
of the body is completely covered with small incised lozenges filled with red, the 
belly having transverse lines, each alternate one containing a row of small triang- 
les. The decoration is intended to represent the scales and the pattern of the snake, 
though the same elements of multiplied triangles have been used as ornament on 
arrows, pegs and combs, where the designs are purely abstract. A parallel to this 
snake-figure is PI. 7: 8 (detail Fig. 14: 4). Both have a small hole a little behind the 
middle, and might thus have been suspended on a string. The exact use of these 
two snake representations is hard to determine; we can only point to the magical 
and medicinal qualities ascribed to the snake in general. Like the frog, it has be- 
come a symbol of rain, which however is regarded by some authors as a secondary 
development of a primary symbolism of promoting fertility; it is also frequently 
used as a phallic symbol. 


PL 9:11 comes from the coffin of a small child. It is a kind of armlet made up 
of a string and a stone bead, as in 5- A : 4. 

The brown felt head-dress for a child, PI. n: 5, also originates from the same 

In the rear part of an arrow-shaft, PI. 12: 2 the triangle pattern is more deeply 
incised than is generally the case with these thin wooden pegs. 

On PI. VI b is seen the upper part of a female mummy, the face of which was 
marvellously well preserved, though the body was much decayed. It could hardly 
have been exposed to the open air for many days as it retained some spots of a 
fair complexion. On the dark-brown flowing hair, parted in the middle, she wore 
a head-dress of yellow felt, pointed and adorned with three red cords and the split 
skin of an ermine (PI. 11:4). Her brow was high and noble, she had a fine aquiline 
nose and thin lips, slightly parted and showing a glimpse of the teeth in a quiet, 
timeless smile. One looked at this expressive and beautiful face with very strange 
feelings, which were only heightened by the fact that the rest of the body was so 
badly decayed. She is also seen on PI. IV b, lying in the centre of the picture. 

Round the neck she wore a simple necklace of fine strings, red and brown, adorn- 
ed with a small tuft of feathers and a diminutive bead of a grey stone. A loin-cloth of 
the same type as PI. 11: 7, though broader, was made of undyed wool ; it was 
knotted in the front. 

It is not impossible that the remains of this lady were torn out of her coffin 
during Order's visit to the place immediately before our visit, though he did not 
definitely admit it. On the top of the hill there was a disjoined coffin, the wood of 
which must have been carefully covered until recently as it showed quite fresh 
surfaces. The mummy might originally have lain in it, which would account for 
her beautifully preserved features. 


Starting our discussion of the surface finds with objects belonging to the apparel 
of the buried, we have firstly the head-dresses. Several of these have been repro- 
duced together in PI. 10; most of them are incomplete. Their general shape is that 
of a rounded or slightly pointed cap or hat. The material is thick felt, seven of them 
of dark brown colour, one yellowish and one undyed (the two last-mentioned, 
5. K: 1 and 5. A: 1, already described). The most highly decorated ones are en- 
tirely covered with an elaborate string ornamentation in red or yellow, PL 10: 1, 3, 
4, 6; in other specimens there are only two or three cords, as in PL 10: 7 and 11:4. 
The edge has in some instances retained a scallop stitching. The split skin of an 
ermine has been fastened round most of the head-dresses in such a way that the 
head of the ermine hangs down in front. The skins on the head-dresses from here 


are very fragmentary (cf. PI. 10: i and 4) but on the fine and well-preserved 
head-dress from Grave 36 the skin and the way it is fastened is clearly seen, PI. 
26: 3. Mr. Gerhard Bexell has kindly examined a couple of the skulls and found 
them to be of the species Mustela erminea. 

As these ermine skins have been fastened to women's head-dresses as well as to 
men's it is unlikely that they represent an adornment for hunters only. Have they 
possessed a magical significance? Though furnishing no exact parallel, it is never- 
theless worth mentioning that the present-day Mongols have a couple of rounded 
felt caps the tops of which are decorated with the tail of a squirrel. 

The group of feathered pegs or plumes that is so characteristic of these Lop- 
nor head-dresses was inserted on the left side. The specimen in PI. 10: 2 has only a 
small set of such a kind, and on those depicted in PI. 10: 1, 3 and 9 most of it has 
disappeared. PI. 10: 8 shows a complete set of plumes with finely preserved feathers. 
The pegs are wound round with gaily coloured red wool, most of the feathers are 
light brown, possibly those of the Lama duck; the longest one, however, is black 
and its stem is wound round with red wool. A fragment of a weasel's skin is 
adhering to these plumes. 

There were several less complete plumes from head-dresses, both short and long, 
PI. 10:5 and 9:9 — 10. 

As we have seen from Grave 5 A, B, F and K, both men and women wore a 
woven loin-cloth of wool. They are of two types, one very narrow with fringed 
ends, PI. 11:3 (already described), the other of varying breadth but having fringes 
along the lower edge as well. It is not impossible that the former were used by men 
and the latter by women, though the specimens are too few to allow of any definite 
statement. And it must be remembered that the old lady in Grave 36 wore a very 
narrow loin-cloth (though with long fringes). Stein does not describe any of these 
articles, merely mentioning that they were made of tassels. 

PI. 11 : 7 is typical of the broader form, with a long thick fringe along the lower 
edge and at the ends. It is executed in plain weave and of rather uneven make. 

PI. 12: 1 is more elaborate, plaited of fine and even, twisted wool. Here the fringe 
does not consist of the extended weft or warp threads as in the former cases, but is 
inserted and is of two different colours. The ends are torn off. Mr. Ljungh's 
microscopical analysis of the wool used in this loin-cloth has revealed the unexpected 
fact that this sheep's wool is of such fine texture that we must presume it to be an 
importation from the west, probably Bactria, where very fine sheep's wool was 
procurable at the time in question (cf. Appendix II). Now we have no idea what 
kind of sheep formed the herds of the autochthon population around Lop-nor. But it 
seems that other woollen articles from here are of a much coarser material, though 
none of these have so far been examined microscopically. In any case a connection 
with the West is unmistakable. 



The fragment PL u : I is from one end of another loin-cloth; the material is quite 
the same as in the preceding one, and so is the technique. When complete these 
fringes must have reached to the knees. 

The chief article of the apparel was the big mantle, woven of heavy woollen 
stuff. No. 5. A: I is the only complete specimen that was brought away. They were 
large enough to protect the whole of a man's body. 

In PL 13: 5 is shown a sample of a mantle of good quality, neatly woven of soft 
material, much superior to the ordinary ones. It is light yellow with a bright red 
ribbon stitched on to it afterwards. 

Ordek told us that on the first tour of exploitation to this place some of his com- 
panions found some of these mantles in such an excellent state of preservation that 
they used them as horse-cloths. It might be recorded here, too, that the ox-hides 
covering coffin 5. A were so little ravaged by time that they aroused the greed of 
one of our Turkish diggers, who wanted to take them for making boots. I mention 
this incident to emphasize the state of preservation of perishable articles, which 
can only be due to the extraordinary aridity of the climate. It also corroborates the 
supposition that the corpses owe their mummification more to natural conditions 
than to artificial treatment. 

The last article of dress is the shoes or low boots made of ox-hide after a very 
primitive model. Except on the soles the hair was turned inside. On the toes or on 

the front of the instep there are traces of small feathers and red woollen threads 
serving as decoration. . 

The outline of the footgear recalls the low Scythian boots, as far as their shape 
can be judged from the vase-pictures from the Kul Oba kurghan, Fig. 31. 

If the head-dress, mantle, loin-cloth and shoes do actually constitute the entire 
dress, it is rather a primitive one. Considering the severe winter climate prevail- 
ing in the Lop desert with temperatures down to — 32 C, and the terribly violent 
north-east storms, this dress seems very inadequate. It is very likely of course that 
the people used some kind of furs in the cold season, though nothing of that sort 
has been buried with the dead in the tombs. 

One cannot fail to notice a general resemblance between the dress of this Lou- 
Ian people and that of the inhabitants of the Danish Isles in the early Bronze Age, 
though there are of course no direct connections. These similarities are especially 
observable in the fringed loin-cloths as far as regards their general features. The 
technique is quite different. It is worth observing that the large skirt with which 
the Borum-Eshp'j lady was provided has lately proved to be impossible to wear as 
a skirt owing to its size. 

The natives of Tangir in the border country between present-day India and East- 
ern Turkistan still wear a sort of coarse mantle which must be of the same simple 


sort as that used by the Lou-Ian population about 2000 years ago. (Cf. Stein 1928, 
Fig. 39)- 

Personal Ornaments. 

In the gay colours of the dresses, the long woollen fringes which flowed in the 
wind, and in the feathers on their head-gear this people gave most marked expres- 
sion to their desire to adorn themselves. True personal ornaments, however, are 
rather scarce. 

The young man in coffin 5 A had an armlet of a woollen string with an opal bead 
round the right wrist (PI. 9: 12), and a similar armlet was found among the rest 
of the inventory from the destroyed coffin of a child, PI. 9: 11. A child's armlet of 
bronze unfortunately went astray before the collection reached Sweden. It con- 
sisted of a round wire with thickened, multilateral ends, showing the same features 
as one of Dr. Hedin's objects from Lou-Ian (Bergman 1935 c, PI. XII 14). 

The female mummy K, PI. VI b, with the expressive face, wore a simple necklace 
of strings with feathers and a single small stone bead. 

On the eastern flat part of the hill we found nearly five hundred small white 
beads, circular with flat ends. The diam. varies from five to two mm., PL 15:15. 
Several of them were still left on the original thick string they had been threaded on. 

Two specimens have been examined microscopically at the Invertebrate Depart- 
ment of the Museum of Natural History by Dr. R. Bergenhayn, who states that 
they are made from shell of the genus Spondylus, probably Spondylus sinensis 
Sowerby, which occurs along the shore of Eastern Asia. In any case Spondylus is 
a marine shell, and the material of these beads was thus traded overland for a 
very considerable distance, say at least 3000 km. 

Beads of quite similar shape are known from Prof. J. G. Andersson's excava- 
tions both from burial places and dwelling sites in Kansu of the middle Yang-shao 
period and onwards, and also from the Luan-p'ing grave find, Jehol. 

The three beads PI. 15:9 are disc-shaped but are also made of shell. Similar 
ones of bone or shell of chalcolithic age are reported from Zhob in Baluchistan 
(Stein 1929, PI. IX, P. E. 19). 

One bead from the eastern part of Cemetery 5 is of serpentine, PL 15: 8, and nine 
are of grey and white, nicely striated opal, PL 15: 16. 


A kind of small pegs with a cylindrical head with triangle-band decoration and a 
thinner, pointed part (Fig. 14: 6-7) were quite common. One specimen (5. L: 3) was 
sticking in the remains of a mantle when found, which points to their having been 


used as pins for fastening he mantles. Stein is of the same opinion regarding the 
more well-proportioned specimens found in the graves nearer Lou-Ian. Cf. also PL 
2j : 7 — 8 from Grave 36. Their decoration consists of from five to fourteen trans- 
verse bands each made up of two lines of triangles with the points turned against 
each other. In some cases the diminutive triangles are most neatly carved, and when 
the lines stand close together there is formed a zig-zag pattern, PL 9: 2, 5 and Fig. 
14: 6 — 7. The incisions have been filled with red colour. 

The peculiar doll No. 36:8 is put on a small peg of the same model as those 
above, but plain and with short head. 

The curiously shaped bone object PL 12: 16 probably served the same purpose 
as the pins just treated. It is less likely that it is meant to represent some miniature 
weapon, such as a ko, because the projection is very thick and clumsy. 

Co nibs. 

Two complete combs and several loose teeth were found on the surface of the 
hill. Only in one case was one of these comb-teeth picked up inside a coffin (5. B : 6), 
but we may safely assume that the combs were placed in the coffins, as for instance 
was the case in Grave 36. 

The fine specimen PL 9: 1 is a composite comb of seven long and four short teeth 
pierced through a transverse piece of tendon. The teeth are nicely polished and of 
round section, the upper part of the long pegs are flat. The front of them is decor- 
ated with seven triangle- or zig-zag-bands on each, the incisions filled with red, 
PL 9: la, the rear side has also seven triangle-bands on each peg but arranged in 
zig-zag and less carefully carved, PL 9: lb. 

Of this big comb-type there are several loose pegs; one is still sticking in a piece 
of tendon. 

The small comb PL 9:6 is more plain, and consists only of one sort of teeth, with 
carelessly incised lines on the upper part. 

Combs are placed in tombs not only to serve as a toilet article or an ornament for 
the dead but also as an amulet or charm, the comb with its many sharp points being 
regarded as possessing magical or prophylactic power. In the case of our big comb, 
for instance, this quality is probably heightened by the presence of so many pointed 
triangles filled with red colour forming the decoration. Hanna Rydh has referred 
to this property of the comb (Rydh 1929 pp. 105 ff. and 113) and drawn attention 
to combs with triangular ornaments from Malacca, worn by women to prevent cer- 
tain illnesses. 


As seen from the description of the coffins most of them contained one or more 
long arrow-shafts of wood. A good many specimens were also collected on the sur- 








3 b 


4 b 







Fig. 14, Carvings on wooden arrows etc., and a basket, from Cemetery 5. 1) sJ : 2. 2) 5 : 80. 3) 5.G 13. 4) 5 : 48. 
5)5:112. 6)5:131. 7) 5-L:2. 8) 5-D:2. 9)5-4°* 10) 5: 103 (unfolded). Half size. 




face. In all, there are about sixty arrows. When complete they measure from 57 to 
78 cm. in length, and are fitted out with two tufts of feathers, one at the base and 
the other a little behind the middle, PI. 7: 11 — 14. Only the quills of the short 
feathers are secured to the shafts, with a lashing of red or brown wool. This 
arrangement of the feathers makes the arrow unsuitable for practical use, and as 
there is no notch for the bow-string we may safely assume that they were never 
meant for shooting, but made only as symbolic arrows offered to the dead for their 
hunting tours beyond the grave. A few specimens, such as 5. E: 3 (PI. 7: 11) and 
5 : 46 are also too crooked ever to have been in actual use. 

Many of them are decorated with rows of small incised triangles filled with red 
colour, and arranged in transverse bands, each band consisting of two lines of tri- 
angles pointing towards each other. These bands, many of which give the impression 
of a zig-zag line, are arranged in groups of four or five, Fig. 14: 1, 2, 9, 10. There is al- 
ways the same number of bands in each group on the same specimen; four are more 
common than five. On some specimens the space between these groups have two — in 
a few cases three — longitudinal triangle-bands either straight or in spiral, Fig. 
14: 1,2, 10; here the triangles are broader and less regular. These minutely carved in- 
cisions recur over and over again on the symbolic arrows, and it is therefore not 
unreasonable to regard the ornamentation as symbolic, too, and containing some 
quality valuable to the dead. It is of course very tempting to try to explain these 
triangles as having something in common with the fertility cult in the way proposed 
by several authors, for instance Hanna Rydh (Rydh 1929), and that they were 
carved on these mortuary objects for the benefit of the dead, their red colour being 
intended to enhance their vitalizing magic power. I am not sure, though, that a tri- 
angle pattern necessarily represents a quest for fertility; but like most ornaments 
occurring in primitive art it had some sort of symbolic meaning. As the triangles in 
our case are diminutive they manifest themselves only through their multitude, and 
I believe that the continually recurring arrangement of rows and bands etc. cannot 
be incidental but may be the chief object of the whole decoration, the exact meaning 
of which we can hardly interpret. 

Before leaving this multiple triangle pattern, these saw-like indentations, or what- 
ever we may call them, it is worth while to draw some parallels. 

All kinds of primitive civilizations use triangular designs for decoration. Those 
lying nearest at hand in our case, both in time and space, and which are also best 
known, are the bronze cultures with centres in the Ordos region on the Sino-Mong- 
olian borderland, and around Minusinsk in Central Southern Siberia. Our know- 
ledge of the chronology of these, in some respects, closely allied cultures is not so 
well founded as might be desired, but it is quite evident that they originated earlier 
than the construction of the Lop-nor graves, and probably lasted till after that 
time. From among the published Ordos bronzes we may refer to the following, 
bearing a serrated ornament resembling our triangle-bands: Andersson 1932, PI. 




II V. 


ft I fc 


k Salt-water lake near t<i tin- south of Onm-darya* 

a. Wooden sculpture' probably 
representing a woman. Height 
158 cm. Cemetery 5. From a 
drawing l>y Mr. G. Sodcrbom. 

c. Profile of ihc left 

sculpture of Fig, d. 

From a drawing by Mr. 

CI. Sodcrlwnu. 

d. Two wooden sailpturcs from Cemetery 5. 


PI, VI. 


a. Grave ; A with the lid removed. 

' 4k * 

1». The female mummy 5 K. 




c. The mummy in grave 5 A after having been stripped of his garment. Only one sideboard of the 

coffin is intact. 


V:2; Salmony, PL 38:8; Inner Mongolia and 
the Region of the Great Wall, PI. V:8. All 
these are bronze knives. Of special interest is a 
bronze tube in the last mentioned publication, 
PI. XI: 2, and here reproduced as Fig. 15, be- 
cause of its combined decoration of cowries 
and triangle-bands, i. e. two different elements 
possibly denoting fertility. 

In the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities in 

Stockholm there are several unpublished Onlos 
knives with elaborate triangle-band designs, 
tube of the O- two of them being reproduced, with kind per- 

Sona (I ™d r mi ^ion. as Fig. 16. 

the region of From the Minusinsk region reference may be 

the Great Wall t _ ° * 

pi. xi: 2). made to Martin s publications (1893 PI. 11:3 
—6, PL 15:8—9, and 1897, PI. 24:4). 

The relief designs on these bronzes, whether geometrical 
patterns or elaborate animal representations, originally imi- 
tated wood-carvings. Grave finds from Siberia and Altai 
have proved this beyond doubt in the case of the animal fig- 
ures. We may be quite sure that geometric carvings simi- 
lar to those on the pegs and arrows from our cemetery were 
the prototypes for the bronze pattern referred to above. In 
wood, this pattern has remained in use up to modern times 
(Martin 1897, PI. 13:5 — 7, some cutting-boards from the 
Ostyaks), and on Swedish Lap carvings in bone. 

One of the famous Noyan-ola textiles has a pattern of rows of pointed triangles 
alternating with geometrical scrolls (Trever, PI. 19:3), no doubt a Chinese silk 
fabric but with an unusual "barbaric" design. 

Certain Chinese bronze mirrors of the Han period have one or more borders of 
small triangles, the so-called saw-tooth pattern, usually near the outer rim (for 
instance Siren 1930, Vol. 2, PI. 66 — 68) but it is uncertain whether this pattern has 
anything in common with our triangle-rows. 

The well-made arrow-shaft No. 5: 112 is a little different in the ornamentation, 
as seen on the drawing Fig. 14: 5. It has five single rows of triangles with the points 
turned in the same direction. There are four such groups. 

Beside these symbolic arrows there are also some real ones. 5. D: 3 is a fragment 
of a reed arrow with three feathers lashed to the butt. This type is well known from 
the Han ruins along the Tun-huang limes (Stein 1921, PL LIII, T. XV. a. vi. 001) 
and at Edsen-gol in the still unpublished material found by me in 1931. 

5: 113 — ri 4 (PL 7 : I0 ) are two stout arrows with a marked notch for the bow- 

Fig. 16. Two bronze kni- 
ves of the Ordos style. 
MFEA K. 12030 and K. 
11225: 15. Half size. 


string, and pointed at the other end, i. e. made to fit into a socketed arrow-head, as 
for instance specimens like PI. 12: 9 and 12. They are 65.5 and 63.5 cm. long, and 
thicker than those mentioned above. Both may have been feathered but the traces 
are too obliterated to be definite. It is of importance in connection with the above 
discussion that these real arrow-shafts are undecorated. Cf . also the arrow 6. B : 11 


On a limited space on the eastern side of the hill four stone arrow-heads were 
found. Two of them are of green silex, one of brown chert, and the fourth of 
slate. The three first ones, PL 12:4 — 6, are willowleaf-shaped with rather blunt 
points, and of no high workmanship. One is a little polished. According to their type 
they might be labelled as neolithic but they are less well-finished than the other 
arrow-heads found in the Lop desert (PL 4: 12 — 13 and Stein 1921, PL XXX and 
1928, PL XXII) and ours are therefore, most likely, degenerated survivals from 
a true stone age. 

The specimen of slate, PL 12: 3, is polished all over, and does not represent any 
known type of arrow-head from Inner Asia. 

From the same part of the hill the bone point PL 12 : 9 was brought to light. It is 
of regular shape with marked barbs and decorated with six incisions organically 
following the cleft base. 

PL 12: 12 is another point made of a tubular bone with seven incised lines round 
the base. There is a parallel to this bone point from a Scythic tomb at middle 
Dnepr (Minns, Fig. 82: 1). The type is of course very plain, and cannot claim too 
much consideration. 

It is noteworthy that no metal points were found, the fragments No. 5 : 24 — 25 
being very uncertain. The scarcity of metal on this site is obvious. Only a few in- 
significant bronze fragments and a child's armlet were found. The rareness of metal 
is partly explained by the circumstance that Ordek's followers on their two treasure- 
hunting tours were looking especially for "valuable" objects, i. e. such of metal, 
and they might of course have brought away some to their employer, the Amban at 
Charkhliq, whose antiquarian interest started the searches of this site after it had 
been discovered by Ordek. Order did not remember anything particular that they 
had found, which indicates that at least no large objects were discovered and 
brought away. Cf. the end of this chapter pp. 89 f. 

On the other hand no great wealth of metal objects is to be expected among this 
people with their primitive civilization. 

Baskets and otlier containers. 

The small melon-shaped baskets PL 12: 13, PL 13: 1 — 3, and PL 14: E, 2, 4, 5 seem 
to have formed an important part of the grave furniture. Three of them were found 


Fig. 17. Detail 
from the basket 
No. 5 70- Size 2/3. 

inside coffins, and the other twelve have certainly fallen out of 
destroyed coffins. Hedin found two similar ones in graves, and 
Stein, who was the first to publish these handsome objects, has 
five specimens originating from three graves. His baskets seem 
to be less decorated, or maybe more worn, than ours. 

At first I regarded these baskets as made of the stiff 'camel 
grass' so characteristic of the Central Asian steppes and deserts, and 
which the Mongols call Tsaghan derisun. Its Latin name is Lasia- 
grostis splendens. This has been proved only partly correct. Mr. 
Ljungh's microscopical investigations have revealed the fact that 
the warp consists of dicotyledonous stems and the weft of grass and root fibres 
mixed. In the specimen No. 36:6 an Artemisia root has been used. This deter- 
mination may be valid for all of the rest in this collection. 

They are made in the following manner. Two groups of from five to twelve warp 
stems have been placed perpendicularly and fastened to one another (PI. 13: ib and 
14: 5b). In some cases the number of the warp stems at the beginning is not the 
same in each group PI. 13: 1 has for instance 8 and 11 stems, 5: 146 has 11 and 12. 
The spaces in the corners between the two groups of original warp stems have been 
filled out with radially arranged stems, and to widen the diameter new stems have 
been added subsequently, Fig. 17. Before the maximum width is attained there is 
as a rule a border of three-strand braid, which is repeated near the mouth. The rest 
of the wall comprises very close plain twined weaving. All of the baskets in this 
collection are decorated (though some of the specimens have almost obliterated de- 
signs because of wear) with horizontal stripes, triangles or oblique borders of 
step-like or zig-zag designs. These elements recur on nearly all specimens though 
they are arranged in slightly different ways. 

The basket No. 5:70 is an interesting example of how the decoration of these 
baskets has been applied on top of the main weft element. The whole surface is 
much worn from long use. At the first glance it seems to be plain and undecorated. 
On closer examination small fragments of "extra" strands are observed in the 
grooves between the warp elements. They are the remains of the otherwise totally 
worn out decoration. A patient study of these remnants has revealed a pattern of the 
same oblique zig-zag bands as on most of the other baskets from here. Only in one 
detail does it differ from the rest: on the top part between the mouth and the three- 
strand braid running about 3.5 cm. below it. Here the ornaments are plaited over 
two warp stems and form irregular crescents. 

The decorations are made up of split stems of grass the smooth and shiny surface 
turned outwards, thus affording a pleasing contrast effect. 

It is quite evident that all have been made in a very limited region. Around Lou- 
Ian the patterns are already different. A symbolic meaning of these ornaments is 


highly probable, but it would be only guesswork to try to explain them. We meet the 
same step-like (zig-zag) design on the loin-cloth PI. 13:4. 

The technical skill necessary for the manufacture of these small baskets is con- 
siderable, and it must be admitted at once that the Lou-Ian people have mastered 
this side of the fabrication perfectly. The sense of form and proportion in the de- 
coration is also worthy of admiration; it successfully competes with the graceful 
incised ornamentations on all sorts of pegs from this site. From a purely technical 
point of view these baskets stand on the same high level as those of the aboriginal 
American basket-makers. 

These baskets from Lop-nor are a typical product of a primitive people, and we 
may safely ascribe them to the people buried on the hill. The only instance I know 
of, where one of these baskets has been found outside an indigenous grave, is 
Stein's L. C. 05 from an otherwise Chinese mass-grave near Lou-Ian. 

Only on one specimen (5. 1: 1) is the edge finished with a coiled border, other- 
wise there is no special edging. 

AH of them have had string handles, except $.T):2, where no traces can be de- 
tected. Four specimens have a more or less well preserved handle consisting of 
several twined cords fastened on the outside of the wall in a row of vertically plac- 
ed coils, PI. 13: ia. (5: 70, 140, 141, 146). The remaining ten baskets have, or have 
had, a handle of a single string of twisted white or brown wool, which has been 
threaded through the wall a little below the edge, PI. 14:4. The existence of these 
handles makes it highly probable that the baskets were articles for daily use and 
not only made to serve as sepulchral offerings. 

Those excavated from the coffins and having their felt cover still in place over 
the mouth contained remains of the food supplies deposited in them for the benefit 
of the deceased. Basket 5. F: 1 contained a few grains of wheat and millet besides 
a dried-up substance. The careful chemical examination undertaken by Mr. Hj. 
Ljungh has proved it to be a porridge of millet. In the basket 5. A: 6 a small 
amount of a similar substance was found, but no grains of cereals. 

Besides the small baskets there is only one object of basketry, the flat fragment 
PI. 14: 3, probably from a sifter basket or from such a round basketry plate with 
thin weave that for instance the Chinese of our day use when steaming their bread. 
No. 37 : 3 — 4 are two fragments of a similar kind found in the second mass-grave 
in the delta of Qum-darya. 

There is only one wooden vessel from this place, the cup PI. 12: 15, made of a 
single piece and probably having had a handle fastened in the four holes. It may 
thus have served as a scoop. 

Of pottery only one insignificant sherd was found ; it was of reddish earthenware 
and was lost before the collection reached Sweden. 



n. vii. 

a. Sodcrbom excavating Grave 5 B (righi). 


k Posts of various shapes from ihc crest of 
Cemetery 5, From a drawing by Mr, (i. 


C- The crest of Cemetery 5, (below). 


1*1. Mil. 

a. View from Cemetery 3 towards the north across the endless desert of sand. 

I). Disjointed coffins on the slope of the hill. Cemetery 5. 

T 1 

Wooden objects of uncertain use. 

PL 7 : * — 7 depict some curious objects the meaning or function of which is obs- 
cure. The simplest form is seen in PI. 7: 1, there being two similar specimens. It is 
a wooden peg, flattened, and tapering towards one end. On one of them there is a 
small oval hole with burnt edges, and on the other a charred hollow near the 

PI. 7:6 is a more elaborate specimen. At the broader end one side is flattened 
and provided with two parallel grooves, and behind these a rectangular depression. 
A big bunch of horse hair is tied with brown woollen strings round the middle part 
of the handle. The pointed end has a small step or ledge. The curved shape may be 

PL 7:4 is carved according to the same pattern, but on PI. 7:3 the two grooves 
do not reach the end of the peg. This is also the case with PI. 7 : 2, and there the 
depression is surrounded by small drilled holes; near the pointed end there is a 
lashing of brown wool. The fragmentary specimen PI. 7:5 has no sunken part but 
eight transverse incisions instead. When the other fragmentary specimen, PI. 7 : 7, 
was found, a layer of feathers were attached with red wool to its back. The com- 
plete ones are from 53 to 63.5 cm. long. 

In coffin 5. C a fragmentary specimen of this kind of object was found which 
would seem to indicate that they used to be buried with the dead. 

The only objects of a shape somewhat similar to the more elaborate specimens 
are some Siberian Shaman drumsticks; but our specimens are rather long, and 
there seem to be too many of them. It is, however, more than likely that they had a 
function in some cult performance. 

Another type of object is unknown in existing collections. Some specimens have 
already been mentioned above. It is made of wood in two similar halves, the flat 
surfaces laid towards each other, and tb; members joined with two string lashings. 
The upper part is more or less spool-shaped, whereas the lower end terminates in 
a carving representing a horse's hoof or a cow's foot, PI. 8: 3 — 5, 7 — 8. Some of 
them have a notch at the "front" edge and, as a rule, there is as group of slightly 
incised transverse lines on the flat sides, clearly visible in PI. 8:8. On the specimens 
PI. 8 : 7—8 the flat sides are charred in on' place near the upper end as if the objects 
had been used to catch some red-hot metal. The length varies between 21.5 and 28.2 
cm. Three pairs, PI. 8: 3—5, were found in coffins; in all five complete and one half 
set were found. I can see no practical use for these "leg" representations. 

PL 8: 1, 2, 6 and 9 represent another kind of compound articles consisting of two 
similar halves which have been tied together with a woollen cord wound round the 
sunken middle part. The insides of the halves are hollowed out. On PL 8:6 is 



Lt ' 


shown a complete specimen though part of the wool has now decayed; between 
the wool and the wood was a layer of feathers. In its hollow inside were lying a few 
bones from the skull of a large lizard. We cannot state whether the others have 
had any contents; the half depicted on PI. 8: i was painted red on the inside. 

The general shape of these objects is that of a phallus and it is reasonable to 
regard them as a kind of amulet or to place them among the paraphernalia of the 
fertility cult. 

Two complete specimens and three halves were recovered, ranging in size from 9 

to 1 1.5 cm. 


The two snake representations, which also belong under this heading have been 
discussed on p. 73. 

Three slender pegs Nos. 5: 50, 52 and 88 (PI. 9:3) of uniform thickness but 
with a thinner part at one end vary in length from 19.8 to 26.5 cm. The specimen 
5:51 has both ends thinner than the middle, and has been wound spirally with a 
ribbon of some sort. The thinner part has probably been inserted into some hole or 
socket, but the proper use, of these pegs is obscure. 

Miscellaneous small articles. 

A small oblong, slightly curved piece with transverse incisions is made of dental- 
bone, PI. 15 : 7. One end is incomplete. The use of it is unknown. 

A pair of similar bone objects, PI. 12: 10 — 11, are also of unknown use, and so 
is the bone fragment PI. 12: 7. In the latter case we might think of a part from a 
compound bow. 

Cord-wrapped bunches of stiff grass, Ephedra twigs, sinew fibres and so on 
(5:170 — 173) may possibly be labelled as some sort of amulets (Stein 1928, PI. 
XXVI, L. S. 6. 03 is of the same kind). The splendid specimens on PI. 11:6 have 
already been referred to, and we may also recall such originally wrapped objects as 
the supposed phallus representations PI. 8:1, 2, 6 and 9. Especially from North 
America parallels to these wrapped objects are known with a core of yarious mat- 
erials from the plant and animal kingdoms. The composition of the contents sugg- 
est a magical use of these bunches. 

Stein has also noticed how this provision of small packets of Ephedra twigs 
formed a part of the regular funeral practice among the autochthon population of 

In some instances there are striking resemblances between the articles made of 
perishable materials, e. g. feathers, straw and strings, from the Lop-nor graves and 
those from N. American Indian sites — at least, judging from the reproductions 


It, in books. The analogies do not depend on any cultural connections but on similar 

climatic conditions. Both at Lop-nor and in the desert parts of N. America the cli- 
mate is so arid that objects which in other localities would have perished have been 
astonishingly well preserved. 

| The Ephedra plant has been in use in the Chinese pharmacy for a long time. It is 

■ not impossible that its medical quality was known as early as 2,000 years ago. 1 have 
I asked Dr. D. Hummel, the surgeon of the expedition, who has experience of Ephed- 

■ ra both as a medical man and as a botanist, if the presence of Ephedra twigs in the 

coffins could account for the preservation of the mummies. He was not convinced 
that the Ephedra twigs would act as a preservative agent unless present in large 
amounts. In Grave 5 A there was a certain quantity; the photo PI. VI c gives indeed 
the impression that the belly of the mummy was stuffed with Ephedra twigs. Such 
small amounts, however, as those placed in the bundles tied on the mantles can 
hardly have been of any importance as preservatives. 

But Ephedra is an ever-green, and this feature, apart from the medicinal qualities 
of the plant, may have caused primitive peoples to regard it as possessing vitalizing 
powers, and therefore useful to the dead in this respect. 

Stein does not believe in the interpretation of this burial practice as a symbolic 
provision to prevent decay of the corpses; he only refers to the potential medicinal 
qualities of the plant. (Stein 1930 — 32). 

An Ephedra is used nowadays by the Parsees of Bombay to produce their sac- 
red beverage Homa. The Parsee priests say that the Homa never decays, and they 
keep it for a considerable time before they use it. 

Gerhard Bexell has kindly furnished me with the following important inform- 
ation about the use of the Ephedra plant among the Tibetans in Nan-shan south of 

Those of the Tibetans who cremate their dead take merely a few logs as a found- 
ation for the funeral pyre, which consists mainly of Ephedra bushes. During the 
combustion the Ephedra plants develop a strong aroma which somewhat weakens 
the stench from the cremation. 

The Ephedra plant is also used for the fabrication of incense in this region. The 
untreated twigs are sometimes used as incense by the poor, or in cases where proper 
incense is unobtainable. 

These facts show the significance of the Ephedra twigs as a predecessor of in- 
cense-sticks, and also confirm the view that the use of incense as an offering has 
developed out of the pure necessity to milden the smell of the burning corpse or the 
burning sacrificial meat through adding some fragrant agent. In the course of 
time this detail has become dissociated from its origin, developed into the use of 
incense sticks and become in itself a sacrifice. 

The occurrence in some coffins of grains of wheat and millet show that the 
people carried on agriculture to a certain extent. It is less likely that these handfuls 



of grains have been deposited in the coffins as food supplies for the dead, than that 
they have been placed there in their character of germinative seeds, i. e. to represent 
a vitalizing agent for the dead, and thus belong to the complex of the fertility cult. 

IV. Discussion. 


* i 

i * 


Having finished the description of Cemetery 5 ("Order's necropolis") the 
question arises: where did these people dwell before they were buried on the hill. 
Because of the size of the cemetery one would expect a priori a village in the neigh- 
bourhood, somewhere along The Small River, the only place where water is obtain- 
able. No traces of any structures, however, were found. The sand dunes cover such 
large areas in this part of the desert, in many places reaching the shores of the 
river, that not only one but several ancient villages may be totally buried in the sand. 
It is worth remembering that all the Lou-Ian ruins are found in a region without 

The dwellings of this autochthon people can hardly have been very solid. If they 
really possessed any stationary dwellings we have, perhaps, to reckon with some- 
thing of the same sort as the present day s a t m a or reed-hut of the Lopliq. When 
these are abandoned they very soon fall to pieces, and are easily hidden by even a 
thin layer of drift sand. 

On the other hand fragments of pottery and other small debris were abundant on 
many bare clay surfaces between the sand dunes both to the south and the north of 
"Order's necropolis", as is the case nearly everywhere in the Lop desert to the west 
of the new Lop-nor — relics which partly indicate a mobile population. 

This people lived under conditions very similar to the present day Lopliqs. Some 
must have carried on agriculture, at least to a limited extent. Most of them, and 
especially the more wealthy, owned cattle and sheep, camels and horses or asses, and 
all of them practised fishing in the river and the lakes and hunting in the reeds and 
on the plains. "They are as birds and wild beasts" the contemporary Chinese char- 
acterized the Lou-Ian people. 

As the present day Lopliqs live on very much the same lines as the autochthons 
of Lou-Ian, a few observations may be of interest in this connection. When visiting 
Sait mollah in his s a t m a at Yaqinliq-kol, which, by the way, is one of the largest 
reed-huts in the region, comprising several rooms, I saw Sait's wife spinning wool 
on one of the "charkhs" used in the Tarim Basin. Afterwards Mr. Chen saw her 
weaving a kind of rough woollen cloth in white and black, a material which was 
used for clothing, bags, saddles and the like. This is a coarse material always made 
locally, which very much resembles the coarse woollen stuff in the mantles from 
Cemetery 5. 


Mr. Chen also noticed that the family had a small vegetable garden. Their ef- 
forts to cultivate wheat here were, however, unsuccessful. 

There are large quantities of fish in the lower Tarim of our days, and many of 
the water-fowl there furnish excellent meat, and their eggs are collected in the 
season. Of larger game the boar and the antelope should be mentioned. 1 We have 
no reason to suppose the animal life to have changed since the time of Lou-Ian, or, 
to express it more correctly, the faunae of Lou-lan's time have now returned to the 
desert along with the life-giving water. 

For further discussion of the autochthon population cf. pp. 143—145. 

The activities of the several Japanese expeditions sent to Sinkiang between 1904 
and 191 1 by Count Otani and the Buddhist monastery Nishi Hongwan-ji in Kyoto 
are known to me only through reviews of their publications 2 and the mention which 
Stein makes of them. Of the original Japanese publications only one has been ob- 
tainable: Mr Haneda's Description of some documents discovered by the mission 
Otani in Chinese Turkistan (Toyo gakuho 1 : 2, 191 1). When the text of this chap- 
ter was already in proof the large catalogue of the Korean National Museum in Seul 
was received (Amamuna & Minamoto: Chosen Kobi-jitsu Taikwan). In the 
third volume of this work PI. 82 shows, inter alia, a water bag of skin from 
Rooran (i.e. Lou-Ian). More remarkable are the contents of PI. 78 (PL 79—81 
show some of the same objects enlarged). Unfortunately there is no accompanying 
text, only a statement that the articles originate from the local people in 
Central Asia ( !) As to who collected the things, when and where, the cata- 
logue gives no information. Now the following objects are easily identified as com- 
ing from autochthon graves in the Lop desert: the four small baskets on the left 
in the upper row of PL 78, the two felt head-dresses flanking the lower row, and 
the raw-hide shoe in the centre of the lower row of the same plate. These things 
are in fact so similar to my own finds from "Ordek's necropolis" that I feel prac- 
tically certain that they originate from there too. Are these the results of the earlier 
plunderings of the site? As stated by Ordek the searches of the site were started 
on the order of the Chinese Amban in Charkhliq. We know that Mr. Tachibana 
of the Nishi Hongwan-ji expeditions was in Charkhliq in both 1910 and 191 1. Did 
he inspire the Amban to bring forth antiquities with the help of the natives, or did 
the Amban start the action to suit Mr. Tachibana? Any of these possibilities seem 
likely. It seems less probable that Mr. Tachibana himself went to "Order's necro- 
polis", as Ordek mentioned none but local people among the treasure-seekers. 

A footnote in Stein 1928, p. 787, may be of importance in this connection: — 

1 Among the present population hunting does not play any important role in the economic life of the people, 
and the boar is avoided on religious grounds. 

1 P£ri in Befeo 1909 p. 626, 1910 p. 652, 1911 p. 465, and Maspero in 1915 p. 57. 


"Vague information received by me in Charkhlik in January 1914 pointed to the dis- 
covery by Lop hunters of a site also designated as Merdek-shahr somewhere near the 
lower Tarim since my first visit in 1906. The description given of objects which were 
said to have been brought from there and sold to Mr. Tachibana suggested the 
survival of structural remains. I therefore regretted that want of time before I 
moved into the Lop desert prevented me from making a search for the alleged site." 
A third possibility remains: that the collection of Lop-nor antiquities in Seul was 
brought thither by some other Japanese expedition unknown to me. But especially 
Stein's information makes it most likely that these are the objects acquired by Mr. 
Tachibana from the region of Merdek-shahr. 

Other of the objects depicted in the Korean catalogue must originate from other 
places than "Ordek's necropolis" and not necessarily from the Lop desert. The most 
valuable among them is the pair of shoes on PI. 80. It is a great pity that nothing 
is said about these wonderful shoes. Information about their proper place of origin 
would be most valuable. Their elaborate shape with wide, turned-up, ornamental 
toes is typically Chinese and may be seen on many terra-cotta statuettes of the 
Sui and T'ang dynasties (e. g. Siren, Vol. 3 PI. 35). They were apparently highly 
fashionable during this time. 

Highly interesting as these finds in the Seul Museum are, I must restrict myself 
to these notes until I get access to the original Japanese publications, where I hope 
to find them fully described. 


Grave 5 A. 

5. A: 1. Head-dress of thick white felt, with 

two woollen strings for tying under 
the chin. On the left side a group of five inserted 
pegs, each with a feather tassel at the top. The 
pegs held in position by a transverse peg wound 
round with sinew fibres. In the middle of the rear 
edge a short string is inserted and knotted, H. 2$ 
cm. PI. 10:2. 

5. A: 2. Mantle of coarse, undyed, chiefly yel- 
lowish-white wool, in plain weave. 
Along the lower edge a thin fringe, every three 
pairs of warps gathered in groups and firmly in- 
terlaced to the edge of the fabric and twisted to- 
gether into the fringe, the ends finished with a 

About 10 cm from the fringed side four shoots of 
weft of red wool, inwards from selvages, at one 
edge 17.5 cm, at the other 16 cm. Warp of partly 
yellowish-white, partly greyish-brown yarn, 50 
threads to 10 cm. Weft white, 85 threads to 10 cm; 
double shoots of weft at 5.4 cm. at beginning of 

fabric, 5.2 at end. At the upper edge (= beginning 
of weave) loops of warps are inserted in each 
other. The selvages are strengthened by a thick 
cord edge made of groups of wefts alternately in- 
tertwined. Br. 1.6 cm. Th. 1 cm. L. of winding ia 

Size excl. fringe 2.1x1.55 m . L. of fringe about 
14.6 cm. Dist. between fringe ends 1.2—2.8 cm. 

5. A 13. Loin-cloth, band-shaped, braided of 
same material as — :2, forming a 
fringe at both ends. Among four of the furthest 
strands at one edge of the loin-cloth, two and two 
are twisted into a cord with a knot. Towards the 
middle of the fringes two adjoining links arc tied 
together. Around one of these and several others 
is tied a red woollen thread. L. excl. fringe 85 cm. 
L. of fringe about 44 cm. W. about 5 cm. PI. 11:3. 

5. A: 4. Bracelet of doubled cord of same mat- 

erial as — : 2, held together of a round 
flattened bead of yellowish opal. The ends, with 
tassels, have been knotted together. Full L. 32.7 
cm. L. of cord 27.3 cm. Tassels 8.2 and 9 cm. Th. 
7 mm. PI. 9: 12. 



5. A: 5. Bunch of four wooden arrows. Two 

tufts of feathers fastened to each shaft 
with woollen yarn. Ends bluntly pointed but with- 
out arrow-heads. Tied together in the middle with 
a brown woollen string. L. 72 cm. Pi. 7:13. 

5. A: 6. Small basket, finely plaited. Rounded 

bottom, nearly cylindrical wall widen- 
ing at the top. Decorated with triangles, horizon- 
tal lines and a step-like zig-zag pattern of some- 
what glossy grass laid on top of the ground. Made 
in a close plain twined weave, and having two 
three-strand braids, one near the bottom, the other 
near the mouth. The mouth is covered with a layer 
of white felt kept in place by a double string 
wound round the felt. The handle consists of a 
white woollen string knotted to the edge in two 
places. The middle part of the handle is twisted 
and inserted beneath the strings that keep the lid 
in place. There seems to have been a second handle 
made of a brown string fastened lower down. The 
basket contained a few remains of a dried-up mat- 
erial, which has been analyzed and found to con- 
sist of millet porridge. H. 16 cm. Diam. about 12 
cm. PI. 14 : 5. 

5. A: 7. Two cords of reddish brick-coloured 

wool, with which the mummy's hair 
was tied behind. L. 45.5 and 49 cm. Th. uneven, 
2 — 7 mm. 

5. A : 8. Sample of grains of wheat strewn over 


5. A: 9. Sample of Ephedra twigs strewn over 


5. A: 10. Small dried-up pieces of animal's (?) 

5. A: 11. Seven cut-off tips of calves' cars (?). 

Gr a 

v e 

=; B. 

5. B:i. Portions of loin-cloth with inserted 

fringes along the lower edge. Tapestry 
woven in step pattern in dark reddish-brown wool 
and undyed, light yellowish wool, partly dis- 
coloured to light brown. Warp of same wool. Wool- 
len yarn of fringe, wound firmly and 2-ply in loin- 
cloth, th. about 1 mm. ; wound more loosely and 
4-ply in fringe, th. 3 — 4 mm. Warp: 4 threads to 1 
cm.; weft: about 160 threads to 10 cm. 
Fringe fragmentary, consisting of two untwined 
threads inserted round extreme warp threads of 
lower edge laid together and twisted. L. of longest 
preserved thread of fringe 19.3 cm. W. of loin- 
cloth 6.8—7.6 cm. PI. 13:4. 

5. B:2. Fragm. from mantle of tight rep 

weave of light brown wool, soft and 

fine. In one place about I cm. broad a weft strip 
of brownish red wool of same quality as above, in 
an other place remnants of the same. Warp: 30 
threads to 10 cm. Weft: 165 threads to 10 cm. 

5- B : 3 — 5- Fragm. of wooden arrow-shaft or such- 
like (partly glued together) decorated 
with small incised triangles filled with red colour, 
and arranged in transverse or spiral rows. 

5. B : 6. Small wooden tooth with a flat part 

at one end, which is decorated with 
three transverse rows of incised small triangles. 
Probably from a comb. L. 97 mm. 

5. B: 7. Lower jaw-bone of a vulture. 



5 C. 

Fragm. of a wooden object of same 
kind as 5:119—124. Peg with oval 

section, tapering towards one end, which has a step. 

Wound round with coarse brown string near 

middle part. Present L. 35 cm. 

Grave 5 D. 

5. D : r. Cord of fine, glossy wool in reddish 

cream colour. Folding and loose thread 

of one end preserved, the other end torn off. L. 

00 cm. Th. of cord 9 mm. and of spun thread 2 mm. 

5. D:2. Small basket like No. 5. A: 6, rounded 

bottom. Pattern consists of horizontal 
bands and rhombi arranged in oblique zig-zag rows. 
H. 11 cm. Fig. 14:8. 

5. D: 3. Rear part of arrow-shaft made of reed, 

with remnants of three-winged fea- 
thers. L. 27.5 cm. 

5. D:4 — 5. Two wooden arrow-shafts, each with 
two tufts of feathers. Decorated with 
small incised triangles arranged in transverse and 
longitudinal rows. L. 76 and 75 cm. 

5. D:6 — 7. Two fragm. of wooden arrow-shafts 
decorated with small incised triangles 
arranged in transverse and spiral rows. 

5. D : 8. Wooden pin, gently tapering, with 

thickened cylindrical head cut in one 
piece with it, and decorated with five transverse 
bands, each consisting of two rows of small incised 
triangles. L. 175 mm. 

5. D:9. One half of a wooden object: peg of 
even breadth, a little thicker at the 
ends. One end bluntly pointed. Semicircular sect- 
ion, flat side a little hollowed out. Cf. 5. L:4 and 
others. 92X19 mm. PI. 8:9. 

5. D : 10. Pair of wooden objects made to match : 
two pegs of about semicircular section 





made in the shape of the leg of a cloven-footed 
beast. The flat sides have lain against one another. 
A little below the middle the flat sides have some 
transverse lines, and around them the wood is 
blackened by fire. L. 23.5 cm. widest part 27 cm. 
(Cf. 5- E:5, 5. F:7 and others). PI. 8:3. 

5. D:n. Large feather, thinly wound round 
with reddish wool. Broken. Probably 
from head-dress. L. yj cm. 

5. D:i2. Two bunches of Ephedra twigs, each 
tightly wound round with yellow wool, 
and joined together. The bigger bunch is also 
wound round with some red and dark-brown wool. 
L. 14 and 15 cm. PI. 11:6. 

5. D: 13-14. Two bunches of cut off Ephedra twigs, 
tightly wound round with brown and 
yellow wool. L. 17.5 and 15 cm. 

5. D:iS- Three bunches of Ephedra twigs 
wound round a couple of times with 
yellowish wool. 

Grave 5 E. 

5. E:i. Sample of mantle with fringe. Of 

brownish wool woven in weft rep. 3 
cm. at fringe edge double shoots of weft in more 
open weave. 10.2 cm. inwards from edge of fringe 
and 17 cm. from selvage there are four shoots of 
weft of red wool. 

The fringe is made of wefts gathered in groups, 
tightly twisted together and fastened at the lower 
edge of the fabric. Loops at ends. Th. 3 — 5 mm. 
Dist. between fringe ends 12 — 25 mm. 
Selvage 13 mm. with two warps strengthened by a 
thick cordlike edge made of groups of intertwined 
wefts (cf. 5. A: 2). Th. of cord itself 7 mm. L. of 
winding 8 mm. 

5. E:2. Footwear from mummy. Made of raw- 

hide with the hair remaining, on the 
sole turned outside, otherwise inside. A thick twist- 
ed brown cord, 115 cm. long, runs through a per- 
foration in the front part. On middle of instep 
are remains of small plumage with red wool insert- 
ed through the leather. A scam from opening to 
sole on each side. L. of sole 31 cm. W. 13 cm., 
across heel 9 cm. Cf. No. 36 : 4. 

5. E:3. Wooden arrow-shaft with two tufts 

of feathers. Painted red and decorated 

with transverse rows of small incised triangles. 

Too crooked for effective use. L. 65 cm. PI. 7: 11. 

5. £14. Rear part of arrow-shaft of same kind 

as —.-3. 


5. E:s. Wooden object of same kind as 5. 

D:io. The two halves tied together 

with red wool above the "hoof" (here merely a 
knob). Has been wound round near the top as well. 
Near the middle the flat sides have faintly incised 
transverse lines surrounded by red colour. L. 21.5 
cm. PI. 8:4. 

5. E:6. Three kinds of woollen strings. Red, 

and undyed greyish-yellow. 

Grave 5 F. 

5. F: 1. Small basket, neatly plaited; decorated 
with oblique zig-zag bands, triangles 
and horizontal bands of grass. Besides there arc 
two bands of three-strand braid. Has had a handle 
of brown woollen string inserted through the wall. 
Contained grains of wheat and dried-up millet 
porridge. H. 14.5 cm. Diam. about 11 cm. 

5-F:2 — 3. Two arrow-shafts of tamarisk twigs, 
each with two tufts of feathers. Some- 
what bent. L. yy cm. — :2 PI. 7: 14. 

5-F:4 — 5. Rear parts of two arrow-shafts of 
same kind as — :2. 

5. F:6. Thin tamarisk twig. L. 70 cm. 

5. F: 7. Wooden object representing the leg of 

a hoofed beast; made in two halves to 
match, which are bound with string in two places. 
A small bronze ring fastened in the wool wound 
round near the hoof. Four transverse incisions 
just above the hoof. 25X3.4 em. PI. 8:5. 


a v e 

5 G. 


Small basket, neatly plaited, with the 
usual design of horizontal and zig-zag 

bands laid on top of the ground work of plain 

twined weave. Two bands of three-strand braid. 

Has had a handle of string inserted through the 

wall. H. 13 cm. Diam. about 9 cm. 

5. G:2. Fragm. of basket-work, probably from 

large, shallow tray-basket. Double 
twined open-work. PI. 14:3. 

5-G:3- Long smooth peg in the form of a 
straight serpent with a spool-shaped 
object in its mouth. The back of the serpent is 
covered with small incised rhombi filled with red 
colour, forming zig-zag bands. The flat belly has 
transverse lines, every second one with a row of 
small pointed triangles filled with red. Just behind 
the middle part a drilled hole. L. 69 cm. Diam. 1.1 
cm. L. of object in mouth 15 cm. PI. 7:9 and 
Fig. 14:3. 

5. G:4. Fragm. of wooden arrow-shaft with 
feathers attached to it with red wool. 



a. Fallen baba stone near Ch'ai-o-p'u, 


b. Cemetery 5. Tlie side of the hill is covered with disjointed coffins and fallen 

down posts and "oars". 


PI. X. 

a. Winding bays of Lake Paialiq-kol. 

b, A small branch of the riving Small River near camp R 71, 


and spiral bands of Grave 5 T, 

Decorated with transverse 
small incised triangles. 

5. G: 5-10. Six similar arrow-shafts, probably 
tamarisk wood, each with two tufts of 
feathers. Decorated with transverse bands of small 
incised triangles. L. 72 — 69 cm. — :g PI. 12: 14. 

5. G: 11. The greater part of a wooden arrow- 
shaft of same kind as the preceding 
ones; the feathers missing. 

5. G:i2. Fragm. of arrow-shaft with three 
groups of faint, transverse lines. 

Gr a 

ve 5 H. 

5. H:i. Child's head-dress of dark greyish- 

brown felt. At lower edge is inserted a 
small piece of grey woollen yarn, chin-cord? H. 
about 14 cm. Diam. about 12 cm. PI. 11:5. 

5. H:2. Child's bracelet. Bead of light green 

jade-like stone with brown cord thread- 
ed through the hole. Diam. of bead 13 mm. PI. 

5. H : 3. Small basket, neatly plaited, of the 

common type though the bottom some- 
what flatter than usual. Has had a handle of brown 
string inserted through the wall. H. 10 cm. Diam. 
about 7.5 cm. PI. 14:2. 

Grave 5 I. 

5.1:1. Small plaited basket, the design al- 

most effaced through wear. Near 
the bottom a broad band of three-strand braid, 
and a narrow one round the edge, which is also 
finished with some extra coils. Once covered 
with a white felt lid. Remains of a handle of 
white string. H. 13 cm. Diam. about 13 cm. 

5.1:2. Wooden arrow-shaft with two tufts 

of feathers fastened with red wool. 
Decorated with four groups of transverse lines 
with thin small triangles. Longitudinal bands of 
triangles between the groups. Smoothened point. 
L. 76 cm. 

5.1:3. Fragm. of the rear end of a wooden 

arrow-shaft with a tuft of feathers 
and transverse and longitudinal rows of deeply 
incised triangles forming zig-zag patterns. PI. 

5. 1 : 4. Wooden peg with round section, taper- 

ing towards one end. The other end 
has a step; the thinner part is broken off. L. 31.5 


(What is left of the contents of a plundered coffin 
near grave 5 A). 

5. J: 1. Pointed head-dress of dark brown felt 

with white, elaborate ornamentation 
of horizontal, tightly twisted strings, which have 
been fastened with back-stitches in rows along the 
head-dress in four places; only a quarter remains. 
At the lower edge are four rows of stitches from 
the chin-cord. The lower edge finished with thin 
scallop stitch of similar strings. Top somewhat 
frayed H. about 25 cm. PI. 10:6. 

5. J: 2. Wooden arrow-shaft, crooked, with 

two tufts of feathers. Neatly decorated 
with transverse and longitudinal rows of small in- 
cised triangles, filled with red colour. L. 72 cm. 
Fig. 14: 1. 

5- J ! 3 — 4- Two fragm. of wooden arrow-shafts, 
each with a tuft of feathers and de- 
corated with transverse rows of incised triangles. 

5. J: 5. Wooden arrow-shaft, somewhat crook- 

ed. Has had two tufts of feathers and 
is decorated with two groups of transverse rows 
built up of small incised triangles. L. 67 cm. 

5. J: 6. Fragm. of wooden arrow-shaft with 

transverse and spiral rows of small 
incised triangles. 

Mummy 5 K. 

5. K:l. Head-dress of yellowish-white felt, 
pointed, with four transverse red 
woollen cords and remnants of a split ermine 
skin, fastened with light-red woollen threads in- 
serted in the felt. The head of the ermine hanging 
down in front. Chin-cords of the same wool as the 
felt. Short string of similar wool inserted in the 
middle of the rear edge and knotted together. H. 
about 20 cm. PI. 11:4. 

5. K:2. Necklace of four brown grass-and- 

hemp strings and four dark-red wool- 
len threads laid together and wound with two pale 
red woollen threads, which were probably placed 
at intervals of 12 — 14 mm. In one place a small 
feather tassel fastened with thin sinew-fibre, in 
another place a diminutive grey stone bead. Diam. 
of bead 3 mm. Th. 1 mm. 

Grave 5 L. 

5. L: I. Small flat bead of shell. Diam. 5 mm. 

Cf. No. 5:18. 
5. L:2. Wooden pin, gently tapering, with 

thickened cylindrical head. The head 





is decorated with seven transverse zig-zag bands 
which are formed through small, very pointed, in- 
cised triangles. L. 15.3 cm. Fig. 14:7. 

5. L: 3. Wooden pin of same kind as — : 2 but 

with thicker head, having eleven 
groups of triangle-bands. The pointed end broken 
off. Found sticking in the woollen fabric — :6. 
L. 17.3 cm. 

5. L:4- Wooden object consisting of two 

halves, of the same kind as 5. D: 9 etc. 
When found the now decayed red wool was neat- 
ly wound round a layer of feathers in the sunken 
part of the two halves. One end straight, the other 
blunt-ended. The interior deeply hollowed out; it 
contained a few bones from the head of a large 
lizard. The two halves are of uneven length: 11.5 
and 10.5 cm. Diam. 2.6 cm. PI. 8:6. 

5. L:5. One half of an object identical with 

— :4. The hollowed part is painted 
red. 9X2.7 cm. PI. 8:1. 

5. L:6. Two fragm. of an undyed, pale yel- 

lowish-white woollen mantle in rep 
weave. The warp twisted somewhat harder than 
the weft. Selvage preserved at one part, strength- 
ened by a thick cord. 

5. L:7. Small bundle of reddish-brown wool, 

wound round in two places with the 
same kind of thread, in one of which a small 
feather is inserted. 

Finds mainly from the sur- 
face of Cemetery 5. 

(5: 1—5:44 from the flat eastern end of the hill.) 

5 :I — 2. Two willow-leaf-shaped arrow-heads 
of light-green silex and brown chert. 
Rather blunt-ended, of inferior make. —.2 is 
slightly polished. L. 39 and 41 mm. PI. 12:4 — 5. 

5:3. About half of a leaf-shaped arrow- 

head of green silex. PI. 12:6. 

5:4. Leaf-shaped arrow-head? of polished 

slate. L. 42 mm. Br. 12 mm. PI. 12:3. 

5 : 5- Whetstone of slate, one edge has some 

transverse lines. 97X25 mm. 

5 : 6. Flat bead of green, flamy serpentine. 

Diam. 9 mm. PI. 15:8. 

5^7—15- Nine barrel-shaped beads of striated, 
grey and white opal. L. 12—8 mm. PI. 
15: *6. 





Ninety-six small shell beads, mostly 
with the original string remaining in 
the holes. 

Three thin, flat beads of shell. Diam. 
6 mm. PI. 15:9. 

One hundred and twenty- four small 
beads of shell of same kind as — :2i. 

One hundred and fifty-five small beads 
of shell of same kind as — :2i. 


Eight small beads of shell (a Spondy- 
lus) attached to the original cord. 

Ninty-three small beads of shell. Diam. 
5—2 mm. PI. 15: 15. 

5:22. Small flat, oblong object, slightly 

curved, of light-green dental bone (?). 
The convex surface has ten transverse lines 25X6 
mm. PI. 15:7. 

5:23. Fragm. of corroded, somewhat con- 

cave bronze ring-fitting. 

5 : 24 — 25. Two small bronze fragm., possibly of 
two-winged arrow-points. 

5:26. A few corroded bronze fragm. 

5 : 27. Wooden cup, made in one piece. Near 

the edge there are two pairs of holes 
7 cm. from each other. H. n cm. Diam. 13.5 — 
12.5 cm. PI. 12: 15. 

5:28. Rectangular wooden object, handle ? 

One side convex, the other concave, at 
each end a moulding. 79X18 mm. PI. 9:7. 

5:29. Small wooden object of nearly the 

same shape as — :28. 51X14 mm. 

5:30. Fragm. of round wooden peg with 

four globular mouldings and two 
transverse rows of small triangles filled with red. 
PI. 9 : 8. 

5 = 3* — 39- Nine fragm. of arrow-shafts or pegs 
of wood, decorated with transverse or 
longitudinal rows of small triangles filled with 

5:40. Two-winged arrow-point of bone with 

large barbs and a socket to receive the 
shaft. On each side six incised lines, V-shaped. 
88X18 mm. PI. 12:9. 

5:41. Small bone object of unknown use. A 

straight piece with an oblique project- 
ion. Decorated with four groups of transverse 
lines. A groove follows one edge of the project- 
ion and continues along the shorter part of 
straight member. L. y% m m. PI. 12:11. 

5:42. Bone object of same type as — 141 

but with broken points. PI. 12:10. 

5:43. Fragm. of bone lamella with one flat 

and one convex surface, the latter 


having five V-shaped incisions. 65X13 mm. Pi. 


One end of a thin bone lamella with 
a transverse line. From a bow ? Br. 
27 mm. L. 106 mm. 

(5:45 — 5 : 74 found at the W. 
end of the palisade). 

5 : 45. Wooden arrow-shaft with two tufts 

of feathers and decorated with trans- 
verse and spiral rows of small incised triangles 
filled with red. Rather crooked. L. 70.5 cm. 

5:46. Wooden arrow-shaft, very crooked, 

decorated with four groups of trans- 
verse incisions, each consisting of four rows of 
small triangles with the points turned towards 
each other. The arrangement of these groups 
shows that there have been two tufts of feathers. 
L. 75 cm. Fig. 14:9. 

5 : 47. Wooden arrow-shaft, rear end frag- 

mentary. Decorated with groups of 
transverse and spiral rows of small triangles. L. 
63 cm. 

5:48. Wooden peg representing a serpent 

(cf. 5. G:3) with a spool-shaped ob- 
ject in its mouth. Along the back a double zig- 
zag ribbon, and on the sides two extended zig-zag 
ribbons, all consisting of small incised triangles. 
On the lower side of head and neck there are thin 
incised lines, and along the belly a nearly straight 
band of the same kind as on the sides. 26 cm. 
from the head a small hole through the body. L. 
of peg in mouth 14.2 cm. Tail broken off. Present 
L. 57.8 cm. PI. 7:8 and Fig. 14:4. 

5:49. Long black feather, the shaft wound 

round with red wool, the barbs how- 
ever being left free. A pointed peg or pin is at- 
tached to the lower end. Probably a plume from a 
head-dress. L. 2>7 cm. PI. 9:10. 

S : 50. Wooden peg with round section, one 

end thinner than the other. L. 26.5 cm. 

5:51. Wooden peg with a thinner part, 26 

mm. long, at one end. The other end 
has had a similar thin part. A ribbon or suchlike 
has been wound round it. L. 25.5 cm. 

5 = 52. 

5 : 53- 

Broken peg of same kind as — : 50 and 
51. L. 19 cm. 

Fragm. of wooden arrow-shaft (?) 
decorated with longitudinal rows of 
small incised triangles. 

5 : 54- Portion of tamarisk twig, one end 

charred, decorated with a spiral row 
of small triangles carelessly cut in the bark. L. 19 
cm. PI. 9:4. 

5=55- Cylindrical head of a wooden pin of 

same kind as 5. L:3 and many others. 
Decorated with fourteen transverse rows built up 
of small incised triangles with the points turned 
towards each other and filled with red. The rows 
are so narrow that the effect of the triangles is 
that of a zig-zag band. L. 95 mm. diam. 13 mm. 
PI. 9:5- 

5 : 56. Wooden comb consisting of seven long 

and four short teeth pierced alternate- 
ly through a piece of sinew. Each long tooth has 
a flat head decorated with seven transverse zig- 
zag bands formed through two lines of small in- 
cised triangles, filled with red, and with the points 
turned towards each other. On the back the de- 
coration is inferior and the seven rows are placed 
obliquely. L. 18 cm. W. across sinew 6.5 cm. PI. 

5: 57. Long tooth from a comb of same con- 

struction as — 156, stuck in a piece of 
sinew. Decorated with five transverse rows, each 
consisting of two lines of small incised triangles. 
Along the back are plain, transverse lines. L. 18.8 




Tooth of same kind of comb as — : 57, 
with same decoration. L. 18.2 cm. 

Tooth of same kind of comb as — : 57, 
but less well made. L. 18 cm. 

Tooth of same kind of comb as — : 57, 
with unfinished decoration: the trans- 
verse lines are incised but only two triangles are 
finished. The flat head painted red, as is the case 
with several of the preceding ones. L. 18.5 cm. 

5 : 61 — 66. Six smooth teeth, apparently from a 
comb, the teeth of which were kept to- 
gether by a sinew. There were no long teeth in this 
case. L. 87 mm. Cf. No. 36 : 14. 

5:67. Three small fragm. probably of same 

tooth, which is slightly carved. 

5:68. Bone object, probably used as pin for 

fastening the mantle. A long straight 
tapering; part and perpendicular to it a projection 
near the thicker end. On the long part seven trans- 
verse lines. Model of a hoe or some weapon (Kof) 
L. 127 mm. Br. across projection 35 mm. PI. 12: 16. 


Bone arrow-point, conical, with socket. 
Round the base seven incised lines. L. 
11 cm. Diam. 1 cm. PI. 12:12. 


5'7°- Plaited basket with nearly effaced 

ornaments, apparently oblique zig-zag 
bands. On the upper part crescent-shaped ornaments 
enclose warp-stems in pairs. Fragm. of handle, 
made of twisted yellowish string, fastened to the 
wall with five separate coils at each side. H. 19 
cm. Diam. about 11 cm. 





Piece of white felt, probably the lid of 
— 170. 

Cord of yellowish-white, undyed wool. 
Th. 5—6 mm. 

Small peg with a bushy tuft of feathers 
fastened to it with red wool. Apparent- 
ly a plume from a head-dress. L. 17 cm. 

The greater part of a weasel's skin tied 
to a piece of white felt, apparently from 
a head-dress. 

(5 : 75 — 5 : 93 were found in the 
sand above the coffins E 
and F). 

5:75. Wooden arrow-shaft with two tufts of 

feathers attached to it with red wool. 
Neatly decorated with transverse and spiral rows 
of small incised triangles filled with red. L. 76 cm. 
PI. 7: 12 and 12:8. 

5:76—78. Three wooden arrow-shafts with two 
tufts of feathers and decorated in the 
same fashion as — =75- L. 73.5 and 77.5 cm. 

5:79—80. Two wooden arrow-shafts, crooked, 
and having originally two tufts of 
feathers; decorated in the same fashion as — = 75. 
L. 75 and 78 cm. — :8o Fig. 14:2. 

5 : 81 — 84. Four fragm. of wooden arrow-shafts 

of same kind as the preceding ones, 

though two of them have no triangles, only lines. 

5 : 85. Arrow-shaft of tamarisk wood. Has 

had two tufts of feathers but other- 
wise undecorated. L. 78 cm. 

5 : 86 — 87. One complete and one broken wooden 
arrow-shaft, each decorated with a 
spiral line. L. 67 and 53 cm. 

5:88. Wooden peg of same kind as 5: 50. L. 

198 mm. PI. 9:3. 

5 : 89. Plumage from head-dress. A long black 

feather, thinly wound with red wool, 
and four tufts of short brown feathers each tied to 
a pointed peg. The whole plumage kept together by 
a cross-going peg entirely wound with red wool. 
On one side a piece of a weasel's skin. Longest 
feather 39 cm. PI. 10:8. 





Small peg with a tuft of feathers in the 
upper end. Part of plume of a head- 
dress. L. 22.5 cm. PI. 9:9. 

Peg with feathers, of same kind as 
— :00. 

Peg with a black feather, attached to it 
with red woo!. The upper part broken 
off. From a head-dress. 

Cord of brown wool with a knot at one 
end. Probably handle of a basket. L. 
31.8 cm. Th. about 1 cm. 

Surface finds in general, 
Cemetery 5. 

5:94. Wooden arrow-shaft, rather crooked, 

with one remaining tuft of feathers a 
little above the middle, the upper tuft lost. Decor- 
ated with transverse and spiral rows of small in- 
cised triangles filled with red. L. yy cm. 

5:95-101. Seven fragm. of wooden arrow-shafts, 
some thick and some thin, with por- 
tions of one or two tufts of feathers and decorated 
in the usual way with small triangles. 

5:102-109. Eight fragm. of wooden arrow-shafts 
with the usual ornaments of small tri- 
angles. — : 103 Fig. 14:10. 

5: no. Arrow-shaft of tamarisk wood with a 

spiral line with a few incised triangles, 
all turned in same direction. L. 70 cm. 

5: in. Wooden arrow-shaft with the usual de- 

coration filled with red. Obliquely 
pointed at one end. L. 57 cm. 

5:112. Fine arrow-shaft of tamarisk wood 

with four groups of transverse orna- 
ments, each consisting of five lines with small 
triangles turned in the same direction. L. 78 cm. 
Fig. 14:5. 

5: 113-114. Two rather heavy wooden arrow-shafts 
with a marked groove in the rear end 
to receive the bow string. L. 63.5 and 65.5 cm. 
— : 113 PI. 7: 10. 

5:115. Wooden peg of same type as 5:50, 

thinner at one end, pointed at the other. 
L. 37.5 cm. 

5: 116. Piece of a reed. 

5: 117. Flat wooden peg tapering towards one 

end. 23 cm. from the broad end there is 
a small oval hollow with burnt surface. L. 58.5 cm. 
Br. 3.9— 1.5 cm. PI. 7:1. 

5: r 18. Wooden object of same type as — : 117 

but the narrow part has a more round- 


ed section. One side flat, the other rounded. 24 cm. 
from the broad end there is a shallow, burnt 
cavity. L. 53 cm. Br. 3.8— 1.2 cm. 

5:119. Wooden object of same main type as 

— U17 and — : 118 but more elaborately 
shaped. The broad end has one flat surface with 
two longitudinal grooves and below these a square 
depression. Round the middle a bunch of horse- 
hair is tightly wound with brown strings. The 
pointed end, which has a small step, is bent prob- 
ably unintentionally. L. 63.5 cm. Br. 4 cm. PI. 7:6. 

5 : 120. Wooden object of same type as — : 119. 

The two longitudinal grooves at the 
broader end do not reach to the edge. The rectang- 
ular depression is surrounded by small drilled 
holes. At the step near the pointed end the object 

is wound round with brown wool. L. 59 cm. Br. 
5 cm. PI. 7:2. 

5 : 121. Wooden object of same type as — : 119. 

L. 61 cm. Br. 4.5 cm. PI. 7:4. 

5 : 122. Wooden object of same type as — : 120. 

The two longitudinal grooves do not 
reach to the edge of the broader end. Oval section. 
Blackened by fire in two places. The pointed end 
broken off. L. 40.5 cm. Br. 4.2 cm. PI. 7:3. 

5:123. The broader part of a wooden object 

of same type as the previous ones. 
The two longitudinal grooves are more shallow 
and longer than usual, and the square depression 
below them is absent. The rounded side of the 
broader part has been covered with feathers (now 
nearly all decomposed) kept in place with red 
strings. L. 38 cm. Br. 5.7 cm. PI. 7:7. 

5:124. The broader end of a wooden object 

of the same type as the preceding ones. 
The longitudinal grooves are deeper than usual, 
and immediately behind there are eight transverse 
grooves. Semicircular section. L. 23 cm. Br. 3.8 
cm. PI. 7:5. 

5:125. Two wooden objects, made to match, 

in the shape of a leg of a hoofed 
beast. Cf. 5. D: 10. In the middle of the front part 
a notch is carved across both halves. Near the 
broader end the insides are burnt as if the two 
halves had clasped a glowing metal object or some- 
thing similar. Immediately below this place are 
seven incised lines on each half. L. 25 cm. Br. 2.8 
cm. PI. 8:8. 

5:126. Wooden object in two halves of same 

type as — : 125. L. 27.5 cm. Br. 2.5 cm. 
PI. 8:7. 

5: 127. One half of a wooden object of same 

type as — : 125. L. 28.2 cm. Br. 2.9 cm. 

5:128. Wooden object in two halves, made 

to match, of same type as 5. L:4- 
Roughly made. The flat sides hollowed out. L. 
94 mm. Br. 18 mm. PI. 8:2. 

5:129. One half of wooden object of same 

type as — : 128 but very well made. 
The hollowed out part is painted red. L. 11.1 cm. 
Br. 3 cm. 

5:i3°-i35. Six wooden pins of same type as 
5. D:8. The cylindrical heads decorat- 
ed with transverse rows of small incised triangles 
with red colour still partly preserved. L. 249-179 
mm. — : 131 Fig. 14:6. 

5:136- Small wooden comb consisting of six 

equal teeth fastened side by side in a 
piece of sinew. The upper part of the pegs are 
broader, somewhat flat and decorated with some 
carelessly incised lines. L. 95 mm. Br. 48 mm. PI. 

5: 137. Wooden peg, probably from a comb of 

same type as 5 : 56. The broader, flat 
upper part has five transverse rows of small in- 
cised triangles, the other side has only some 
transverse lines. L. 18.5 cm. 

5: 138. Wooden pin of same kind as — : 130 — 

135. The cylindrical head decorated 
with nine narrow rows of triangles with the points 
turned towards each other and giving the impress- 
ion of a zig-zag band. L. 18.4 cm. PI. 9:2. 

5:139. Small basket of the usual type with 

part of the dark-brown felt lid pre- 
served. Decorated with horizontal ribbons and, 
probably, oblique zig-zag bands. There is also a 
three-strand braid. Has had a handle of brown 
string. H. 12.5 cm. Diam. about 10 cm. PI. 12: 13. 

5 : 140. Basket of the usual type, the upper part 

damaged. Decorated with two hori- 
zontal rows of triangles and oblique bands with 
serrated upper edge, giving the same step-pattern 
that is so common on these baskets. Two broad 
three-strand braids. The handle has been fastened 
to the outside of the wall with some separate coils. 
Present H. 20 cm. Diam. about 16 cm. PI. 13:3. 

5: 141. Basket of the usual type with preserved 

handle of twisted strings firmly wound 
round with woollen string. Handle fastened to 
outside of wall with some separate coils. The pat- 
tern, partly unclear because of wear, consists of 
oblique bands, the upper side of which form steps, 
the under side with distinct points. One three- 
strand braid at the bottom of the basket, one near 
the rim. H. 21 cm. Diam. about 13 cm. PI. 13: 1. 



5:142. Basket of the usual type. The pattern 

is indistinct but has consisted of the 
same elements as on other baskets from here, 
though more varied. The bottom has a broad three- 
strand braid, and on the upper part of the wall 
there are three narrow ones. The handle has been 
made of a string threaded through the wall. H. 16 
cm. Diam. 10 cm. PI. 14: 1. 

5:143. Basket of same kind as — : 142 but 

with only two three-strand braids. H. 
16 cm. Diam. 11 cm. 

5: 144. Small narrow basket of the usual type 

with oblique zig-zag bands and two 
three-strand braids. Handle of brown woollen 
string H. 14 cm. Diam. 6.5 cm. PI. 14:4. 

5: 145. Fragm, of basket of same kind as the 

preceding ones. H. 17 cm. Diam. has 
been about 12 cm. 

5:146. Fragm. of basket of same kind as the 

preceding ones, though larger. The 
handle has been fastened to the wall with separate 
coils. Present H. 29 cm. PI. 13:2. 

5:147. Loin-cloth in plain weave and with 

fringe, of coarse unevenly twisted 
greyish brown wool (camel wool?) Three cross- 
stripes of fine red wool, about 2 cm. wide, made 
in the weft, one in the middle, the others about 
5 — 6 cm. from the ends. 

The fringe partly torn off, consists of extended 
warps at both ends and extended wefts at lower 
edge of loin-cloth. L. excl. fringe 76 cm. W. about 
10.5 cm. The fringe at one end 30 cm., at the other 
rather uneven, longest threads 66 — 70 cm.; the 
fringe of the lower edge 30 cm. long. 

Loin-cloth open, joined only by a double knot 
of the upper selvage's 8 warps, tightly twisted into 
a cord. PI. 11:7. 

5:148. Loin-cloth, band-shaped, torn at both 

ends. Band of fine and even, braided 
wool, violet to brown. Inserted fringe consisting 
alternately of narrower parts of the same yarn 
as "in the band and of wider and broader parts 
of thick wool in light brown. W. of loin-cloth 4 — 5 
cm. L. of preserved part 104 cm. Fringe occupies 
66.5 cm. in the middle. Only two light-brown 
threads of the fringe have their original length, 
about 35 cm. PI. 12:1 (with the extremities ex- 

5:149. Two fringed ends of a band-shaped 

loin-cloth of same braided material as 
— : 148. Each band divided into six smaller braids, 
the threads of which continue in the thick strings 
of undulated wool, forming the ends. Th. of wool- 
len strings at fixtures about 13X8 mm. L. of 

longest strings 48.7 cm. The plaiting-threads of 
the bands and the strands of the fringe all in one 
piece. PI. II : 1. 

5:150. Piece of large mantle of originally 

yellowish-white wool. Woven in weft 
rep. Warp firmly twisted, th. 1 — 1.9 mm. 30 
threads to 10 cm. Weft looser, th. 1 — 2 mm. 130 
threads to 10 cm. Selvage with two warps strength- 
ened by cordlike edge, br. 1.2 cm., made of groups 
of intertwined wefts (Cf. 5. A: 2). Th. of cord 7 
mm. L. of winding 7 mm., weft stripe 2 cm. 
wide = 11 shoots of weft of light wine-coloured 
wool, th. 1.5 — 4 mm., shoot over two and under 
two warps. Pi. 13: 5. 

5:151. Piece of mantle woven in weft rep of 

undyed dark-brown wool (sheep?), in 
warp partly greyish yellow, light brown (camel?). 
Warp firmly twisted, th. about 1.5 mm. 50 threads 
to 10 cm. Weft loosely twisted, th. 1 mm. 250 
threads to 10 cm. Selvage br. 8 mm. at one side, 
with two warps; weft yarn not made in one, ends 
of each shoot held by the next and so on. 

In brown fabric weft stripe, 2 cm. wide — 8 
shoots of weft — of light brick-coloured wool, 
partly faded, th. 4 mm. Shoot of weft over two 
and under two warps. 

5: 152. Pieces of mantle woven in weft rep of 

light yellow-white wool, fine and soft. 
Two incomplete weft stripes, w. 3 cm., on top of 
each other in tapestry weave of reddish brown 
wool, of same quality as the preceding one. Dist. 
bctw. stripes 17.9 cm. 

Warp brownish yellow, firmly twisted, th. 
0.9 — 1.5 mm. 30 threads to 10 cm. Weft looser, 
th. 1 — 1.5 mm. 160 threads to 10 cm. Placing of 
red stripes on garment indefinable. 

5 : '53- Pieces of mantle woven in weft rep of 

undyed light brownish yellow wool, 
fine and soft. Warp tightly twisted, th. 0.9 — 1.5 
mm. 50 threads to 10 cm. Weft slightly twisted, th. 
about 1.8 mm. 120 threads to 10 cm. Selvage on 
two fragm. strengthened by a cordlike edge similar 
to that of 5. A: 2. Th. of cord 6 mm. L. of wind- 
ing 4 mm. 

5:154. Plume from a head-dress, consisting 

of five pointed pegs each with a tuft 
of feathers attached to it with yellow wool. The 
different plumes are kept apart by a transverse 
peg bound to them with yellow wool. L. about 21 
cm. PI. 10:5. 

5:155-156. Two feathered pegs, plumes from 
head-dresses. L. 23 and 20 cm. 

5:157. Large head-dress of dark, greyish- 

brown felt. Five pegs stuck through 


the felt near the edge, forming a group; their 
plumes are worn away. Below the pegs are rem- 
nant stitches of a cord. At the lower edge a 
chin-cord is fastened with three stitches, the cord 
being made of the same wool as the felt. H. about 
28 cm. PI. 10:9. 

5:158. Semicircular head-dress of dark grey- 

ish-brown felt with two red 4-ply 
strings round it. Small fragm. of a weasel skin 
fastened with red wool, inserted in the felt and 
wound round the skin. Remaining stitches at op- 
posite parts of lower edge from chin-cords. Short 
string of same wool inserted at the middle of the 
rear edge and knotted. H. about 24 cm. PI. 10:7. 

5: 159. Pointed head-dress of dark brown felt 

with elaborate cord ornamentation in 
dark red wool. A remaining feather peg is wound 
round with red wool all over. The top open, 
damaged. The lower part has been finished with 
scallop stitching in dark-purple yarn. The chin-cord 
has been made of similar yarn. II. about 27 cm. 
PI. 10:3. 

5 : 160. Small pointed head-dress of dark- 

brown felt with elaborate string orna- 
mentation of red, 3-ply wool. Remnants of split 
weasel skin fastened with red woollen yarn in- 
serted in the felt and knotted round the skin. The 
head-dress has one peg which has carried a plume. 
The lower edge is fragmentary and finished with 
scallop stitching in red. At the lower edge three 
rows of stitches for the chin-cord, which is miss- 
ing. H. about 28 cm. PI. 10:1. 

5:161. Head-dress of dark-brown felt with 

elaborate string ornamentation of 
light reddish-yellow wool. Remnants of a split 
weasel skin fastened with the same kind of strings. 
The lower edge finished with thin scallop stitching 
of similar yellow wool. II. about 24 cm. PI. 10:4. 

5: 162. Piece of dark-brown felt used as bask- 

et lid (Diam. about 10 cm.) fastened 
with brown woollen string, wound three times 
round the lid. 

5: 163-168. Six different strings or cords, partly 
with knots. — : 166 of wool and plant- 
fibres, the rest of wool. 

5:169. Piece of dark green chert (or jade) 

with two surfaces polished. 

5:170. Bunch of sinew-fibres tightly bound 

together with light red, light green 
and beige wool. L. 10.5 cm. 

5:171. Bunch of Ephedra twigs, grass and 

feathers, bound together with coarse 
twisted strings of one red and one dark-brown 
thread. L. 17 cm. Cf. 5. D:i3 — 14. 

5:172. Thin bunch of stiff grass bound to- 

gether with dark brown strings. L. 38 
cm. PI. 9: 13. 

5: 173. Small bunch of stiff grass joined to a 

similar smaller bunch, both bound 

together with grass or vegetable fibre. L. 16 cm. 

5: 174. Long black feather, wound round with 

yellow wool. Broken in two. Original 
L. about 50 cm. 

5:175-178. Fragm. of four pegs and feathers 
bound together with wool. 

5:179. Cord composed of brownish purple 

wool, fine and even, the core consisting 
of five threads, torn off at the ends, and tightly 
wound round with untwisted yarn. Probably handle 
of basket or suchlike. Compl. L. 13.5 cm. 

5:180. Cord composed of nine greyish hemp 

(?) strings of different length, torn at 
the ends, the longest about 51 cm. Towards the 
middle tightly wound with brownish red wool. 
Probably the handle of a basket. 

5:181. Woollen cord consisting of five 

strands, of which four are pale rose- 
coloured and two brown. In two places the cord 
is wound with dark brown wool. Compl. L. 45 cm. 
Th. 7 — 9 mm. 

5:182. Two ends of coarse, dark-brown wool, 

of goat's hair? Th. 3—5. 


Ordek also mentioned a burial place situated about 30 li to the east of Cemetery 
5. We never made any attempt to find it, as we could not venture too far into the 
sand desert away from the water with our poor beasts of burden in such a swelter- 
ingly hot season. 

1 The description of this watch-tower ought to have been included in the chapter about the ruins, but as the 
ancient remains along The Small River have been treated in the order in which they were discovered I have 
found it convenient to retain it here. 


-r - ■ ^ _ 

- # * * * f( Tsfnjrtsk mounds, AW>» i 

& •■ 

'"Sand dunes 
Dead tret 

• Young ts/nsr/sAs 




J H 

X . . . X X L XX . L _ . XL 


L L L . 

X L . L T "x 

L L L L ■ ■ ■ ■ L - 

:.-^; : ; ■ 

■.-. - lll.l _ l' ■ ■ — 


.:::' " 





V x'x^x" .L 

:: : ■ 

L L ' ' ' ' 

:::■:■: ;::::':■ 

L L L L X L LL ' 
X-X^-xT^x" L _ 



. ^ ~: ^ 

. i 
*- * 
%e- ** 

, ,- 

•e B jj-.- 

Instead we turned to the south in search of 
a ruined watch-tower of which Ordek spoke. 
He also mentioned another tower, said to be 
situated 20 li to the north-west of Cemetery 5. 
If we reckon the ordinary li as between 4- and 
500 m. this would take us very near The Small 
River and Lake Pataliq-kol, traversed by it. Or- 
der's li, however, were more elastic than any 
other Turk's I have met. The limits between 
which his li used to fluctuate, during the short 
period I had occasion to control it, were 100 m. 
and 1000 m. 

The first mentioned watch-tower was easily 
found nearly 18 km. SSW of Cemetery 5, and 
situated among sand dunes, 6 — 7 m. high, to 
the west of The Small River. The tower is built 
of stamped clay. The continual erosion by wind 
has worn away the sides considerably, and the 
shape is now conical, PI. XIV a. It rises about 
7 m. above the ground, the base was probably 
square originally; it measures 16 X 19 m. It is 
surrounded by a low square enclosure, partly 
sand covered. Especially on this low mound- 
shaped wall, but also on the ground, I found 
many potsherds of large, red vessels, the major- 
ity being plain. The profile of one of them is 
shown on Fig. 35:2. Besides the red ware 
there is also blue-grey, grey, and yellowish, all 
hard-burnt, recalling the ware known from 
Lou-Ian. Some fragments are shown on PI. 18:4, 5, 8, 9. Various iron fragments 
and two arrow-points were also found, both of the points being triangular with tang, 
PI. 18:3. A Chinese copper coin without legend, PI. 18:6, seems to be a degene- 
rated Wu-ch'u, a late Han or post- Han issue. A rather large dark blue grinding 
stone (mealing-stone) must have been transported to this stoneless place from far 
away. On nearly all exposed clay surfaces between the sand dunes in the neighbour- 
hood of the ruin I saw red pottery fragments, pieces of rusty iron and slag. 

The situation of this watch station makes it highly probable that it served either 
as an out-look for the Merdek fort or as a station along a road following The 
Small River from Charkhliq or Miran up to Qum-darya and the Silk Road, the 
latter in all probability having followed the main river. 

L ' 



. - ::: -- ■■ — 

L L . 

- * " x- \ ' -V 

- ; x - \ - 


L b L . X L L L L . - ' , « 


L L 

: h ;■;>■;: : : 

• • • • :_":""„: 


'.:-:-■•■■ ■■■•■- ; ' ■ - 

Fig. 18. The middle part of The Small River, 
with archaeological remains. 


This watch-tower was the southernmost point from which I saw The Small River. 
Its winding, narrow course disappeared in a south-south-easterly direction, being 
surrounded by small lakes, swampy reeds and meadows with seemingly good graz- 
ing. About 20 li further down The Small River was said to form two lakes, a 
Baghrash-kol, and a Kok-toghraq, and after a distance of two days' travel on horse- 
back the river should terminate. Nobody could give any definite information as to 
the position of the terminus of the river, but if the information obtained was cor- 
rect, and I have no reason to doubt it, the river would reach very near to Qara- 
qoshun. When I asked my men if it reached Shirge-chapghan they answered 'Yes', 
but at other times it was stated to turn eastwards. Niaz bai, a Turk from 
Charkhliq, who had his summer abode with his sheep not far from the watch- 
tower, called The Small River Qum-darya, i. e. the same name as that of the mother 
river. Higher up I heard one mention the name Yangi-darya, but also this is applied 
to the main river. The dwindling course of one of its branches is seen on PI. X b. 

When Stein, about New Year 1906* — 07, marched from Lou-Ian in a south- 
westerly direction to reach the course from north to south of lower Tarim he came 
upon rows of dead trees, which very likely mark the course of my Small River at 
a more southerly point than that from which I saw it. I take the liberty of quoting 
some passages from Stein (1921, p. 452) : 

"There (at camp 130) I came upon the first rows of dead Toghraks since Camp 

127 stretching in well-defined lines from north to south. the 

wild poplars of the Tarim Basin show an invariable tendency to grow in lines paral- 
lel to the nearest open water-courses or the channels of subsoil drainage which 
continue them. Here the dead Toghraks, many of them of large size, all lay prost- 
rate on the ground, and though their bleached and withered trunks and main 
branches still showed clearly recognizable features, I could see that they must have 
been dead far longer than those, for instance, which had grown up and died at 
the Niya Site since it was abandoned about the fourth century A. D. The position of 
this Toghrak grove, probably marking an ancient channel of the Tarim, was not 
more than sixteen miles in a straight line from the present bed of the Ilek branch." 


9: 1. Handle of large earthenware jug; with 

projecting rim. Brick-red ware in- 
termixed with coarse-grained sand. PI. 18:4. 

9 : 2. Stout handle from earthenware vessel, 

blue-grey ware intermixed with coarse- 
grained sand. 

9:3. Potsherd with a horizontal lug. Rather 

thin red ware, brown inside. 

9:4. High neck of an earthenware vase of 

light-grey, hard-burnt ware. H. about 
19 cm. Diam. of mouth 12 cm. PI. 18:5. 

9 ! 5-6. 


Two potsherds from the rim of two 
vessels. Dark bluish-grey ware. 

Potsherd from rim of large, bulky 
vessel of light-red ware intermixed 
with much sand. Fig. 35 : 2. 


9:8. Three joined potsherds from a large 

vessel of rather thin, yellowish ware, 
red inside, and decorated with a coarse pattern 
incised with a double- or triple-pointed instrument. 
PL 18:8. 

9:9. Potsherd, probably from the same 

vessel as — : 8. 

9: 10. Potsherd from a largish vessel, decor- 

ated with a hatched border incised 
with a sharp instrument and surrounded by two 
rows of small impressions. The ware is yellowish 
on the outside and red on the inside. PI. 18:9. 

9: 11-14. 


9: 16. 


Four small potsherds of light-grey and 
blue-grey ware. 

Small Chinese copper coin without 
legend, apparently a degenerated Wu- 
ch'u. Diam. 17 mm. PI. 18:6. 

Triangular iron arrow-head, very rusty. 
L. 63 mm. 

Triangular iron arrow-head, more 
slender than — : 16. L. 71 mm. PI. 


,: ■ 

From the ruined watch-tower we turned northwards again. A march of 1 1 km., 
as the crow flies took us to the small cemetery No. 7 situated to the west of The 
Small River among sand dunes here and there interrupted by a few mounds with 
dead tamarisks. From here Burial place 5 lies 7.5 km. to the north-east, and Burial 
place 6 is situated only 1800 m. to the north-east. Cf. Fig. 18. 

It contains the remains of three, probably four graves lying on and around a flat 
hillock with dead tamarisks. 


Grave 7 A. 

The best preserved grave was 7 A, though already in a much disturbed condition 
when we arrived. The coffin was made of half a hollowed-out trunk, Fig. 19. 
One end was closed but had an opening at the centre, which had been shut by means 
of a semicircular board placed inside the wall. The other end was open and ended 
in a blunt point; it had two deeply sawn grooves to receive the ends of a semi- 
circular board. These two end-boards are seen at the lower part of Fig. 19. Two 
long boards had formed the lid, which had apparently been lined with thin felt. On 
top of the lid there had been a layer of brushwood held together by twisted ropes of 


Fig. 19. Coffin of Grave 7 A. 


the same material. Among this brushwood we found the skull of a sheep. In the 
bottom of the coffin four stout legs were inserted, giving it a curious appearance, 
but in this way the coffin was made to stand firm. The inside of it measured well 
2 m. in length. 

A pole nearly 2 m. long probably stood as a funeral mark or monument on the 

The corpse was now lying outside its proper resting place, PI. XI a. This must 
be the work of plunderers, probably Ordek. It was the most marvellously preserved 
mummy I ever saw in the Lop desert, and therefore did not seem to have been ex- 
posed very long to the destructive elements of the atmosphere. It was that of an 
elderly, stately gentleman with a small white beard, a thin moustache and white 
hair. The face was long and narrow with a very firm, broad, square chin, big, well- 
preserved teeth, and a high nose. The nostrils were shut with a pair of "stoppers" 
of wool wound with red silk, Pi. 25:9 — 10. These were probably placed there to 
prevent effusion. 1 

The parched skin of the mummy was of uniform, yellow-brown colour resembling 
very dark sunburn, and preserved all over the body, PI. XI b. 

The feet were enclosed in low boots of red leather and of the same cut as those 
from Cemetery 5 and Grave 36. 

Only some rags remained of the dress, a long gown of thin, undyed silk in plain 
weave, which had an edging of strawberry-coloured silk, 5 — 6 cm. wide. Since the 
dressing remains this silk stuff gives the impression of being some kind of gauze. 
There are some fragments of a belt made of the same material as the gown; on PL 
XI b it is seen knotted round the waist. The strip 7. A: 4 is of cotton material, i. e. 
probably of Indian origin. Tied on to it is a narrow strip of red silk, figured in batik 
with small lozenges. This technique is originally Indian. (Cf. Stein 1928, Ast. VI. 

The most interesting part of the dress is the collar, sewn together from seven 
pieces of four different kinds of polychrome silks with bold designs and wonder- 
fully bright colours, PL 18: 1. I do not intend to anticipate Miss Sylwan's treat- 
ment of this highly suggestive and important piece of textile work, which, for the 
discussion of the relation between East and West in the textile art is of outstanding 
significance. For the description I refer to the list below, written by Miss Sylwan. 
From a study of the weaving technique she has discovered the remarkable circum- 
stance that the patches a and d (Fig. 20) are of Western, but the pieces e and / of 
Chinese manufacture (/ is a loose piece not marked on Fig. 20). Stylistically the 

1 The closing of all apertures of the corpse by inserting specially formed jade objects, a custom developed 
in China during the Han dynasty, jade being used on account of the belief in its ability to preserve flesh from 
decay and thus immortalize the body, may be a symbolic development of an originally hygienic procedure. This 
custom of closing the apertures with some kind of substance has been, and still is, practised among several 


Fig. 20. Outline of the collar 7. A : 6. 

winged quadruped dominating the bold pat- 
tern in piece a belongs to the monster world 
of the Near Eastern art sphere. From com- 
bining the three pieces of a the pattern has 
been slightly enlarged, but not sufficiently 
to show the complete pattern. 
One of the Chinese pieces, e, carries a line of an interwoven character, Ch'ang 

(Glorious, Prosperous). The red pieces c and d are too worn to allow of a proper 

examination of the pattern. 

This one collar is a strong manifestation of the mixed cultural relations prevail- 
ing in the Lou-Ian kingdom, and so typical of its status. It is the first article com- 
posed of silk both from the East and from the West that has come to my knowledge. 

In the third century A. D. a flourishing textile industry developed in Persia, the 

factories obtaining not only fabrics but also raw silk from China (Rebel, p. '55). 

Whether our Western silk pieces belong to this period or not remains an open 

When examining the mummy I got a strong impression of standing face to face 
with a non-Chinese and non-Mongolian type, and as a matter of fact I was think- 
ing the whole time of an Indian. I cannot be too positive on the last point, but the 
photo PI. XI b certainly confirms my first observation. 

Grave 7 B. 

The coffin in grave 7 B on the eastern rim of the same hillock was half destroy- 
ed and covered with dune sand. Like the coffin 7 A just described the lid had also 
had a cover of brushwood. It contained a skeleton, the skull of which has been 
subjected to anthropometric examination by Professor Gaston Backman to whose 
forthcoming report I must refer. The coffin was situated roughly NW-SE, the 
head being placed NW. 

The nostrils were shut with "stoppers" wound with red silk, PI. 25 : 7—8, just as 
was the case in grave 7 A. Of the dress very little remained: fragments of white 
felt from the coat, edged with red-patterned silk (of Western origin, too worn to 
allow any description of the design), grey woollen material from the trousers, a 
cornet-shaped piece of dark-red silk found near the head, and some other frag- 
ments of silk fabrics. 

Grave 7 C. 

Immediately to the east of grave 7 A there was a dismembered coffin of the same 
construction as in Fig. 26, to be described presently. It was 2.25 m. long, the end 
boards measured 40X26 cm., and the corner posts were 50X14X13 cm. One of the 



boards had been mended, two pieces being tied together with ropes. It was placed in 
S 70°W — N 70°E, and near it were lying a few human bones. Otherwise it did 
not yield any objects. A narrow pole, nearly 2 m. long, had probably been erected 
as a monument (cf. 7 A). 

On the top of the hillock I saw the two shorter ends of a coffin of the same type 
as the one just mentioned (= Fig. 26), but I could not make out if they belonged 
to 7 B or to a fourth coffin. 

Poles on top of mound. 

At the top of the mound there were also 
some low poles, much worn by the weather, 
standing in an irregular circle, see plan Fig. 
21. When digging in the sand filling this 
"enclosure" the neck of an earthenware pot 
came to light, Fig. 35 : 9. Probably these poles 
were erected as some sort of grave monu- 
ments as a very poor imitation of the impos- 
ing monuments on Cemetery 5. The irregu- 
lar shape, and in fact the whole arrangement 
hardly favour the assumption that these re- 
mains are those of a hut. 


Fig. 21. Plan of erected posts at Burial place 7. 


Grave 7 A. 

7. A: 1. Seven large fragm. from a gown of 
loosely woven silk, undyed, discoloured 
to brown, in plain weave, with remaining dressing 
(glue from silk worm?). One fairly large piece 
has fragm. from back and front with seam; a 
gusset is inserted in the lower part of the gown. 
Here is a patch of loosely woven silk in plain 
weave, undyed, slippery. It is uncertain whether 
the coat has been lined with this silk. 

Strips of strawberry-coloured silk taffeta, 5 — 6 
cm. wide, are sewn on to the edges of several 
fragm. of silk from the gown. One piece shows 
red silk strip with a pleat round the corner. 

The seams of the gown are made of rather 
coarse, undyed (?) silk. 

7. A -.2-3. Portions of waist-band, sewn together 
with the same undyed silks as in the 

7. A 14. Strip of undyed, yellowish-white cot- 

ton fabric in plain weave, partly dis- 

coloured to brown. Cut somewhat on the bias right 
across width. In one half two shoots, each consist- 
ing of two blue cotton threads. Around the strip 
is tied another strip of red silk taffeta, figured in 
batik with small lozenges. 

7. A 15. Strip of same kind as — 14 but not 

tied. L. 72.5 cm. 

7. A: 6. Collar of the gown, sewn together of 
several pieces of silk of four or five 
patterns. At one end is a strip of the same silk as 
the undyed one from gown. At the other end a 
strip of undyed cotton fabric in plain weave, 
meant for tying. The collar has been folded. Silks 
a and b have probably been on the outside, cf. 
Fig. 20. 

a) Figured weft-rib, figure warp 2-ply. Ground 
deep blue. Pattern red, beige, bluish green, 
white and blue from ground, incomplete horned 
quadruped with straight upright wings, lion's 
tail with check pattern and indistinct orna- 
mental shapes. Western origin. 




b) Figured weft-rib, 2-pIy. Figure warp. Ground 
beige-yellow. Pattern red and white, indistinct. 

c) Figured weft-rib, 2-ply, figure warp. Weft 
twisted or untwisted. Ground beige. Pattern 
red, indistinct. 

d) Figured weft-rib, 2-ply, figure warp. Ground 
beige. Pattern red, indistinct. Western origin. 

e) Patterned warp-rib, selvage. Ground grey ; pat- 
tern red, bluish green, black, indistinct. One 
Chinese character interwoven. 

f) Small separate strip. Figure warp-rib, selvage. 
Ground deep blue. Pattern white, red, bluish 
green. Chinese origin. 

PL 18: 1. 

7. A : 7-8. Two stoppers, which were inserted in 
the mummy's nostrils. Made of felt 
wound round with red silk. L. about 5 cm. PI. 
25 : 9—10. 


7. B : 1. 

7 B. 

Fragments of white felt from coat, 
slightly rugged, edged with strip of 
figured silk, weft-rib, red and grey. Folded edg- 
ing around corners. Shape and pattern indistinct. 

7. B:2. Fragm. of greyish yellow woollen 

fabric in plain weave, from trousers. 

7. B:3. Strip, composed of two pieces of red 

silk taffeta sewn together, with two 
strips of undyed silk taffeta attached. 

7. B:4- Piece of undyed slippery silk, in plain 

weave, of a kind often used as lining. 
(Cf. 7- A: 1). 

7. B : 5. Piece of dark-red, loosely woven silk 

in plain weave, sewn together in corn- 
et shape. Was lying near corpse's head. H. 18.5 
cm. W. about 10 cm. 

7. B : 6. Human hair, dark brown and grey, 
partly tied with red silk taffeta, sewn 
together with undyed silk taffeta, the latter wider 
towards the free end. 

7. B : 7-8. Two small stoppers from corpse's 
nostrils. Wound round with red silk 
in plain weave and undyed thread. L. about 3 cm. 
PL 25: 7—8. 

7. B : 9. String of hemp or grass, tied in a loop. 

Find during excavation among 
poles erected on burial place 7. 

7. C: 1. Two joined potsherds from rim of 

small jug. Marked rim and short neck. 

Light reddish-yellow ware intermixed with finely 

grained sand. Diam. of mouth 12 cm. Fig. 35:9. 


This burial place is also situated on the western side of The Small River, only 
1800 m. from Burial place No. 7, and 6 km. SW of No. 5. It is surrounded by sand 
and dry tamarisk mounds in a landscape of the utmost barrenness, PI. XII a. I first 
came across this site on my way to Burial place 5 when I brought away some of the 
contents of Grave 6 A, but only after having completed the examination of the other 
graves in the region did I undertake the principal survey. 

Grave 6 A. 

The richest grave, 6 A, lies between 6 B and 6 C. The coffin was exposed in the 
sand, and was made of half a hollowed out poplar trunk, 2.1X0.65 m., with nearly 
oval end-boards and a lid of one or two long boards that had been covered with 
brushwood. On PI. XII b a part of the emptied coffin is seen on the extreme left. 
The situation of the coffin was S8o°W— N 8o°E, the head being placed in the 
eastern end. 

The corpse was that of a woman, as seen from the dress and the accessories. The 
skull has been handed over to Prof. Backman for examination. Very little remained 
of the corpse save the skeleton. 


!red CZmilpaLlemea HDbon MM .ic«r G223qr«rt 

Fig. 22. The cape 6. A : I. 


She was most elegantly dressed in silk from top to toe. The most complicated 
and puzzling part of the garment is a sort of cape, now in three pieces, one back 
part and two front parts. These were apparently joined on the shoulders but open 
at the sides, and in front, Fig. 22. The front parts reached the wrists, and during 
the examination of the coffin I therefore believed the lower edges of the front 
parts of the cape to be sleeves. Both back and front parts have a broad border of 
lozenges of sewn-on silks in green, red, violet and brown colours. A ribbon in coarse 
warp-rib runs along the upper side of this border; on PI. 16: 5 is seen a detail of its 
pattern. The ground-pattern of the ribbon is built up of checks with the same con- 
formation as the five on a die. After every third of these "fives" follows a figure 
of varying shape. One of them reminds one of two combs opposed to each other, 
another is slightly reminiscent of the outline of a bronze ornament among the Or- 
dos bronzes such as Arne 1933 PL VII: 10 — 12. 

The front parts of the cape have each two pointed lappets, which apparently 
hung down on each side of the opening in front when the cape was worn open. 
These elements are quite strange, as one would expect them to be placed horizont- 
ally and not vertically. When the front parts of the cape were tied together the right 
part totally covered the left one. There is a ribbon on the left shoulder for fasten- 
ing the cape, and when so worn the lappets of the left side were visible in the 
opening for the right arm. 

The prune-coloured borders of the edges near the arms end in points, too, but less 
pronounced than in the case of the lappets. 

The upper part (when worn) of this cape is much damaged as seen in Fig. 22, 
and the joining between the three parts is therefore somewhat hypothetical. As no 
traces of any head-gear were found it is not absolutely out of the question that the 
cape was large enough to cover the head too as some sort of hood. Even if we lack 



**d pto-rt ta*i5JfCd,poii€rAedE^3pou^p^cd r^bon IE2-3 g*"cfin i jtifldytC 

~* * 

Fig. 23. The shirt 6. A: 2 (dotted lines = invisible edges). 

exact parallels to such an arrangement certain Central Asiatic tribes of our day use 
women's head-dresses of very voluminous shape which may afford at least some 
points of general resemblance. But this conjecture is very uncertain. 

Below the cape the buried lady wore a shirt with bodice of undyed silk taffeta 
with very long sleeves completely covering the hands, Fig. 23. The lower part of 
the sleeves is adorned with a thin red silk damask in plain weave and twill, with a 
pattern of rows of zig-zag lines attached to ribs between which are both diamonds 
and human figures of a highly geometrized shape, PI. 16:9, (this photograph was 
taken with translucent light). The pattern has a general likeness to Han dynasty 
tiles with simple geometric ornaments and with Han silks in general. Below this part 
the sleeves have an edging of plain green silk. 

The ornamentation of the front part of the bodice consists of a red silk strip runn- 
ing round the neck and along the opening in front. This strip is followed by a silk 
ribbon in warp-rib weave, 4 cm. wide, with three similar parallel borders in differ- 
ent shades of buff, each having a lion in a field with reversed colours. The outer 
border of this ribbon shows distinctly, because the colours are here red and white, 
PI. 16: 1. The shape of the lions is not very naturalistic and not so well executed 
as those on the lion border on a shoe among Stein's finds (Stein 1928, PL XLII, 
L. H. 04). The right part of the front apparently overlapped the left part, as the 
latter has a shorter "lion-ribbon" than the former. 

In a loose ribbon at the right hip were tied a pair of iron scissors, or more cor- 
rectly shears as it is made in one piece, PI. 16:2. The description of a pair of 
scissors found in the Astana cemetery nearly corresponds to ours (Stein 1928, p. 
685, Ast. i. 8.05). A pair of T'ang silver shears in the Asiatic Collections in Berlin 
also shows the same construction with the limbs crossed over from side to side form-. 
ing a loop (Kummel, PL 95); another T'ang specimen is depicted in Katori PL 
94: 5. This figure-of-eight shape is unknown on European shears; their handles or 
springs are always open. Our Lop-nor specimen does not correspond absolutely 
with the T'ang shears referred to and is not necessarily of the same age as these. 



j I 

oiel Pfr-S'-l 


brown oh 

jndjed aeam 

Fig. 24. The skirt 6. A 13, spread out. 

The skirt reached the ankles, being approximately I m. long, and was originally 
quite wide, consisting of at least nine panels. Before being placed in the grave it 
was cut open, and in Fig. 24 is seen a drawing of the unfolded garment. The 
lower part has a border, 12 — 14 cm. wide, made up of horizontal strips of green, 
red, brown and violet silks. Above this border there is a zone of elegantly arranged 
frills between vertical passe-poils. When worn, the outline of the skirt must have had 
something in common with those cornet-shaped skirts widening downwards which 
are depicted on the Han clay statuettes (for instance Siren, Vol. 2 PL 76) and the 
painted tomb tiles from Lo-yang in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 

The legs of the trousers measure also about 1 m. in length. They are made with 
wide legs which are gathered and close- 
fitting round the ankles, Fig. 25. The trou- 
sers on a small terra-cotta figurine from 
Khotan seem to be of the same style (Mon- 
tell 193s, PL IX: 7). 

There are also fragments from the 
sleeves of an under-garment, but the rest 
of it consists of undefinable fragments. 
The same kind of undyed plain weave silk 
is used in all the wearing apparels. 

So far, this is the only more or less com- 
plete lady's dress from the time of Lou- 
Ian not only in Eastern Turkistan but in 

Fig. 25. Silk trousers 6. A : 4. 


the whole of China. It is therefore scarcely surprising that it remains quite uni- 
que as to style and cut. 

Miss Sylwan has reconstructed the whole garment, and without the aid of her 
deep knowledge and understanding of textile matters I should never have been 
able to clear up the different fragmentary elements of this puzzling dress and com- 
bine them to form something like a complete garment. What has come out of it is 
therefore totally due to Miss Sylwan's untiring labour. She has tentatively charac- 
terized it as of non-Chinese style though the fabric it is sewn of is of Chinese origin. 

None of the plentiful Chinese grave sculptures of clay or the larger stone 
sculptures show any dresses cut to the same model as ours, and a search for an 
Indian parallel is equally unsuccessful. Some general resemblances are of course to 
be found, both with Chinese and Indian-influenced and Iranian specimens. Let us 
hope that Miss Sylwan will be able to determine the homeland of this type of 
dress in her coming investigation of the silk materials from Lop-nor and Edsen- 
gol, collected by me during Sven Hedin's expeditions. 

A round pouch or small bag of undyed silk taffeta, PI. 16:4, was carried at the 
right side of the waist. The loose bands seen on the plate, besides serving as an 
attachment, were also decorative, as they are tied in artful knots. The red ribbon 
encircling the pouch had gold ornaments glued on to it. 

Near the waist the rusty iron mirror PI. 16:6 was found, with its cover of red 
silk bordered by a beige-coloured ribbon with a pattern of squares, and once carry- 
ing a row of small attached gold spots. * 

This technique of glueing small pieces of hammered gold on to soft material is, 
according to Miss Sylwan, probably Chinese. 

A small embossed bronze plate, PI. 17:3, certainly adorned the garment too. 
Stein found identical gilded plates near Lou-Ian (Stein 1928, PI. XXVI, L. C. 

The wooden spindle-whorl still sticking on its peg, which has a small perforation 
near the upper end, also belongs to the outfit of this lady, PI. 16: 8. 

Round the neck she wore a simple necklace of strings with a few small white beads 
of stone or shell, and some of gilt glass in the front. Unfortunately this necklace 
was lost in the transit from the cemetery to the camp and could not be recovered. 
From Cemetery 5, however, we have a somewhat similar one (5. K:2). The 
white beads were of the type shown on PI. 15: 15 and the glass beads of an oblong 
shape. The latter are no doubt of Western origin. Similar ones have been found in 
the Lou-Ian station. 

Among the remains of the garment was found the doll's dress PI. 17: 1, 2, 
4» 5* consisting of a coat, two shirts and a pair of shorts. There was, however, 
no doll. In spite of this it is highly probable that the doll's garment was 
placed in the grave as an expression of the same belief that caused the felt doll to be 
placed in Grave 10 and the rag doll in Grave 36 (cf. pp. 56 and 137). 


The silk bag PL 16: 7, found near the shears, is of Chinese make, as are all the 
textiles in this grave. The colours are now pale, on a brown ground the elegant floral 
design is executed in blue and light green(?). The outlines are very delicate, and 
the pattern covers the whole surface. A line of a Chinese character runs through 
the flower scrolls along the length of the bag; it is hard to discern with certainty 
but it is probably meant to be a nien (year) cf. Stein's L. C. II. 03. 



Fig. 26. Coffin 6 B. From above, one extremity and one 
side. In the top picture the lid is removed. 

Grave 6 B. 

Only 3 m. to the north of Grave 6 A, and parallel to it, lies Grave 6 B. The 
coffin was dismembered but could easily be rebuilt, PI. XII b. The construction of 
this type is the most elaborate among those used in the Lop-nor region. As seen 
from the drawing Fig. 26 it is built of 
four square corner posts in which the ©" 

broad boards forming the sides and the 
ends are inserted with tenons, which 
have been kept steady by two dowels 
through each one. The board forming 
the bottom rests on a special cross- 
bar between the corner posts. The 
ideal reconstruction Fig. 27 is to show 
how the different members were joined. 
The lid is made of two long boards 

joined to each other with small dowels. No marks could be seen show- 
ing, how the lid was fixed to the coffin. The big heap of brushwood on the right 
side in PI. XII b was no doubt placed on top of the lid, and the whole thing was 
probably tied to the coffin with ropes. 

The corner posts form real legs reaching 19 cm. below the bottom, thus giving the 
coffin the appearance of a bedstead. For comparison with the size of the identical, 
though less well-preserved, coffin from Burial place 7 (p. 104)1 give the measure- 
ments here. Length of side boards 173 cm., size of end boards 44X34 cm., size of 
corner posts 55X1 1X9 cm. 

On Burial place 4 I saw some small fragments of this type of coffin, and Stein 
found it in at least one of this cemeteries (L. H. Stein 1928, Fig. 169). 

The coffin was lined with white felt, partly sticking to the boards. Of the skele- 
ton only fragments remained, beside parts of the dress of the corpse: fragments of 
a silk coat and trousers, and a coat of cotton fabric. The latter may possibly have 
been the lining of the silk coat. The piece of a coarse mantle woven in four-leafed 
twill of hair, and having broad browns stripes, PI. 27: n, was probably some kind of 
matting or blanket. Both technique and material are different from those of the 
mantles from Cemetery 5. 



Two silk ribbons were also found, 
one of which probably with the 
same lion pattern as PI. 16: i 
though now indistinct, the other 
with a red and white chess-board 
pattern, PL 18:2, both woven in 

A trifling piece of patterned 
polychrome silk, No. 6. B : 7, has 
an interwoven Chinese character. 

The fragmentary embossed 
bronze plate PL 15: 1 was, certain- 
ly, originally affixed to some soft 
material, probably the garment. 
A bone handle with a remaining part of an iron knife, PL 16: 3, and a wooden 
arrow-shaft, PL 18: II, were also found inside the coffin, the latter indicating the 
male sex of the corpse. From the size of the coat one infers that he was rather 
heavily built. The arrow-shaft has a marked notch for the bow-string, and in the 
front end the tang of an iron arrow-point is still sticking. 

A small bundle of dark brown hair might be an offering, as in many other Lop- 
nor graves (cf. Grave 36, etc.). 

Fig. 27. Ideal corner construction of a coffin of the type Fig. 26. 
A) corner post, B) support of bottom, C) bottom, D) side board, 

E) end-board, F) lid. 

Grave 6 C. 

io m. SSW of coffin 6 A there was a third coffin, situated in S 70 W— N 70°E, 
a half hollowed-out trunk that was split and worn by weather. It measured 2.15 
m. in length. As in the other two coffins the head was lying in the eastern end, and 
the coffin was lined with felt. Only parts of the skeleton and of the garment re- 
mained. The latter in certain features reminds one of the dress in Grave 6 A, for 
instance a lower edge of a skirt (?) with nearly the same arrangement of differ- 
ent-coloured stripes as the big skirt Fig. 24, and in addition, vertical pleats after 
the same model as that represented on a most beautiful tomb statuette of immedi- 
ate post-Han date in the Eumorfopoulos collection (Siren 1930, PL in). It had 
some small traces of beaten gold on it, which had apparently been glued on to the 
silk. The painted spots on the garment of the clay statuette referred to above are 
possibly meant to represent such applied ornaments of metal. 

A sleeve, 6. C:4, is 40 — 45 cm. wide. 

Besides the textile fragments no funeral deposit was discovered. 




a. Grave 7 V 

b. The mummy in Grave 7 A. 


*mrafr ^^ 


i£ - -■ ■ *-- 



> 1* 


, v 

**■ #* 


<-;— vr 

r* — 

a- The surroundings of Burial place 6. 









.' ^ 

* * 


b. The coffin 6 B. The brushwood to the right has been placed on top of the fid. To the left the 

opened coffin 6 A. 

A fourth grave 5 m. NE of 6 B had been totally destroyed by the action of 
weather, except some pieces of human bones lying at the side of a bunch of brush- 

All the three coffins were almost completely exposed, and it could not be ascer- 
tained whether they had been buried in pits in the ground or covered by some super- 
structures. It is not likely that the coffin type Fig. 26 was dug down in the 
ground , it more probably stood in some kind of hut. Stein found some evidence of 
such burials (Stein 1928, L. H.). 

Enclosure near grave 6 B. 

About 20 m. to the north of Grave 6 
enclosure, 6 x 7.5 m., lying in the same di 
marked by pieces of logs about 0.6 m. in 
fallen down. 

Digging inside this enclosure we came 
wooden cups of a roughly semi-globular 
coarsely made and of the same type as PI. 
was of the opinion that I was dealing with 
been a grave where everything interred 

B there were traces of a rectangular 
rection as the coffins. The "walls" were 
length and lying in a row as if they had 

across four more or less fragmentary 

shape and with a ring handle. They are 

19: 5 — 6, though smaller. At that time I 

a small dwelling, but it may as well have 

save the cups had been destroyed. 


Grave 6 A. 

6. A: I. Cape of silk, fragmentary. Three 

pieces preserved: back and two front 
parts. Final shape somewhat unsure. The plain 
part of the cape is of undyed taffeta. On 
both lateral edges of the back and on the edges 
of the front part towards the back there are broad 
bands of prune-coloured taffeta, forming points 
downwards. At the lower edge of the back a broad 
straight lozenge border of taffeta in various col- 
ours. From left: bluish-green, deep red, green, 
prune, natural, yellowish-red (discoloured), green 
and brown. The lozenges arc separated by a nar- 
row edging of brown rep. The border is edged at 
the bottom with similar brown rep. Between the 
lozenge border and the undyed silk of the cape 
there runs a band in coarse warp-rib weave. This 
band has red edges and in the middle is a buff 
and faded green pattern, consisting of repeated 
fields of checks alternating with ornamental fig- 

ures of various shapes, one in each interspace (de- 
tail PL 16:5). 

The front parts of the cape terminate at the 
bottom in a border of the same kind as the back. 
The finish towards the front of the border of both 
parts is frayed, indefinite. The woven silk band 
on the left side runs 5 cm. outside the border, on 
the other side both band and border arc cut off. 
Towards each side of the front, corresponding to 
the prune-coloured bands, arc two hanging pointed 
lappets, each edged on the one side with green, on 
the other side with red taffeta. Cf. Fig. 22. 

In the back part the full width of the fabric is 

about 47 cm. 

6. A: 2. Shirt of silk, consisting of back, two 

front pieces and long sleeves. Bodice 
of undyed, yellowish taffeta, ornamented with red 
taffeta and woven red and white borders. The up- 
per part of the sleeves is of the same undyed silk 
as in the bodice, the lower part being of red 


damask. At the wrist a band of plain rep in pis- 
tachio green. The garment has a waist band 
fastened at the side seams. Large parts are miss- 
ing, but reconstruction is possible, Fig. 23. 

The ornamentation of the front pieces continues 
round the neck towards the front, with red silk 
strip, about 4 cm. wide, and a silk ribbon in warp- 
rib weave, 4 cm. wide, with three similar parallel 
borders of different colours, each with a stylized 
lion in a field in reversed colours, PI. 16 : 1. The 
pattern of the outer border, alternating in red and 
white, quite distinct, the others are indefinite. 
This band is missing on the left lower front piece, 
the right one having been laid over the left. 

The red silk, forming the lower part of the 
sleeves, is of damask in plain weave and twill, 
biased and composed of several pieces. The pattern 
consists of rows of zig-zag lines of various kinds 
attached to ribs, between which are partly dia- 
monds, partly human shapes. PI. 16:9. 

At the lower part of the bodice is a waistband, 
sewn on with undyed silk, to hold the dress to- 
gether. In the right-hand seam are similarly applied 
ribbons of the same silk as in the bodice, with 
loops in one of which the pair of scissors — : 12 
was suspended. 

All the seams arc turned towards the back or 
inside. Fig. 23. 

6. A: 3. Skirt of silk, undyed and resembling 
taffeta, composed of biased panels, one 
of which is much broader than the others and 
gathered at the bottom, with a border in various 
colours. At one side the skirt was cut between 
two panels before burial. Nine panels are now 
distinguishable, although some remnants suggest 
the possibility of even more. Of these nine, three 
are well preserved. Five panels form one part, 
four another. The top of the skirt had been 
gathered; the waistband is missing. The panels 
are sewn together with plain seams as far as to 
about 22 cm. from the bottom of the skirt, then 
tightly gathered about 10 cm. Then conies the 
border hanging like a frill. The panel seams are 
covered from the bottom up to as far as about 
half the height with edgings of coloured silk of 
plain weave. From the right: red, red, red, prune, 
red, prune, red, prune, red; the last scam is with- 
out edgings, the first width being only a small 

The border is made separately and lined with 
the same undyed silk as in the skirt, and sewn 
on to its lower edge. It is composed of double 
strips of silk taffeta turned downwards and sewn 
together successively at the lower edge with silk 
of the same colour as the strip. The colours of the 
strips from the bottom upwards, and with disting- 

uishable measurements: undyed silk 37 mm., green 
(partly discoloured), red, undyed, dun fawn and 
prune, each about 8 mm., with red strip about 45 
mm. on top. Fig. 24. 

6. A: 3a. Fragm. of waistband (?) sewn to- 
gether, of undyed silk. 

6. A 14. Silk trousers, undyed taffeta, full 

width of fabric 47 cm. Two widths are 
used for each leg; the scams at the sides. The 
front part is missing. In the hind part a piece 
from the fork is preserved. At the top is a double 
edge in which is inserted a folded silk strip, 6 cm 
wide, for fastening the trousers round the waist. 
Trousers gathered at ankles and edged with double 
silk strip. Seams sewn with undyed silk. Fig. 25. 

6. A:5a-b. Two sleeves, fragmentary, from under- 
garment, of undyed silk taffeta, sewn 
with the full width of the fabric, about 47 
cm. Cut in rounded shape. The scams turned in, 
sewn with undyed silk. 

6. A: 6. Piece of undyed silk taffeta, full 
width of fabric 46.5 cm. 

6. A:7a-b. Ribbon and strips of undyed, plain 
silk weave. 

6. A:8a-c. Silk ribbons, folded, plain weave. 

6. A:9a-b. Several fragm. of undyed, brown and 
red silk taffeta of various qualities. 

6. A: 9 c. Several fragm. of undyed, loosely 
woven cotton fabric in plain weave, 
partly white, partly discoloured to brown. 

6. A: 10. Pouch of rather coarse silk taffeta. 
undyed, yellowish. Sewn out of one 
straight piece gathered at both ends. At one of 
these ends are two ribbons, with knots, loops and 
ends running through the gathering; two ribbons 
arc sewn on at each- side of pouch opening, with 
the ends torn off. The ribbons are sewn with the 
edges folded in and then turned. Round the middle 
of the pouch is sewn a folded strip of red taffeta 
with remains of imprints of hammered gold. 
Reddish brown untwined silk has been used. The 
pouch is lined with undyed, loosely woven silk 
in plain weave, poor quality. Diam. about 7.5 cm. 
PI. 16:4. 

6. A: 11. Bag of figured silk, warp-rib. Ground 
prune-coloured. The pattern is com- 
posed of fine light-green floral scrolls. This col- 
our is also used for outlining buds and flowers 
of blue. One Chinese character woven in. Very 
frayed, the silk discoloured. Small remnants of 
lining of undyed (?) taffeta at one edge. 15.7X8.3 
cm. PI. 16:7. 


6. A: 12. Iron shears. The limbs cross each 
other just above the blades, the spring 
thus forming a loop. Rusted. Point of one blade 
missing. The cutting edges have been 3.5 cm. long. 
L. 9.6 cm. PI. 16:2. 

6. A: 13. Iron mirror, circular with central 
knob on back. Very rusty. Diam. 8.5 
cm. PI. 16:6. 

6. A: 14. Roundel of red taffeta covering back 
of mirror — : 13. Lined and edged 
with buff damask in plain weave and twill, figur- 
ed in checks. Along the edge of the damask and 
next to the red silk arc remains of hammered gold 
plate and marks of paste, showing that the gold 
lay like small roundels along the edge. Between 
the red silk and the damask a layer of thin, white 
felt. The edging sewn on with red silk. Diam. 
about 8 cm. PI. 16:6 (before removal from mir- 

6. A 115. Small embossed bronze plate, circular 
with two perforations at the edge for 
fastening to a garment or suchlike. Diam. 13 mm. 
PI- 17:3. 

6. A: 16. Wooden spindle whorl on a peg, 26 
cm. long, with a small suspension hole 
at the upper end. The whorl is nearly hemispheri- 
cal. Diam. 3.9 cm. PI. 16:8. 

6. A: 17. Doll's shirt of undyed taffeta with 
shaped bodice. No seams at the should- 
ers, a cut opening and a slit for the neck, also for 
the sleeves. The seams turned in, sewn with fine 
silk of the same colour as the garment. Marks of 
stitches along all open edges. L. 12.5 cm. PI. 17:4. 

6. A: 18. Doll's jacket of same silk as — 117, 
with shaped bodice. The lower part 
missing. Sleeves of kimono shape, sewn on with- 
out hem at the wrists. One sleeve torn off. All 
seams turned in, sewn with fine untwined silk in 
the garment's colour. L. of compl. sleeve 4.7 cm. 
PI. 17: x. 

6. A : 19. Doll's trousers of undyed silk rep 
somewhat coarser than — 117 — 18. 
Each leg made of folded piece with selvage at the 
bottom, and the seams turned in towards the middle 
and the fork. Sewn with silk. L. of legs about 5.5 
cm. PI. 17:2. 

6. A:20. Doll's coat of same silk as shirt and 
jacket. The front open; the upper part 
is of kimono shape with sleeves sewn on. The left 
sleeve missing. The lower part, sewn on around 
the waist, has inserted gores, slightly broadened 
towards the bottom. Round the neck a strip of red 
silk rep, 1.2 cm. wide, is sewn on. At the lower part 
of the coat, from the bodice to the bottom edge, 

folded strips of yellowish-brown taffeta, about 1.8 
cm. wide, are sewn on. L. of coat with collar, along 
the middle of the back 14.5 cm. W. of shoulders 
10.5 cm. PI. 17:5. 

Grave 6 B. 

6. B: r. Back of a man's coat of silk taffeta, 

discoloured to brown, probably undyed, 
partly fragmentary. Shaped around the waist and 
with two gores in the side seam under the right 
sleeve. A portion of the sleeve remaining. The up- 
per part has an open slit on the right side edged 
with brown silk taffeta. On the left side a small 
fragm. of brown silk. Fastened to the neck is a 
fragm. of the collar, consisting of a strip of un- 
dyed taffeta, edged with a narrower strip of brown 

6. B:2. Back of a coat of cotton fabric in 

plain weave, partly fragmentary. The 
shape is rather similar to — : 1. Brown remnants 
of silk taffeta at neck, slit and lower edge. Gore 
at right arm. Slit indistinct. The fabric partly in 
good condition, white. 

6. B : 3. Portion of trousers of undyed silk taf- 

feta. Two pieces with a seam in the 
middle, and part of the fork sewn on to them. 

6. B : 4. Several remnants of undyed silk taf- 


6. B ; 5. Silk ribbon, figured warp-rib, divided 
lengthwise into three; the middle part 
has had a red and white pattern, probably the same 
lion-pattern as on the ribbon on the shirt 6. A: 2 
(Cf. PI. 16: 1). Preserved L. 32 cm. W. 3.4 cm. 

6. B : 6. Silk ribbon, figured warp-rib, with 

checks in red and white. 11.5X2.3 cm. 
PI. 18:2. 

6. B : 7. Two small pieces of figured silk, warp- 
rib in blue, buff and red (?) In the 
close, indefinable pattern a Chinese character. 
They have been sewn on to undyed silk. 

6. B : 8. Fragm. of thick mantle or blanket of 
light brown and somewhat mixed 
brown coarse animal's hair of the same quality. 
Woven in 4-leafed twill over two and under two 
warps. Warp: invisible mixed brown yarn, th. 2 
mm; about 40 threads to 10 cm. Weft: th. 2 — 3 
mm; 70 threads to 10 cm. Selvage at one side, 1.5 
cm. wide with five warp-threads over which the 
wefts are laid in loops. 

Dark-brown stripes, 2.5 — 3.2 cm wide, arranged 
in pairs. The broader light space between the 
striped parts is 2.4 — 9.2 cm; the narrower light 
space within each part respectively 2.5 and 3.7 cm. 
PI. 27:11. 






6. B : 9- Fragm. of embossed bronze plate : two 

petals of a rosette with raised border 
and a raised inner line, denoting a second layer of 
petals? Dress ornament. PI. 15:1. 

6. B : 10. Fragm. of iron knife with bone handle, 
made of a rib. The handle 96X16 mm. 
PL 16:3. 

6. 8: IX. Arrow of light wood, of nearly uni- 
form thickness. Deep notch at the base 
to receive bow-string. The top splintered, contain- 
ing the remains of the iron tang of the arrow- 
point. L. 56 cm. PI. 18: 11. 

6. B:i2. Oblong wooden object. At each end 
a broader and flatter part. Narrow 
and high in the middle. Much weathered. L. about 
40 cm. 

6. 8:13. Bunch of dark-brown human hair. 

Grave 6 C. 

6. C:i. Lower edge of a skirt (?) similar to 
6. A: 3, of undyed silk-rep with frill 
of silk taffeta, consisting of a part, 6 cm. wide, 
with vertical pleats. Below this are five strips, 
8 — 9 mm. wide, of silks in the following colours: 
natural, prune, natural, brown and red. At the 
bottom a band of undyed silk taffeta, 5 cm. wide. 
Small remnants of hammered gold here and there 
on the garment 

6. C:2. Fragm. of skirt lining (?) of coarse 

fabric in tabby weave, probably of 
hemp. At the top a folded edge gathered with 
rough thread of hemp or grass. 

6. C:3. Fragm. of silk taffeta, white, with 
marks of stains from red fabric. One 

6. C:4* Sleeve, very wide, of undyed silk taf- 

feta with adjoining piece of the bodice. 
The sleeve is composed of several different pieces 
joined together, fragmentary. Full w. of fabric 
46 cm. 

6. C:5-6. Two strips of red silk taffeta. 

6. C:7- Various remnants of undyed silk taf- 
feta, partly with adjoining red silk. 

6. C:8. Small piece of cotton fabric in tabby 


6. O9. Small piece of woollen fabric in plain 


6. C:io. Ribbon of brownish red silk taffeta. 

6. C:xi. Three fragm. of brown silk taffeta. 

Hut (?) near to the N of grave 6 B. 

6. D:i. Semicircular wooden cup or dipper 

with remains of a ring-shaped handle. 
Coarsely made out of one piece. The bottom some- 
what flattened. Diam. about 8 cm. H. 5 cm. 

6. D:2-3. Two wooden cups of the same kind 
as — : 1 but more damaged. Diam. 
about 8 and 8.5 cm. 

6. D:4- One half of a wooden cup of the same 
kind as — : 1 — 3. Diam. about 9.5 cm. 
H. about 5 cm. 


On the western side of The Small River 8 km. WNW from Burial place 5 and 
7 km. NNW of Burial place 6 there is a totally destroyed burial place that I have 
called No. 4 because it was really found previous to No. 5, though it is better 
mentioned here, after the smaller cemeteries 6 and 7. 

Surrounded by tamarisk cones with dead vegetation were four or six destroyed 

coffins lying on the ground. The wood was much weathered and the boards had 

dried into curious rolls. Both hollowed-out trunks and the type Fig. 26 had been 

used as coffins. Only few traces of human bones were to be seen. 

I collected some pieces of yellow silk and a coarser fabric, and some dark-brown 
human hair. 

To judge from the type of the coffins this burial place was of the same kind as 
No. 6 and 7. 






Bunch of coarse black-brown human 

Several very frayed fragm. of fine red 
woollen fabric in tabby weave. 

Pieces of silk, packed together, origin- 
ally yellow. Blood-stained? 

4:4. Two fragm. of cotton fabric, original- 

ly white, discoloured to fawn, each 
sewn together with a ribbon of silk, also discol- 
oured. Both cotton and silk in plain weave. 16.7X 
10.6 and 7.2X1.9 cm. 


Piece of silk, originally yellow, now 


These three minor burial places along The Small River — where future explor- 
ations will certainly reveal still more — differ sharply from Cemetery 5. 

There are several types of coffins, but none similar to those in No. 5. The minor 
places lack impressive wooden monuments, and the whole grave deposit, both 
shrouds and accessories, are distinctly unlike what was met with at No. 5. Very 
little is of local make, all the silk and cotton fabrics, for instance, being importa- 
tions from China and India respectively. For some of the silks of which the collar 
7. A : 6 is composed we have to assume a Bactrian or Iranian origin. 

It is not impossible that at least some of those buried in this way were real 
Indians. But whether Indians or not, they were no doubt of a social standing far 
above that of the autochthons buried in Cemetery 5. This distinction in social status 
does not exclude a chronological difference. 

Like much else of the Lop-nor material the dating of these graves is attended with 
considerable difficulty. The close resemblance to some of Stein's Chinese graves 
nearer to the Lou-Ian station makes it highly probable that the same chronological 
limits are valid, i. e. approx. 100 B. C. and approx. 330 A. D. 

The Small River with its narrow channel, which nevertheless furnished the 
whole water supply for those living in this part of the Lop desert, must be very sen- 
sitive to fluctuations in the water amount of its mother river, Qum-darya. It is not 
out of the question that The Small River dried up completely before Qum-darya 
became quite dry, and if so the region around The Small River became un- 
inhabitable earlier than approx. 330 A. D. 

The map Fig. 18 gives an idea of the general situation of the burial places in 
the region of The Small River. None of them is placed immediately next to the 
river-bed but some distance away from it. Cemetery 5 lies isolated, which stresses 
its difference from the small cemeteries. 

If the burial sites were thus placed some way off from the river the dwellings of 
the living must have been situated near the water. But of these no structural 
remains were found. 



In the introduction to the section dealing with the ancient remains along The 

Small River I have referred to the beginning of Dr. Hedin's journey in native 

canoes from Konche along the Konche-darya. He continued along the whole 

course of the new river Qum-darya. The beginning of May 1934 saw him and his 

party in the jagged delta of Qum-darya, where he discovered and examined some 

ancient graves containing articles of considerable importance to the student of 

archaeology and ethnology. The outer setting and the events of these excavations 

are described in Dr. Hedin's personal narrative "Den vandrande sjon" pp. 102— 
117, (German edition "Der wandernde See" pp. 90 — 103.). 

A. MASS-GRAVE 1 (NO. 34). 

On May 6th, 1934, Sven Hedin's men found a tomb on a mighty mesa or eroded 
ridge of clay in the middle of the delta near its northern edge. The mesa was 25 
m. high, the tomb being situated 17.5 m. above water level. It was found to be a 
collective grave consisting of a rather shallow rectangular pit located NE— SW as 
were also the extension of the mesa, with roofing of wooden boards, and a couple 
of standing poles marking its edge. 

Fifteen human skulls and some other human bones were lying in a jumble with 
rags of various fabrics, wooden objects of many kinds, and so forth. There were 
no complete skeletons or mummies. Judging from the number of skulls the extant 
bones were only about one fifth of what they ought to have been. 

The pit did not contain any coffins. What Hedin calls a much decayed canoe 
found in the pit is, however, probably the remains of a coffin. 

Three of the skulls and the lower jaw of a fourth were brought away; they have 
been handed over to Prof. Gaston Backman for examination, to whose forth- 
coming report I refer. 

All the funeral deposit, save some, badly decayed or fragmentary bowls, was 
taken away. Cf. PL XIII a. 

Here follows a brief survey of the objects; for a more detailed description I refer 
to the list on pp. 128 et seq. 


The two pottery jars PL 21 : 2—3 are of typical Han shape, and the light grey 
ware is also typical of the Han period. The higher one very much resembles a speci- 
men from Charchan, PL 35 : 3. 

The wooden vessels are in the majority. Of the cups or dippers shown in PL 19: 4 
— 6 there are seven pieces counting the fragments. They have a plain ring-handle. 


The same type recurs among Stein's finds (Stein 1928, PI. XXIX, L. H. 01) as 
well as Huang's from Lop-nor (Huang 1933, I, Fig. 28); our 6. D: 1— 4 also 
belong to this group. The smaller specimens may have been used as drinking ves- 
sels, whereas the larger ones may have served as scoops or the like. Most of them 
show traces of having been in use for a considerable time. 

The fragmentary beaker PI. 19: 7 is of rather plain make, and is reminiscent of 
Stein 1928, PI. XXVII, L. M. I. 035. 

A cup-like vessel of squat shape and of more refined workmanship is shown in 
PL 21 : 4; it is three-legged and painted in black, red and yellow. The edge is repair- 
ed in two places with small bronze rivets, now much corroded. The ring-shaped 
handle with a flat piece on top goes back to a Hellenistic-Iranian type which came 
into vogue in China especially during the T'ang dynasty. When placed in the tomb 
this vessel contained some kind of liquid (food?) of which there are still some 
dried-up remains. 

A round shallow bowl PI. 19:8 shows traces of having been lacquered, its rim 
having possibly been covered with some other material, maybe silver. This vessel, 
too, has been repaired in ancient time, rather clumsily, with two iron plates. 

There are also two fragments of another round lacquered vessel. 

The small oval box PI. 20: 6 is very fragmentary, but it has once been a nicely 
lacquered double-bottomed case for the preservation of a lady's toilet or fancy ar- 
ticles. One part is divided into three partitions. A symmetrical ornament of thin 
bronze has been fastened to the outside of the cover. Stein had found two oval 
cases in the graves L. C and L. H. (Stein 1928, PI. XXIX) but they are larger and 
did not furnish any guidance for the reconstruction of the fragments described 
above. The only exact parallels known to me have been excavated from Chinese 
Han dynasty tombs in S. Manchuria and Korea, i. e. Nan-shan-li and Lo-lang, 1 
(Shimada 1933, PI. XXXII and Hamada 1934, PI. LXII). These finds originate 
from the later Han dynasty, and the last mentioned tomb from the latter part of 
this period. The bronze ornament on our oval box, Fig. 28 c, does not correspond so 
closely to those on the similar boxes just mentioned and here reproduced as Fig. 
29 b-c, as with the bronze fittings on a rectangular box and on the famous painted 
basket, Fig. 28 a-b. Our ornament is an intermediate type between those mentioned. 
When used on round or square articles this ornament takes the shape of a symmet- 
ric quatrefoil, as Fig. 29 a from Wang Hsu's tomb at Lo-lang, and as such it often 
occurs as a central decoration on Han dynasty mirrors, on round lacquer vessels, 

1 Lo-lang or Lak-lang was a military colony in Korea founded by the Emperor Wu in 108 B. C. It re- 
mained the centre of Chinese authority throughout the Han dynasty. Japanese archaeologists have, with most 
praiseworthy care, excavated a number of the Chinese tombs at Lo-lang, and their labour has been rewarded 
with wonderful objects of art and handicraft. These have beea published in a model way. The lacquered ves- 
sels found in the tombs here bear dates covering the period between 85 B. C. and 52 A. D.; these pieces were 
made in the western part of Szuch'iian not far from Chengtu. Lo-lang is another example of Wu's active fron- 
tier policy as manifested in the north-cast and a striking parallel to his activities in the north-west. 



/" ? ^S ^r^ 

Fig. 28. Bronze mountings, a) from the painted basket, 
b) from Nan-shan-li, c) our No. 34 : 3. Size 1/3. 

and so on. From the Noyan-ola tombs there are at 
least two specimens of quatrefoil ornaments, one 
of lacquered leather, the other of wood (Ausstell. 
chin. Kunst Berlin 1929, Nos. 1256 — 7)); they 
were probably some kind of attachments. 

The lacquered articles from the Lop desert, as well as those found at Noyan-ola 
and in Korea, have been manufactured in China proper. 

A coiled basket, PL 21: 1, has also served as a receptacle, and is most likely of 
local make, though of quite another technique than that manifested in the finely 
woven grass baskets so common in the autochthon graves. It is interesting to note 
that none of the latter kind was found in the mass-grave. 

Fig. 29. a) rosette from 
a Lo-lang box. b) bronze 
mounting from a box 
from Nan-shan-li c) from 
the tomb with the painted 
basket. 2/3. 

Trays etc. 

On the photo PI. XIII a not less than six wooden trays of rectangular shape and 
with four short legs can be discerned. In the collection there are only three speci- 
mens, besides two loose legs from another two. Some of these objects got lost during 
the transport from the site to the main camp. Only the specimen shown in PI. 
19: 3 has all the four legs preserved in place, but they are also better secured than 
the rest. On the bottom there is a carving at one end like a roughly shaped heart. 

The legs on PI. 19: 2 are straight and plain, those on PI. 19: 1 are thinner in the 
middle, and PI. 20:5, all that is left of another tray, is carved after a con- 
ventional lion-leg pattern with an originally Western (Iranian?) prototype. 

This kind of wooden trays or miniature tables is quite a common outfit in Chinese 
tombs, especially of the Han dynasty and the period immediately following this. 
Thus Stein found many of them around Lou-Ian and at Ying-p'an, both rectang- 
ular, oval and circular. 

In Korea, Japanese archaeologists have unearthed marvellously lacquered tables 
and trays of this type (Hamada, PI. LXVIII— LXX; Oba and Kayamoto, PL 
XLII — XLIII). In the C. T. Loo collection there is another lacquered one, ascribed 


to the Han dynasty. From South Manchuria we know of a clay tray with holes in 
the corners, apparently to receive short legs (Mori, PI. XXXI), and in the same 
tomb the fresco paintings on a wall show a kneeling man in front of whom a cy- 
lindrical vessel with a ladle is standing on a low table or tray of the type in question, 
showing that they were used in the burial ceremonies among the Chinese. A sacri- 
ficial table of pottery depicted by Laufer (1909, PI. XXIV) also points in this di- 


A parallel from a region west of Lop-nor is furnished by a bronze table from 
near Verni (Alma-ata) along the road from there to Kulja in the Hi valley (Tall- 
gren 1937 a, Fig. 3) "probably a case of a sacral object used for religious rites, as 
a stand or altar for holy vessels, idols or sacrifices". It is rather large, 1.25 x 1.12 
m., and on the edge are standing thirty winged quadrupeds, probably lions, sculp- 
tured in the round. In the same paper Tallcren also deals with stone sacrificial 
"vessels" or altars (Fig. 4—16) from the latter half of the last millenium B.C. from 
the region between the Ural mountains and the Volga, belonging to a Scytho-Sar- 
matian civilization, and all originating from graves. I do not believe that the Chinese 
wooden tables or trays must necessarily have been developed out of these stone al- 
tars; the comparison, however, is interesting. 

As far as I am aware, the Chinese trays are mostly known from grave finds. That 
the Lop-nor specimens were used also by the living is evident from the many knife- 
cuts on both sides of them. I find it less likely that these knife-marks should originate 
from the cutting up of some sacrificed animal at the burial ceremony. Stein also 
found a specimen in a ruin (Stein 1928, L.MJ.i.017). One of his wooden trays has 
originally been coated with some kind of polish ; it is possible that some of the Lop- 
nor trays have been lacquered, as were those found in Korea. 

The oval board PI. 32:4 has possibly been suspended horizontally in leather 
strings, and if so the picture shows the lower side. The other side is much worn. 


Two bows were found in this mass-grave. The one shown in PI. 32: 1 is nearly 
complete, and made of a single branch of tamarisk wood, i. e. it is a self bow. The 
original length was about 112 cm. This first bow is of little interest when compared 
with the second one, a compound bow, which, unfortunately, is now in a very bad 
state of preservation, but nevertheless the most complete specimen from Chinese 
Turkistan. 1 

1 From the Tibetan fortress of Mazar-tagh at Khotan-darya Stein has three end-pieces of composite bows 
all of the same shape (Stein 1921, PI. LI, and 1928, PI. VI). During the Sino-Swedish Expedition the Chinese 
archaeologist Huang Wen-pi found two pairs of bone-tips from a compound bow near Yar-khoto west of 
Turfan (Huang 1933, Vol. II, PI. 2) their length being 20.1, 19.6, 19.8 and 19.1 cm. The unequal length may be 
due to their being in a fragmentary state. According to Mr. Huang (who by the way regards them as weaving 
tools!) they date from the Former Han dynasty. This dating is based only on the construction of the tomb from 
where they originate. Any European archaeologist would prefer to place them somewhat later and regard them 
as Avarian. 




wmm *ood ^ 


\— — 

_l bone 

■ horn 


iiJ tendon 
_i sinew-fiber 

When excavated, this bow was complete, and it 
is seen thus on the lower right-hand part of PL 
XIII a. During the transport from the site to the 
main camp some 140 km. higher up the Qum- 
darya it became dismembered on account of in- 
adequate packing material, and several parts got 
lost. On different occasions subsequently these 
grave finds were unpacked and repacked, and 
each time the bow fragments were probably never 
taken due care of, as they looked rather poor and 
insignificant. Therefore only about one fourth of 
the bow remains. It is the more regrettable that it 
was so spoilt and broken before anybody could 
describe it, as its inner structure must have been 
very particular to allow of such a pronounced 
cupid's bow shape. 

The best preserved part is one car (A) PI. 
18: 10 and Fig. 30, with the members still ad- 
hering to each other. The core consists of two 
wooden slips, on the belly there is a wedge-shaped 
member of horn, each side is provided with a 
slightly curved bone reinforcement, and the neck 
has a cover of tendon that partly envelops the 
sides too. The outer ends of the bone-tips 
are cut square, the nock for the string is 
2 cm. from the end, the total length is 25.5 cm., and the breadth 1.5 cm. On one 
side there is a furrow worn by the bow-string. The other ear (B) Fig. 30 has lost 
its pair of bone-tips, save the inner end of one of them. Judging from its position 
this tip must have been longer than those of A, about 32 cm. when complete. The 
horn member of A is 17.9 cm. long, whereas the one of B is 23 cm. The broader 
end of the latter is overlapped by a second horn lamina, the widest part of which is 
2.1 cm. It therefore seems as if the ear A had been shorter than the ear B. Now 
such a feature is quite common with this type of compound bow. When not in use 
the string was loosened from the end with the shorter ear, i. e. the more pliable one, 
and fastened only when the bow was to be used. 

On the lower Volga the bone reinforcements to bows found in graves were 30 
and 24.5 cm. long and 1.5 cm. broad (Werner, pp. 38 et seq.) ; the longest met with 
was 34.5 cm. and originates from Carnuntum. This tallies very well with the recon- 
structed size of the corresponding elements of our bow. With such long bone-tips, 
making the ears quite rigid, the length of the complete bow must have been con- 
siderable. The approximate measurements that can be made on the photo PI. XIII a 

Fig. 30. The tips (A and B) of the com- 
pound bow No. 34:26. Size 1/3. 


give between 1.4 and 1.5 m. in a straight line from end to end. The Yrzi bow is 
1.47 m. along the curve (see below). The position of the bone remains of an Avarian 
bow in Grave 130 of Olio, Hungaria, shows that its length has been 1.6 m. 
(Horvath, p. 21). 

The broadest part of our bow must have been at least 4 cm. 

When this type of bow has been found in graves only the bone parts have been, 
as a rule, preserved. Besides the two pairs of ear-pieces there are also bone elements 
from the grip or handle. From our bow there is one narrow curved bone strip that 
can hardly have formed part of an ear (it is wedge-shaped at one end, just as is the 
left one in the Fig. on p. 39 in Werner's paper), and a fragment of a 2.9 cm. 
broad lamella. The latter certainly comes from the curved grip (cf. Werner, Fig. 
on p. 37, and Marosi, Fettich, PI. Ill: 5— 6), as the grip must have been rigid to 
allow of such a marked cupid's bow shape as our bow undoubtedly possessed. Appar- 
ently it was "pre-shaped" to a great extent. Among the other fragments of wood 
and horn it is impossible to make any determinations as to their exact place in the 
bow. A horn lamella is 3.3 cm. broad and 0.4 cm. thick. 

The reconstruction seen in Alfoldi Fig. 2 comes very near the general outline of 
our bow. 

The effective pull in this type of bow is limited to a rather short area. 

The middle part of the Lop-nor bow recalls the shape of the so-called Scythian 
bow as we know it from various representations on reliefs, coins and so forth, but 
the ears are nearly straight whereas the ears of the Scythian type are strongly 
curved and apparently made mostly of horn, Fig. 31 ; l the difference in length must 
also be considerable. Unfortunately no actual specimen has come down to us. The 
Lop-nor bow is more closely related to the"Sassanian" type. 

The general construction is that of the Yrzi bow from the Baghouz necropolis 
on the Euphrates (Brown, with full bibliography). This Yrzi bow is of about the 
same age as the Lop-nor bow, and one of the few Asiatic compound bows that has 
been carefully published. I want to take this opportunity of conveying to Dr. Frank 
E. Brown of the Yale University my thanks for his kindness in drawing my atten- 
tion to some features of the Lop-nor bow that I might otherwise have overlooked. 

The oldest extant compound bow was preserved in an Egyptian tomb of the 
fifteenth century B.C. (Litt. in Brown, footnote 5), but whether the origin of 
this contrivance is to be sought in Egypt is uncertain. More likely the evolution of 
the composite bow took place in Asia, and the homeland of such complicated forms 
as the Yrzi and the Lop-nor bows is to be looked for in Central Asia. No really 
old complete bows are known from Central Asia. Among the oldest fragments 
there is a yet unpublished bone tip excavated by myself in a Han dynasty fortress 
on the lower Edsen-gol river in Inner Mongolia. 

1 It is hard to get a clear impression of the Scytho-Sarmatian bow-ear of bone, from South Russia, repro- 
duced in Ebert's Reallexikon, 13, Taf. 39 A. 


Fig. 31. A Scythian stringing his bow. From 
an electron vase from Kul Oba. 

Among the oracle bone inscriptions from An- 
yang there is a character denoting composite bow, 
apparently made of bone, wood and tendon. This 
is the oldest record of this bow type in China, but 
its origin is non-Chinese. 1 Childe believes that 
the Sumerian bow "was probably already of the 
variety known as composite; in any case some 
bows were bound with gold and the ends were 
tipped with carved pieces of copper to which the 
string was attached" (Childe 1928, p. 181). This 
Sumerian form seems to me be an artistic develop •• 
ment of the composite bow of "natural" materials, 
the Central Asian form being more true to the original type. 

These compound bows were highly effective in use, and also very valuable. It is 
said that it takes between five and ten years to manufacture a first-class com- 
pound bow in our days, and the procedure can hardly have been quicker in ancient 
times. Therefore, when such bows were deposited in the graves it must have been 
in order to pay special honour to archers of high distinction. 

These powerful bows were the main weapon of the Huns and allied Inner Asiatic 
horse-nomads of the wide steppes. With them the Huns attained their fame as 
mounted archers, and we may be convinced that this fame was not due merely 
to a long and thorough training of the warriors but also to bows of the highest 
perfection. The Mongols carried the same bow, which is since known as the "Tar- 
tar" bow, when they conquered half of the Old World under Chingghis Khan and 
his successors; and it may still be seen in use at some princely court in Mongolia 
at archery competitions. Its use as a weapon came to an end only about the end of 
last century. 

Various small articles. 

Three wooden combs, two of which are depicted on PI. 20: 3 — 4, are of the com- 
mon Han type known from the Limes at Edsen-gol and Tun-huang as well as from 
different parts of Eastern Turkistan. Many have been found in Chinese tombs in 
Korea, and White publishes several as coming from the old Lo-yang. They have 
a high rounded back and very fine teeth. 

Two long hair-pins of black-lacquered bamboo, PI. 20: 1 — 2, have adorned the 
high coiffure of a lady. The type is known from Han dynasty tombs in Korea. 
Bronze was also used for this type of hair-pins. 

Other items of women's outfit from this grave arc three wooden spindles, more 
or less fragmentary, PL 20: 7—8, and a loose spindle whorl of wood. 

1 The inscription can indeed be dated to the time of Wu Ting, 1324— 1266 B.C. (Creel, p, 195). 


A pair of leather shoes or slippers are 23—23.5 cm. long, PI. 21 : 8. The inner 
sole has some light-brown hair left. The same footgear was also used by Chinese 
and Indian monks in the Turfan region during the T'ang dynasty, as seen on the 
fresco paintings, e. g. at Bezeklik, and it has remained in use among the Chinese 
until this day. 


As the textile material is going to be the subject of a special volume in this 
Report series, in which Miss Vivi Sylwan will give descriptions and publish the 
results of her thorough studies of the material both from a technical, historical and 
artistic point of view, I need only touch superficially on the very important silk 
fabrics found mixed up with all the other objects in this collective grave. 

In Stein's mass-graves the bodies, or what was left of them, were tightly wrapp- 
ed with silk rags from old garments. Hedin does not mention anything of this 
sort in his annotations concerning Mass-grave 1, only that everything was found 
lying heaped in no special order. It is quite clear that several of the rags have 
formed parts of garments, e. g. Nos. 34: 40, 41, 46—48, 5°. In PI. 21 : 7 is seen a 
child's tunic of blue-green silk rep with a collar of undyed silk taffeta; the sleeves 
are short, and the lower part of the tunic is rather wide. 

Most of the silk fabrics are plain. PI. 25 : 2 — 3, however, show two patterned 
samples, both from garments, and having a common ground-pattern of rectangles 
with concave ends. Beside these rectangles the piece PI. 25: 3, which has formed 
the lower part of a sleeve, has a row of cash-figures. The lozenges are those typical 
of Chinese Han dynasty silk, and the whole pattern closely recalls that of some 
Chinese silks found at Palmyra, which are not later than the third century A. D. 
(Pfister, Figs. 8, 11 — 12). 

PI. 25 : 2 has also a lozenge pattern beside the rectangles, but this is very fragm- 

One of the larger fragments of a garment is adorned with a narrow edging of 
a beautiful polychrome silk in warp-rib, PI. 23 : 3, cut obliquely from the fabric that 
is woven after the same pattern as Stein's L.C.oj.a (Stein 1928, PI. XXXIV). 
The colours are of the same shade as those on Stein's piece though they are ar- 
ranged a little differently. Two interwoven Chinese characters, jen hsiu, form a 
part of the sentence Han Jen hsiu etc. as treated by Prof. Giles in Appendix I to 
Stein's "Innermost Asia", p. 1045. It is interesting to note that the two charac- 
ters on one side of the pouch PI. 23 : 1 are apparently identical with the two last ones 
in the sentence just referred to, and they correspond to Prof Giles' rendering, not 
to that proposed by M. Aurousseau (cited in the same appendix of "Innermost 

That we have to deal with a silk of the Han dynasty is beyond doubt. The shape 


of the scrolls surrounding the different kinds of beast representations, all of a 
feline nature, point to later Han. To the stylistic parallels between these scrolls 
and those on Han tomb sculptures that Andrews has pointed out we may now add 
the fresco scrolls from a brick tomb of the later Han dynasty at Ying-ch'eng-tzu, 
South Manchuria (Mori & Naito, PI. XXXVI a and XLII I). A close resemblance 
is also furnished by a tomb relief from Lii-tsun, south of Kia-hiang in Shantung, 
especially as regards the fierce-looking slender-bodied quadrupeds in a surgent mo- 
vement competing with the waves of the scrolls (Laufer 191 1, PI. IX. The left- 
hand animal on this relief is executed in a position nearly identical with that of the 
third from the right on our textile, as seen on Stein's complete specimen). It is rather 
a coincidence that this tomb sculpture comes from Shantung. We know that a part 
of the plain silk which China exported westwards was manufactured in Shantung, 
a province which still ranks among the foremost silk producing parts of China. It 
almost lies within the range of probability that the polychrome silk under con- 
sideration is a Shantung product too. 

The whole composition with animal figures interwoven between flowing scroll 
bands is also known from lacquer work and inlaid bronzes of the Han period, the 
beautiful bronze tube in the C. T. Loo collection (Rostovtzeff 1927, PI. II) form- 
ing the closest analogy. 

On PI. 22 are collected small silk bags or pouches with pleasant colours. Three of 
them are made of old embroideries executed in chain-stitch. Apparently they have 
formed part of ladies' outfits. One of them contained a diminutive leather bag with 
a white powder. A chemical analysis undertaken by Mr. Hj. Ljungh has proved this 
powder to consist of white lead. This lucky find shows that the ladies even of this 
desolate Chinese outpost knew how to embellish their oriental features by the use of 
face powder. In Wang Hsu's tomb at Lo-lang in Korea both a powder brush, pul- 
verized talc and white powder were met with, the latter consisting of native car- 
bonate of lead (Harada pp. 33 f). The chemical composition of the powder used in 
Lou-Ian and Lo-lang is thus the same. This indicates that white lead was the material 
commonly used for face powder in China at the end of the Han dynasty. Already 
before any actual specimen had been found Laufer has stated from literary evidence 
that making face powder of white lead is a thoroughly Chinese practice and not an 
importation from some tribe outside the frontiers as had previously been suggest- 
ed. (Laufer 1919, p. 201). 

The bags PI. 22:4 and 5 are partly cut from embroideries with very similar 
pattern of S- and C-shaped figures, and they may also be compared with the square 
embroidery PI. 22 : 3 from the single grave nearby. A part of the bag PI. 22 : 5 is 
made from another embroidery with a larger pattern, and the bottom is of a third 

The largest bag, PL 22: 1, is moss-green, also sewn together from several pieces 
taken from one embroidered damask patterned in warp-rib. The embroidered pat- 


tern consists of different kinds of filled figures, nearly covering the whole surface, 
and recalling certain parts of the Noyan-ola embroideries, inter alia Trever PI. 16 
and 18:2. 

Stein also found two small silk bags in the mass-graves L. C. 

There are also several ribbons, partly with knots, as for instance PI. 21:6, and 
various silk pieces of uncertain use, PL 20:9. 

Before leaving the silks we must turn our attention to a small strip of plain, 
undyed silk which would be of no special interest in this connection but for the ink 
inscriptions on it, PI. 21:5. On one side there is a line of Kharoshthi characters 
which Prof. Sten Konow, Oslo, has been kind enough to examine. He trans- 
lates it as "The Sindhu teacher's roll, 40" for which I refer to Prof. Konow's 
own paper that he has generously placed at my disposal and allowed me to print 
as an appendix at the end of this volume. His dating of the writing to the end of 
the second century A. D. is of special importance for the chronology of the whole 

On the other side of the same silk strip there are two Chinese characters, not 
very clear, which Prof. Karlgren has kindly interpreted to me as chin shift, "fabric 
ten" either standing for 'Silk roll 10', Ten silk rolls' or 'Quality io\ 

These inscriptions in two languages, brief as they are, give us a hint of the ge- 
neral progress of the all important silk trade of this time. We know that the Chinese 
themselves did not take their silk as far as the Roman Orient, the Sogdians, 
Parthians etc. serving as intermediaries. These peoples were well aware of their 
favourable position in this respect, and anxiously guarded their trade monopoly, 
hardly letting any Chinese silk merchants pass through their own countries. That 
the Sogdians, on the other hand, had agents travelling far into the Chinese do- 
minions is verified by such documents in Early Sogdian script as those found by 
Stein in Lou-Ian and as far to the east as the Tun-huang Limes near the ancient 
Yu-men-kuan. So far the Sogdians. They were perhaps never settled in any com- 
munities in the Tarim Basin. Indians, on the other hand, were so settled, and to such 
an extent that the Kharoshthi script was very widely spread there during the first 
two centuries of our era, this script being then superseded by the Brahmi. 

It is not absolutely impossible that the roll of silk of which our inscribed piece 
formed an edge was handed over from a Chinese to an Indian just in Lou-Ian. A Chi- 
nese, here or maybe further east in his home country, had marked it as his "Roll or 
Quality 10", the Indian then marking it with his own name, and the length of the 
roll. Probably this Indian sold it retail in Lou-Ian, as a part of it came to rest in a 
Chinese tomb. Otherwise he may have forwarded the silk merchandise further west- 
wards. It seems justified to conjecture that the unsettled conditions prevailing in 
China during the latest decades of the Han dynasty prevented the Chinese silk mer- 
chants from venturing upon too big enterprises, and that they did not proceed with 
their caravans beyond Lou-Ian. 


Some very worn fragments of a pile-carpet of patterned wool call for attention 
as their technique is non-Chinese. Stein has some better preserved fragments with 
nearly the same design (Stein 1928, PL XLIV, L. C. ii. 09 a, b, and L. C. iii. 014). 
He regards them as products of an early carpet industry in the Tarim Basin. 

In summing up the discussion of Mass-grave 1, we observe that most of the 
objects forming the sepulchral deposit can be labelled as Chinese. The silk fabrics 
are directly imported from China proper, and so, certainly, are the small objects of 
lacquered wood. The coarser wooden objects may as well have been manufactured 
locally, though mostly according to Chinese pattern. There are no goods common, 
however, with those of the autochthon Lou-Ian people, as we found them represented 
for instance at Cemetery 5. 

I am not going to enter into this question though I cannot but stress what others 
have said before: in the Chinese patterned silks from these Lou-Ian graves we en- 
counter the first traceable wave of expansion of Chinese art directed towards the 
Western world. 


34:1. Pottery jar with flat bottom, squat 

with narrow and short neck and well- 
defined rim. Upper part of body ribbed spirally. 
Light-grey ware. H. 14.2 cm., diam. of bottom 
11 cm., of widest part 15.5 cm., of mouth 6 cm. PI. 

34:2. Pottery jar of same ware as — : 1 but 

of more slender shape. Upper part of 
body faintly ribbed spirally, and lower part scraped 
off vertically. H. 17.8 cm., diam. of bottom 6.8 
cm., of widest part 12.2 cm., of mouth 5.7 cm. PI. 

21 12. 

34:3. Symmetrical ornament of thin bronze. 

From a straight central part emerges 
a two-leafed volute at each end and from each 
side at the middle. Between the "leaves" a small 
point. One of these shows traces of having been 
gilt. The object has apparently been placed on top 
of the lid of 34:4. 71X38 mm. PI. 20:6, Fig. 28c. 

34:4. Fragm. of a small oval wooden box, 

once lacquered. It was apparently a 
double-bottomed box with one part divided into 
three partitions by means of two transverse walls. 
The inside seems to have been lacquered red all 
over. The outside of the walls have been lacquered 

dark-brown with some narrow red lines. The lid is 
convex on the top (where the bronze ornament 
— :3 has been attached) and has a faint black 
border ; the inside of the lid is concave ; it is of infe- 
rior make compared with the rest of the box. One 
bottom is 99X43 mm., the other 102X47 mm., the 
lid 100X46 mm. PI. 20:6. 

34:5. Round shallow bowl of lacquered 

wood, probably elm. The outside has 
been brown-black, the inside red. Repaired with 
two iron plates. Has possibly had the rim covered 
with another material. Diam. 16.5 — 17 cm. Diam. 
of the low foot ring 11 cm. H. 4.5 cm. PI. 19:8. 

34:6. Two adjoining pieces from the rim of 

a round vessel of lacquered wood. The 
outside has been dark-brown, the inside red and 
the rim has probably been black on the inside. 
Diam. about 15 cm. 

34 : 7. Large wooden cup, squat ; cut, not 

turned, in one piece with a ring-handle 
flattened on top. Three low feet, from which flat 
parts stretch upwards along wall, terminating a 
little below the widest part of the body. Repaired 
with bronze rivets in two places. Painted black 
with a red border round the mouth, red inside. The 
feet are yellow. Contains a dricd-up substance. 


Diam. at widest part 19.4 cm., at mouth 13 cm. H. 
13 cm. PL 21:4. 

34 : 8. Wooden cup or dipper without foot. 

Cut, not turned, in one piece with a 
ring-handle flattened on top. Diam. 15 — 14.5 cm. 
H. 8 cm. PL 19:6. 

34:9. Wooden cup of same type as — :8 but 

somewhat oval. The rim gnawed, prob- 
ably by some rodent. Diam. 12.5— 1 1.7 cm. H. 7 
cm. PL 19:5. 

34: 10. Wooden cup of the same type as the 

preceding one, handle broken off. 
Somewhat oval shape. Probably made of elm. 
Widest diam. 16 — 14.5 cm., diam. of mouth 13 — 12 
cm. H. 9 cm. PL 19:4. 

34: 11. Oval wooden cup of the same type as 

the preceding ones but with the handle 
missing. Split in old days and repaired with string. 
L. 14 cm. Br. 1 1.5 cm. H. 8 cm. 

34 : 12. Fragm. of a fairly large wooden cup 

of the same type as the preceding ones. 
Widest diam. 16 cm. H. about 11 cm. 

34:13. Ring-handle with flattened top from 

a largish wooden cup, possibly — : 12. 

34: 14. About half of a small wooden cup of 

the same kind as the preceding ones; 
several pieces glued together. Widest diam. 10 cm. 
H. about 7 cm. 

34:15-16. Two fragm. of the rim of a large 
wooden bowl with a roughly carved 
groove on the outside below the rim. 

34:17. Wooden beaker, cut, not turned. The 

entire rim is broken away. Present H. 
14.5 cm., diam. of flat bottom 6.5 cm. PL 19:7. 

34:18. Small round basket with lid. Flat bot- 

tom, the wall is sloping inwards. The 
lid is made with a step between the edge and the 
flat top. Coiled with interlocking stitches on a 
single-rod foundation. H. with lid 13 cm., without 
lid 8 cm., diam. of bottom 15 cm. PL 21: 1. 

34:19. Rectangular wooden food-tray with 

four low, stout legs. The tray cut in 
the solid with a raised edge round the upper sur- 
face and two transverse raised ribs on the under- 
surface. Near the ends of these ribs are holes to 
receive the legs, the square tenons of which run 
through the tray. In the middle of one end the 
under-surface has a contour carving resembling a 
heart. Both sides used as cutting-board. 41X28 cm. 
H. 6—7 cm. H. of legs 4 cm. PL 19:3. 

34:20. Rectangular wooden food-tray with 

four legs (two of which are now miss- 

ing). The tray is cut in the solid with a raised 
edge round the upper surface. The legs, 10.5 cm. 
long, are thinner in the middle. They are affixed 
to the tray with tenons. 48X28 cm. PL 19: 1. 

34:21. Wooden food-tray of the same type as 

— :20 but with straight legs fastened 
with round tenons. Two legs missing. 32X20.5 cm. 
L. of legs 6.7 cm. PI. 19:2. 

34:22. Broken-off leg, probably from a tray 

of the same kind as the preceding ones. 
Slightly resembling an animal's leg. L. 7.5 cm. 

34:23. Carved wooden leg of food-tray; con- 

ventional lion-leg pattern, oval tenon. 
Full length 12 cm. L. of tenon 2 cm. PL 20:5. 

34 : 24. Nearly circular wooden board with a 

square groove on one side. From the 
edge two holes converge towards each corner of 
the groove, and through the holes leather strings 
have been run ; they have also followed the groove. 
The board may possibly have been suspended by 
the strings horizontally. 13.2X11.3X1.5 cm. PL 

34:25. Wooden bow, probably of tamarisk. 

The middle part for the space of a 
hand's-breadth is left uncarved, but from there 
and towards the ends about half the thickness of 
the wood is carved away, giving these parts of 
the bow a nearly semicircular section. One end 
missing. The remaining end has a carved notch 
for attaching string. Present L. 92 cm. Original L. 
probably 112 cm. Br. 2.3 cm. PL 32:1. 

34 : 26. Fragm. of a compound bow, which has 

been built up of wooden, bone and 
hornlamella* and sinew. Twenty-one fragm. in all, 
but this is less than a third of the bow. One end 
complete. It consists of two curved bonelamellse 
with a notch for the string 2 cm. from the end. 
On the inside a hornlamella is wedged between; 
the central part is occupied by two wooden mem- 
bers, and the outside is covered with sinew. The 
bonelamellse arc 25.5 cm. long and 1.5 cm. broad 
at end. The horn member is 18 cm. long. A loose 
hornlamella is 3.3 cm. wide. Fig. 30 and PL 18: 10. 

34:27-29. Three wooden combs with fine teeth 
and nearly semicircular back. 72X83X6 
mm., 69X83X6 mm. and 50X65X4 mm. — '.27 PL 
20 : 3, — : 29 PL 20 : 4. 

34:30-31- Two long hair-pins of black-lacquered 
bamboo. L. 16 and 15.3 cm. PL 20 : 1 — 2. 

34 : 3 2_ 34- Three wooden spindle whorls, each 

with a fragm. of the peg remaining in 

hole. The whorls arc hemispherical or flat. Diam. 


43, 28—24 and 33 mm. —=32 PL 20:8, — = 33 PL 

34 : 35- Wooden spindle whorl with hemi- 

spherical section. Diam. 38 mm. Th. 
20 mm. 

34 '• 36-37. Two small dried-up pouches or such- 
like of leather. 

34:38. Pair of black leather shoes (shaped as 

slippers). The sole sewn on to the 
upper part with sandal-seam. No heels. There are 
light-brown hairs still remaining on the inside of 
the sole. L. 23.5 and 23 cm. W. 8 cm. PI. 21:8. 

34:39. Hair, probably human, dark-brown and 


34:40. a) Large piece of reddish-brown silk 

rep, with an other piece of silk rep, 
reddish-yellow, undyed ( ?) and very fine, sewn 
on to it. At one end a piece of moss-green silk 
damask, now faded, with some rags of another 
piece of damask attached. 

Ground of damask in plain weave with pattern 
in warp-rib. The pattern of former piece of da- 
mask consists partly of alternately repeated oblong 
diamonds, partly of zig-zag lines and standing 
lozenges in alternating rows. PI. 25 : 2. Selvage at 
one side. The pattern of the rags, which is very 
fragmentary, shows the lower part of a beast with 
three legs and some line ornaments, for the most 
part indistinct. 

b-d) Three pieces from the same reddish-brown 
and yellow silk rep as in a. 

34:41. End of sleeve, hemmed, of reddish- 

brown silk rep, biased. Fragmentary. 
W. about 22.5 cm. 

34:42-43. Two ribbons of reddish-brown and 
brownish silk rep. 

34:44. Three sewn ribbons of silk, tied in a 

ring with long ends hanging down. 
The ribbons are folded and sewn with the edges 
turned in. One is of green taffeta, another of red, 
and a third of yellow undyed silk taffeta. The 
latter has a knot at one end. PI. 21 : 6. 

34:45. Rectangular piece of striped silk rep in 

green and brown, edged with reddish- 
brown strips of silk taffeta. At the centre are 
attached ribbons of green silk rep and bluish- 
green taffeta tied together. Sewn with light green 
silk. 43.5X12 cm. PI. 20:9. 

34:46. Portion of a large garment of partly 

faded silk taffeta with stripes of 
green, woven with undyed warp and alternately 
undyed and green weft. Attached is a strip of 
figured silk warp-rib. biased. 

Ground reddish-brown, pattern blue, yellowish- 
brown and yellow. The pattern is identical with 
Stein 1928, PI. XXXIV, L. C. 07a but incomplete. 
It consists of four-legged beasts, scrolls and two 
Chinese characters. The strip consists of two 
pieces sewn together; all from the same fabric. 
W. of strip about 2 cm. PI. 23:3. 

34:47. Fragm. of a sleeve; several pieces, 

sewn together, of green, partly faded 
silk damask rep with warp-rib pattern. Selvage. 
Repeated pattern of alternating rectangles with 
concave short sides. The points of the rectangles 
touch each other. This pattern is interrupted by a 
border outlined with zig-zag lines at each side 
and with a cash-pattern in the middle. Between the 
cash-row and zig-zag lines runs a border of lo- 
zenges, the obtuse-angled corners of which are 
surrounded by smaller lozenges and enclose five 
dots. On the next largest piece the border is dif- 
ferent, possibly with fishes, but very fragmentary 
and indistinct. PI. 25:3. 

34:48. Large fragm. of blue silk rep with a 

strip of brownish red silk taffeta 
attached. Size of fragm. 33.5X24 cm. VV. of strip 
4.7 cm. 

34:49. Child's tunic of bluish-green silk rep, 

sewn in kimono shape with biased 
side seams and straight sleeves. The neck is cut 
straight with half of the upstanding collar of 
double undyed silk taffeta. The garment is prob- 
ably torn off at bottom. Width of shoulder with 
sleeves 31 cm. W. at bottom 37 cm. H. 27 cm. PI. 

34:50. Kerchief of yellowish white silk taffe- 

ta, darkened. The short sides hemmed. 
L. 57.5 cm. W. = full w. of fabric, about 46.5 cm. 

34: 51-52. Two ribbons of bluish silk rep. 40X2.3 
cm. and 35X0.9 cm. — 151 full width 
of fabric 40 cm. 

34 : 53"64. Eighteen various fragm. of bluish 
green and undyed silk taffeta and rep. 

34:65. Strip of undyed silk rep with line of 

Kharoshthi writing at lower right-hand 
corner. Selvage. 26.5X3.5 cm. Cf. Prof. Konow's 
appendix at end of volume. PI. 21 : 5. 

34:66. Small pouch of moss-green embroi- 

dered silk damask. The lining, of yel- 
lowish silk rep, is longer than the embroidery and 
folded down as far as its upper edge. About 1 cm. 
from the opening of the pouch a silk thread is 
drawn through. A sewn ribbon of undyed silk- 
taffeta holds the pouch together here; one ribbon 
end complete, the other torn off. At the top a 




remnant of an attached ribbon of undyed silk 
taffeta. The embroidered part consists of several 
small pieces cut from bigger embroidered pieces 
and sewn together. The moss-green damask of the 
embroidery is woven in rep with a pattern in warp- 
rib. The embroidery is executed in chain stitch of 
silk in yellow, brown (red?), greenish blue, green 
and possibly other colours, now faded. The pat- 
tern consists of several kinds of figures. Inside 
,the pouch were small carbonized lumps, probably 
from some fruit stone. H. about 7.5 cm. PI. 22:1. 

34:67. Small pouch made of different pieces 

sewn together. At the top, folded un- 
dyed silk taffeta with tying ribbon drawn through. 

The centre is of red silk rep, embroidered with 
chain stitch in light blue, dark blue, green, brown 
and undyed silk. This part consists of three diffe- 
rent pieces; two of them have probably been con- 
nected and show independent but incomplete 
shapes; the third has heart-shaped figures with 
reversed S's between bars, and opposed C's above 
the hearts. The lower part of the pouch is of green 
silk rep, embroidered with chain stitch in yellow, 
blue and brown. The indistinct pattern consists of 
lines and a leaf. No lining. 

The tying ribbon of the pouch is made of pale 
green silk taffeta and held together by blue, sewn 
ribbon (fragm.). 

On the opposite sides of the pouch two ribbons 
of green silk are attached to the embroidery. 

Inside were some carbonized lumps, probably 
from fruit stones. H. about 6.5 cm. PI. 22:5. 

34:68. Middle part of small silk pouch. The 

same embroidered silk as in the central 
part of 34:67, with heart-shaped figures. At the 
top folded, at bottom gathered together with silk 
thread drawn through. Present H. about 4.3 cm. 
PI. 22:4. 

34:69. Small pouch made of several small 

pieces of silk in various colours sewn 
together. Very frayed. At the top undyed folded 
rep, in the middle red, at the bottom undyed and 
prune-coloured. Tied round with strips of light 
green and blue silk taffeta, partly faded. Lining 
of undyed rather coarse silk taffeta. The pouch is 
sewn together with green, brownish-red and un- 
dyed silk. H. about 9 cm. PI. 22:2. 

34:70. Contents of pouch — 169: a small 

leather bag containing powder of 
white lead; wrapped in wool-hairs. 

34:71. Three attached fragm. of undyed cot- 

ton fabric in plain weave, discoloured 
to brown. 

34:72. Fragm. of hemmed woollen rep, now 


34 : 73- Two pieces of rough woollen braid. 

W. 2 cm. 

34:74. Fragm. of lightly fulled woollen felt, 

discoloured to yellow. 

34=75- Fragm. of carpet or mantle, woven in 

three-leafed twill of coarse light and 
dark brown hair yarn. Warp mixed greyish brown, 
th. about 2.5 mm.; about 30 threads to 10 cm. Weft 
th. about 3 — 3.5 mm. in both cases about 30 threads 
to 10 cm. A stripe of brown weft at one edge of 
the fragm. shows that the rug has been patterned, 
probably striped. 

34:76-79. Fragm. of patterned wool pile-carpet. 
Fragm. with selvage from both side 
borders preserved, although original W. of carpet 
is indeterminable. Pattern on the whole indistinct. 
Border, about 4 cm. wide, furthest out with trans- 
verse stripes in dark brown, light yellow and fair- 
ly bright red; within, towards the middle, 3.5 cm. 
wide border of latch hooks, dark-brown on light- 
brown ground. It is impossible to decide whether 
the border has been broader towards the middle. 
The pattern of the middle field is vague, occa- 
sional angles of lozenges and checks only just di- 
stinguishable. Colours diffuse, yellow, red, brown, 
brownish purple and in a few places green knots 
in roundels or single. 

Ground fabric weft rep, alternately close and 
sparse. Warp brown wool; th. 2 — 2.5 mm. 54 — 58 
threads to 10 cm., in the selvage about 20 threads 
to 5 cm. Weft th. about 2 — 2.5 mm., 5 — 7 — 11 
shoots of weft = 8 — 12 mm. w. between knot rows, 
mostly greyish-yellow. At a part of 13.5 cm. pale 
red wefts, next to it, between three rows of knot, 
two threads in each shoot of greyish yellow weft, 
otherwise one thread in each shoot. 

B. GRAVE 35. 
(= Single grave a). 

On the eastern side of the big mesa with the first mass-grave there is a minor 
mesa stretching NE — SW and measuring only 12.7 x 3.8 m. The top rises 9 m. above 


water level. A standing tamarisk pole attracted the attention of Dr. Hedin's men, 
and when they started to dig they found a rectangular pit in the very hard mesa 
clay. 0.7 m. from the surface they came upon the lid of a coffin lying NE — SW, 
with the head pointing NE. The whole coffin was raised to the ground where it 
was opened. 

It consisted of half a hollowed-out trunk with the ends closed with semicircular 
boards; the lid was made of two boards. The length was 1.82 m. the width 0.52 — 
0.45 m. The inner length was 1.71 m., the width 0.42 m., and the height 0.29 m. It 
is visible on PI. XIII c. Dr. Hedin is of the opinion that the coffin is a cut-off canoe. 

When the lid was taken off a layer of felt was hiding the corpse, that of a young 
woman 1.6 m. in height, PI. XIII b. On the head she wore a kerchief of silk-wadding 
wound like a turban. The dress consisted of outer and inner garments of silk and 
hemp. Only samples were taken of the different kinds of fabrics, and though Dr. 
Hedin gives a description of how they were found it is not easy to get an impres- 
sion of what the dress was like. Let us hope that Miss Sylwan will be able to 
throw some light on this interesting question. 

The patterned yellow silk damask PI. 25 : 1 formed the most attractive element 
of the dress. Its geometrical design with coupled lozenges is typically Chinese and 
is identical with Stein 1928, PI. XLIII, L. C. vi. 01, and belongs to the same class 
of splendid Chinese silks as the following fabrics from Noyan-ola and Lo-lang: 
Trever PI. 21:2 and Harada PI. CXXIV. It was cut in a triangular piece, one 
edge bordered with blue silk, and was probably from the lower part of a long 
garment. The blue silk had also been used for other parts of the dress. 

On her feet she wore a pair of shoes with intricate designs, and of fine work- 
manship. When found, the shoe was coated with clay and looked much damaged. 
Thanks to the untiring efforts of Miss Sylwan and her assistants at the Rohss 
Museum, Gothenburg, it has been successfully cleaned and mounted, and is now 
one of the most charming textile objects in our collection, PI. 24. It is nearly com- 
plete, except for the sole, which was made of hemp(?), otherwise the material is 
silk. The toe part is best preserved, and to this part of the shoe the decoration is 
limited. The elaborate design comes out satisfactorily on the somewhat enlarged 
reproduction PI. 24:2. There is an upper crimson border with a row of dragons 
marching right and with the elegant, swift movement in every line so typical of the 
Han art. They are executed as quite naturalistic quadrupeds with a very long tail 
and a long crest from the neck. 

Immediately below there are some small green indistinct figures, and then follows 
a pair of extremely stylized eyes extended backwards into red lines. Below these 
lines there is on each side a row of purple-coloured birds(?). The central horizon- 
tal band, crimson with green spots, is crowned by a row of swimming ( ?) birds, all 
moving left. Below the central band the pattern is in green colour, unfortunately 
damaged. There seems to be another row of birds swimming left, and below this 


pairs of broad triangles arranged with the points towards each other, a design known 
from Huai style bronzes (Umehara 1936, PL LXXXIII). The lowest part is too 
damaged to allow of any analysis. 

As seen from the above the design is arranged in horizontal rows, but there is 
also a kind of vertical central stripe. 

Stein has found a similar shoe in one of the Chinese graves L. H. (Stein 1928, 
PI. XLII and LXXXVIII, L. H. 04) and another, with decorations all over in the 
ruin L. B. NW of the Lou-Ian station (Stein 1921, PI. XXXVII, L.B.IV.ii.0016). 
The main decorative elements recur on all three specimens. Especially the first men- 
tioned of Stein's shoes have birds, but flying, and dragons, or lions as Stein calls 
them. And his may possibly be lions. Their tails are not so elongated as on ours, and 
there is no neck crest. 

Miss Sylwan is going to deal with the technical aspect and what it signifies. 
Stylistically the decoration is Chinese, and the material used in the upper is silk. 

The beautiful little square embroidery PL 22:3 was found on the breast. It is 
cut out of a larger embroidery, and closely resembles the one used for the small 
bags PL 22:4—5 from Mass-grave 1. The silk is red, and the designs, which are 
slightly reminiscent of cicadas, are sewn in chain-stitch, blue, yellow-white and 
brown. A small pearl is attached in each of three corners, the fourth one is lost 

The silk pouch PL 23: 1 with its beautifully preserved colours is one of the most 
attractive textile objects from the Lou-Ian region. It is made of two different kinds 
of patterned warp-rib with interwoven Chinese characters. One of them is quite 
legible (/ = harmony, union), the other two are not correctly woven, but most likely 
they are meant to represent Wu Chi (without end), i. e. characters identical with 
the two last ones in the sentence on Stein's silk L.C.07 a for which I refer to Giles' 
appendix in Stein 1928, p. 1045. On the narrow strip of silk used in this pouch 
(PL 23: 1 b) there are pairs of small birds (ducks?) facing each other, a floral 
design quite naturalistically executed, the end of a scroll, and an ornament with 
three rolled-in volutes and three slender prongs. The same pronged motif occurs 
as an element in the ornament on the broader piece of silk that forms the main part 
of the pouch, PL 23: 1 a. This element is very common on the Noyan-ola embroid- 
eries (Kummel PL 55 — 59)» and on some of Stein's figured silks from Lop-nor, 
especially from L. C. It occurs also on a piece of Chinese silk from Oglakty in the 
Minusinsk region (Tallgren 1937 b, Fig. 23). On the inlaid bronze tube in the C. T. 
Loo collection which Rostovtzeff places in the early Han period we find a similar 
element, though less dissolved (Rostovtzeff PL III). 

As there are green and blue colours which in print come out almost the same as 
the back, ground the otherwise satisfactory PL 23: 1 does not reproduce the in- 
tricate and dissolved pattern quite correctly. In reality the elements of the ornament 
form an oval figure; several of these recur on one of Stein's silks (Stein 1928, PI. 


XXXV, L. C03). The colours are well preserved and give an impression of re- 
fined beauty. 

Outside the head end of the coffin the following articles were placed : the nicely- 
turned wooden drinking cup, painted in red and black PI. 27:6, a wooden food- 
tray on four low legs, the skeleton of a sheep, and some Ephedra twigs. 

The small cup is of the same type as Stein's Ying. III. 3. 07 from Ying-p'an 
(Stein 1928, PI. CX), though more elegant. There are other features, too, recalling 
another of the Ying-p'an graves (Ying. III. 4) for instance the head-gear. 

The food-tray is to be compared with those found in Mass-grave 1. It is made of 
two boards. On the bottom there is a carved mark, and both sides show traces of 
having been used as cutting boards. 

Both the type of coffin and the rich silk garments of the deceased lady place this 
grave in the same class as Grave 6 A. Whether these two ladies belonged to the 
same race or not is, however, another question, but they had no doubt the same 
social standing. 

As to the age of this grave we are hardly able to date it more precisely than 
within the known limits of the period of Chinese settlements in this region. Most 
likely this lady lived during one of the three first centuries of our era. 




Square piece of yellowish white silk 
felt. Was wound like a turban round 
head of the corpse. About 50X60 cm. 

35:2. Dress fragm. of yellow silk damask 

with inserted strip of bluish-green 
silk taffeta, 6 cm. wide, sewn on with undyed silk. 
Damask with ground in plain weave, pattern in 
twill with zig-zag lines with intervening double 
lozenges with angles outside two opposed corners. 
l r ragm. somewhat biased, with marks from stitches 
on two sides. Patched. W. about 39 cm. H. along 
blue strip about 47 cm. PI. 25: 1. 



Several fragm. of same material as 
— :2. 

Fragm. probably from the lower part 
of the same garment as above, of 
undyed silk rep, cut somewhat on the bias like 
— :2. Selvage. Hem in two places. Lining of un- 
dyed, slippery silk, in plain weave, ragged and big- 
ger than the outer fabric. 

35:7. Fragm. of back of hemp (?) fabric 

with shoulder scam on to small front 
part. Belonging to this part a low, upstanding 
collar. A small piece of the same fabric attached 
to the lower edge. Greatest L. 74 cm. 

35:8. Large ragged piece of undyed hemp 

( ?) fabric in plain weave, full width 
about 43 — 44 cm. Worn. May have belonged to 
the same garment as — 17. 

35:9. Portion of a garment of hemp(?) 

fabric in plain weave, two parts. The 
upper part consists of two pieces of blued fabric 
with brown gore in between; all fragmentary. The 
lower part attached to the upper part and con- 
sisting of larger piece of undyed hemp(?) fabric, 
partly with hem. Sewn with undyed silk or thread 
of some other yellow material. 

35: 10. Three fragm., two large and one small, 

of a garment of undyed hemp ( ?) 
fabric in plain weave, biased and forming a point. 
Hem at two sides. The two larger pieces have 
been joined together. The smaller piece has been 
torn away from the larger one. Hems of the same 
kind as — :9. Full width of the material about 47 

35: 11. Fragmentary panel of skirt or trousers 

of undyed hemp(?) fabric in plain 
weave. Gathered at the top and somewhat biased 
towards the upper part, seam with fragm. from 
the next panel attached. L. 90 cm. 


35:12-13. Two fragm. of the same fabric as 
— : 11. 

35:14. Two ribbons, made of biased hemp 

( ?) fabric in plain weave, folded to- 
gether with the edges turned in, and ribbon of thin 
undyed woollen fabric in plain weave, now yellow. 
Probably from a waist-band. 

35:15. Ribbon of folded silk taffeta, partly 

sewn together and tied in a loop. The 
two ends arc torn off. Before washing the silk 
was very light in colour, now yellowish brown. 

35:16. Fragm. of ribbon, made of dark red 

silk taffeta, folded and with the seams 
turned in. At one end, with selvage, the edge is 
folded in and shows marks of stitches; weaved 
as a result of gathering. The other end frayed. 

35:17. Small square piece of red silk taffeta. 

Embroidery of chain-stitch in blue, 
yellowish white and moss-brown silk. The pattern 
consists of alternating rows of standing hearts, 
within which are bars on each side of an S; in the 
point a drop. Above the hearts a dot and two op- 
posed C's, carrying an acute angle. The square is 
cut out from a larger embroidered piece. It is 
edged round with brown silk. No lining. In three 
corners small pearls threaded on silk and fastened 
with a knot. The fourth corner damaged. 8.5X8.5 
cm. PI. 22:3. 

35: 18. Pouch of silk warp-rib of two different 

patterns. It is made of a small straight 
piece, rounded at the bottom, and a larger and 
broader piece, gathered round the lower part of 
the former and sewn on along the edges of the 
narrow piece. A small extra piece is let in be- 
tween the larger and the smaller pieces near the 

The larger piece consists of two reversed pieces, 
the pattern thus being reversed as well. The 
ground brownish red, the pattern dark blue and 
yellow, of oval shape and composed of several 
kinds of small volutes, inter alia one element with 
three rolled-in volutes and three slender prongs. 
PI. 23: ia. Repetition of figures: in the warp di- 
rection straight succession; in the weft direction 
alternating rows. Two Chinese characters also 
form part of pattern. 

The smaller piece has a dark blue ground and 
a pattern in red, yellow and light blue. Pattern 
incomplete; on one side a leaf, a flower on a long 
stem and the end of a scroll. On the other side 
two birds facing one another, part of a cloud 
scroll, three rolled-in volutes with three slender 
prongs, and a Chinese character. PI. 23: 1 b. 

The pouch is lined with undyed silk in plain 
weave. H. 17 cm. 

35:19. Shoe, woven in silk over the last, in- 

terlining and sole of hemp( ?). Inner 
lining missing. The toe part well preserved, the 
side and heel parts partly dissolved, the warp gone, 
a very small piece of sole remaining. The weave of 
the outer part is rep-like, the texture of interlining 
and sole is braid-like, as in the former case the 
pair of threads are every time twisted in the same 
direction, in the latter case every other time in 
the opposite direction. 

The side and heel part in buff colour; there 
may have been small green insertions at the sole 
fastening. The toe elaborately figured and distinct- 
ly narrowed from the sides. At the opening a buff 
edging is laid along the cord and sewn on to the 
interlining. This edge has probably run round the 
entire opening. The pattern of the toe part is 
striped downwards, towards the toe. Immediately 
below the upper edge is a border of buff dragons 
on a red ground. Below this are some small green 
indistinct figures with a central V. A pair of slit- 
like "eyes" extending backwards into a red line. 
Below these lines a row of birds ( ?) in purple, 
all on a buff ground. The central horizontal border, 
red with small light-green ovals, has a row of 
red birds on the top and a row of green ones 
below. The central vertical stripe is marked with a 
red triangle in the upper row of birds and a light 
green field in the main horizontal border. The 
lowest part of the toe is damaged, and the pattern 
somewhat indistinct. A horizontal row of broad 
green triangles arranged in pairs with the points 
meeting on a horizontal line. Below these the 
pattern is indistinguishable; it seems to have been 
finished with a red edge with a small buff diamond 
in the middle. Approx. L. 23 cm. Preserved L. 
greater than that of the original, while the weft 
has stretched owing to missing warps. PI. 24: 1 — 2. 

35:20. Small fragm. of yellowish brown 

warp-rib with waved pattern in some- 
what darker colour. 

35:21. Piece of yellowish white felt, which 

covered the corpse, either as a shroud 
or as a lining to the coffin. 

35:22. Small fragm. of coarse woollen fabric, 

dark brown and yellowish. 

35:23. Wooden cup, lathe-turned. The upper 

part painted red, the lower part black. 
On the moulding near the bottom, alternating 
black and red lines. H. 7 cm. Diam. of mouth 9.6 
cm. PI. 27:6. 




35 ! 24. Rectangular wooden food-tray or low 

table with four short legs. Made of 
two boards joined with dowels. Raised border 
around the upper surface. On the under-surface 
a carved irregular mark of five lines. On both 
sides marks of wear and knife cuts. The legs, oval 
in section, fastened with rectang. tenons. L. of 

legs 6,6 cm. only two of them complete. Size of 
tray 45X29 cm. 

35:25. Some bones from a sheep sacrificed 

whole outside the coffin. 

35:26. Some Ephedra twigs, found outside 

the coffin. 

C. GRAVE 36. 

(= Single grave b). 

On May 7th 1934 Dr. Hedin and Mr. Chen discovered a second single grave, 
situated on the eastern side of an imposing mesa rising 25.3 m. above the water 
level. 1 

Fig. 32. The mummy in Grave 36 

in her shroud after having been removed 

from the coffin. Drawing from a photo by Mr. Chen. 

i m. below the surface there was a coffin of the same type (half a hollowed-out 
trunk) as in Grave 35, but instead of a wooden lid it had a covering of ox-hides. 
Above the hides the small basket PL 26: 1 was found; its warp consists of rigid dico- 
tyledonous stems, the weft is a mixture of grass and roots of an Artemisia. It is made 
after the same model as those from Cemetery 5, but the pattern is made in the shape 
of a net and not as zig-zag bands. This is the specimen examined by Mr. Hj. 
Ljungii (Cf. appendix II). The handle is of brown wool, and the opening was 
covered with white felt. 

The coffin was 17 m. long and 0.41—0.35 m. wide. The well preserved though 
much dricd-up mummy was that of an old woman with long, grey hair parted in the 
middle. The body, which measured 1.52 m. in length, was enveloped in a finely 
woven dark-brown mantle of soft wool with a yellow and red border, Fig. 
32. In three places along the right side it was tied up into small bags containing 

* As Dr. Hedin's maps of his canoe trip in the Qum-darya delta still await the final adjustments I am un- 
able to give the position of the mesa more exactly. Its position on the map Fig. 37 is only approximate. It is 
situated some little distance to the east of the graves first discovered. 


small Ephedra twigs. One of these is to be seen on the sample of the mantle that was 
taken from the site, PI. 26:4. 

Round the waist she wore a thin loin-cloth of woollen fringes, red and undyed, 
of a certain youthful elegance, PI. 26: 5. It recalls the specimen PL 12: 1. 

The feet were stuck into a pair of raw-hide moccasins or shoes which 
were decorated with red cords and feathers on the toes, and of which the 
upper edge was dentated, PI. 26:6. The hair was turned inside save on the soles. 
The model is the same as that used in Cemetery 5 ("Order's necropolis"), and 
these also seem to be quite new and hardly used. They had an inner sole of lambskin. 

The head-gear consisted of an inner cap of dark brown felt, PI. 26: 2, and an ex- 
quisite outer cap of yellow felt, the top adorned with red cords, in the middle of 
which is fastened the split skin of an ermine with the head hanging down in front. 
On the left side there are two feathered pegs, wound with sinew fibres and red 
wool, rising boldly above the top of the pointed head-dress, PI. 26:3. Both caps 
are made with ear-flaps to be tied under the chin, apparently for winter use. 
Except for the adornments the outer cap is identical with the head-gear worn by 
the Scythian in Fig. 31, and a Sakian as seen on a relief at Persepolis (Le Coq 
1925, Fig. 127). 

Six wooden and one bone pin have apparently served to keep together the edges 
of the mantle. Three of them have the barrel-shaped heads decorated with small in- 
cised triangles once filled with red, PI. 27: 7 — 8. Three others have plain heads, PI. 
27:3. The one made of bone PI. 27:4 is smaller, having a spool-shaped head. 
These pins closely resemble those found by Stein (Stein 1928, PI. XXIV, L. F. 
05 a, etc.). They are carved of hard wood with several annular rows of triangular 
incisions, the triangles arranged a little differently from those so common on ar- 
rows and other objects from Cemetery 5. 

A small comb has the round pegs of wood fastened in a transverse piece of 
tendon, PI. 27 : 10, just as is the case with combs from Cemetery 5. 

PI. 11:2 depicts a small doll made of various kinds of wool rags steadied by a 
small wooden pin of the same form as those just described but with cylindrical 

A small bundle of sinew-fibres and woollen yarn wrapped in a piece of red felt 
may possibly have served as some kind of charm or amulet (cf. the bundles of 
Ephedra twigs Nos. 5. D: 12 — 14). 

Among the funeral deposit there is also a link of dark brown hair kept together 
by a lashing, apparently representing a hair offering. The practice of cutting off 
the hair and sacrificing it to the deceased is an old and widespread custom. Accord- 
ing to Jordanes the Huns cut off their hair at the death of Attila (Rydh 1919, 
p. 241). That the Huns practised this custom in their home country around the be- 
ginning of our era is shown by the discovery of not less than fifty queues in tomb 
No. 6 at Noyan-ola. In one of the Oglakty graves near Minusinsk two plaits of 



brown hair were found; their age cannot differ very much from that of the Lop- 
nor graves (Tallgren 1937 b, Fig. 4). 

The dress of this old lady is identical with that of the young man in Grave 5 A of 
"Order's necropolis", but of altogether higher quality. The coffin, on the other 
hand, is to be compared with those from graves 35, 6 A, 6 C, and, in a way, with 
7 A. Dr. Hedin opines that they are cut-off canoes of the ordinary Lopliq type still 
in use. I am not quite convinced of the correctness of this explanation, but the cof- 
fins were certainly made on the same principles as those applying to the construction 
of canoes. 

Culturally this lady belonged to the same people as those buried in Stein's 
cemeteries L. R, L. Q., L. S. and L. T. and at "Order's necropolis", i. e. the in- 
digenous population of the Lou-Ian kingdom. As already remarked, the affinities 
with Stein's graves are closer than those with "Order's necropolis", a circum- 
stance explained by the geographical sitution of the burial places, Stein's and 
Grave 36 forming a local group. On the other hand, it is more than likely that there 
also exists a chronological difference, "Order's necropolis" being somewhat older 
than the other indigenous graves around Lop-nor. 


36:1. Pointed head-dress of light yellow, 

rather thin felt. The back part has 
partly covered (he neck and been gathered there 
with white thread now almost disappeared. Two 
lappets have met under the chin; they have partly 
a red edge stitching. On the left side two pegs arc 
inserted, each about 30 cm. long, wound round with 
thin sinew fibres and, over that, red woollen yarn; 
the tops have a rich feather tassel. Round the top 
part of the head-dress seven woollen strings are 
arranged horizontally, being threaded through the 
felt in four places. Between these strings a split 
ermine skin is fastened with light red woollen 
strings threaded through the felt. The head of the 
ermine hangs down in front. Very good condition. 
H. from lappet to top 32 cm. PI. 26:3. 

36:2. Inner cap of rather thin, dark-brown 

felt, gathered together with brown 
woollen thread at the neck. Lappets tied with 
brown woollen cord under the chin. Finished all 
round with scallop stitch of brown wool. The right 
lappet is darned in two places. At the lower edge 
of the lappets small ends of red woollen yarn are 
inserted. H. 27 cm. PI. 26:2. 

36:3- Part of a mantle, right side, of fine 

soft wool, dark brown with yellowish 

and red borders. The piece represents the complete 

length of the garment with a fringe of warp at 
the lower end =± end of the fabric, plain selvage at 
the other end= beginning of the fabric, selvage 
with a cordlike edge along it. 

The main part is tabby weave, the same yarn 
in warp and weft. The warp 50, the weft 40 
threads to 10 cm. 

Borders of rep in yellow with edges of yellow 
and red checks, 5 — 7 mm. wide. Along the cordlike 
edge there is such a border of warp rep, about 
5 — 5-7 cm - wide. Across the mantle are two similar 
borders, 2.6 cm. wide, of weft rep, one 4.6 cm. from 
the fringed edge, the other 4.5 cm. from the selv- 
age on the opposite short side. Yellow and red 
wool firmly spun, th. about 1.8 cm. In the warp 
rep border 75 threads to 5 cm., with a pair of 
wefts in each border shoot. The weft rep border 
has 22 threads to 2 cm., over two of the brown 
warps, gathered together. 

On both sides of the mantle at each junction 
between the transverse and longitudinal borders is 
a braid about 6 — 7 mm. wide, made of yellow and 
red wefts from the transverse border. L. of braids 
5—6 cm. 

The fringe is made of two warps twisted, 
gathered in links, one by one fastened to the lower 
edge of the fabric, three links twisted together 




into the end of every fringe. Th. about 6 mm. L. 
about 10.6 cm. 

L. of warp direction excl. fringe 171.4 cm. L. 
of incompl. weft direction 32.1 cm. 

Near the cordlike selvage and somewhat above 
the middle the mantle was gathered into three 
small bags containing Ephedra twigs. Only one 
of these is preserved. PI. 26:4 and Fig. 32. 

36:4. Footwear of raw hide, made after 

about the same pattern as 5. E:2. The 
hair turned outside on the sole, otherwise turned 
inside. The top and upper part in one, with only one 
scam running from the opening to the front and 
sideways. The tops have been tied together with one 
strap at each side. The upper edge of the tops is 
serrated. Into the toe arc inserted three red ends 
of wool and remnants of small feathers. Between 
heel and arch the sole has a notch at each side. 
Both soles arc joined in front with a narrow piece. 
The shoes seem scarcely to have been used. L. 26.5 
W. 10.5 H. 18 cm. In each shoe an inner sole: a 
square piece of brown lambskin with curly wool, 
finished with scallop stitching of red, untwisted 
woollen yarn 3 — 4 mm. thick. The sole in the left 
shoe 11X19 cm., the one in the right shoe has one 
end torn off, the edging is gone, size about 10X24 
cm. PI. 26 : 6. 

36:5. Small basket, plaited of grass and 

dicotyledonous roots and stems. Of the 
same shape and make as those from Cemetery 5, 
but decorated with net pattern. Cf. Mr. Ljungh's 
analysis, Appendix II. Thick handle of brown 
woollen cord. The basket is partly broken. H. 19.5 
cm. Diam. about 11 cm. PI. 26:1. 

36:6. Basket cover of white felt. Has been 

attached with white strings on top of 
— :5- 
36:7. Portion of fringe-like loin-cloth con- 

sisting of braided white woollen cord, 
round which alternately red and undyed white 
long double-wool strands have been laid and drawn 
together with a loop. Two undyed strands of wool, 
each folded with one loop alternating with two 
double red strands laid together. The strands of 
white wool are undulated and slightly felted, th. 
4 mm. The red strands are slightly felted and un- 
twisted, spun thread th. 2 mm. L. of loin-cloth 40 
cm., longest end of fringe 28 cm. The quality and 
colour of the wool the same as 5:148-149. PI. 

36:8. Doll made of wool rags fastened on 

to a small wooden peg of the same 
model as PI. 9:2. L. of peg 94 mm. 

Round and over the pin are thick strands of 
1'ght greyish brown and blackish-brown wool, 

also finer strands of wine-coloured wool, all more 
or less felted, th. about 3 — 1 mm. 

The top part forms the doll's head. Around the 
"face" a light greyish yellow strand of yarn, be- 
hind this a wine-coloured strand. About 4.5 cm. 
below the "face" the combined "neck" and "waist" 
are wound round with a blackish brown coarse 
folded strand with a loop holding some short 
brown grass(?), fixture for girdle(?). Round a 
part of the waist and hanging down between and 
around strands of yarn is laid a piece of coarse 
fabric of soft white wool. The woollen fabric is 
in plain weave and does not recur among the 
other Lop-nor finds. The warp is firmly twisted, 
th. 2 mm., 3 threads to I cm. The weft in shoot 
two threads parallel, vaguely spun ; two double 
threads to 1 cm. 

Size, excl. hanging strands, 14 cm. PI. 11:2. 

36:9. Small bundle of sinew-fibres and dark 

and light wool, twined two and a half 
times with fulled felt, thin and fine and wound 
five turns with red wool, th. 3 mm., of the same 
colour and quality as the felt. L. 9 cm. 

L. 258.6 

36: 10. Brown woollen string, L. 258.0 cm. 

Th. 3 mm. 
36:11. Braid, two pieces of the same kind, 

of white wool, th. 2 mm. Braiding 
made of eleven strands of yarn over one under 
one thread. W. about 1 cm. L. 28.7 and 31.1 cm. 

36: 12. Human hair, dark brown, partly turned 

36: 13. Tress of dark brown hair, the upper 

end tightly wound round with string. 
L. 61 cm. 

^6: 14. Small wooden comb, consisting of 

eleven round teeth (one missing) in- 
serted in a piece of sinew. L. 6.5 cm. Br. 6 cm. 
PI. 27 : 10. 

36:15. Pin of hard wood with barrel-shaped 

head decorated with four transverse 

bands, each bordered by a row of small incised 

triangles. L. 147 mm. L. of head 56 mm. PI. 27:8. 

36:16-17. Two pins of hard wood. The barrel- 
shaped heads are decorated with nine 
rows of small incised triangles, their points turned 
upwards. The rows arranged in groups of three. 
The triangles have been filled with red. L. 163 
mm. L. of heads 47 mm. — : 16 PI. 27: 7. 

36: 18-20. Three wooden pins of the same kind 
as — : 16— 17 but with plain heads. 

L. 154 — 134 mm. L. of heads 48 and 43 mm. — : 20 

PL 27:3. 

36:21. Bone pin with spool-shaped head. 

Smooth surface. L. 10 cm. PI. 27:4. 



On May 7th, Dr. Hedin discovered what he calls Ruin II, not very far from the 
first mass-grave in the delta. There was a small wooden structure on a terrace 13.2 
m. above the water level. Hedin calls it a ruined house. Of course it may have 
been a house, but it may as easily have formed part of a tomb structure, because 
at a depth of 1 m. they came across a grave. 

There was no proper coffin, only two horizontal logs placed parallel to each 
other. With the ends resting on the logs were nine irregular wooden boards 39— 
44 cm. long, and covering fragments of a skeleton. 

Fragments of a pair of raw-hide slippers, and two baskets were taken from the 
site. One of them, PI. 25 : 5, is of the same well-made type as those usually found 
in the graves of the autochthon Lou-Ian people. The pattern is not exactly that 
found on the baskets from "Ordek's necropolis" but resemble the decoration of the 
small baskets found in the Lou-Ian region. The other is a big flat shovel-shaped 
basketwork of a type that is still used for winnowing corn in China, Turkistan, India 
and so on, PL 25: 11. In grave L. S. 3 Stfin found three of these basket "trays" 
covering the coffin (Stein 1928, PL XXVIII). That our specimen has been long 
in use is seen from the repair of the bottom. 


37:i- Small basket, neatly plaited; small, 

nearly flat bottom surface, the wall 
widening: upwards (though not so much as is 
seen in PI. 25:5, which shows the basket in its 
present flattened shape). Decorated with horizontal 
zig-zag: bands of glossy grass. Part of the rim 
damaged. Has had a handle of strings fastened 
on the outside of the wall with separate coils. 
Manufactured in the same way as the baskets 
found in Cemetery 5. H. 15.5. cm. Diam. about 12 
cm. PI. 25 : 5. 

37:2. Shallow basket-work tray of long 

narrow shovel-shape, with upturned 
edge round one end, which is rounded. The other 
end is finished off flat and square. The basket- 
work is strongly woven. Damaged, partly mended 
with a piece from other basket-work of finer 
weave. Size about 60X40 cm. PI. 25:11. 

37=3-4- Two pieces of the same thin basket- 
work as 5. G:2. 

37: 5-6. Toe part from a pair of raw hide slip- 
pers, the hair turned inside. Sewn 
with the seams turned inwards. 

E. MASS-GRAVE 2. (NO. 38). 

On May 19th Dr. Hedin's men discovered another cemetery on a mesa sit- 
uated a few hundred metres to the east of Stein's locality L. F., which is a ruin and 
a cemetery. Across the mound there was a kind of palisade running from SE to 
NW, 3.9 m. long, the distance between the two lines of poles being from 0.86 to 
1.04 m. Near this palisade four graves were found, one of which was examined. 

It contained eight skulls as well as other human bones. Of the funeral deposits 





• -v£*ft*t -— 

.: :i 

Bwch fc^'-'f^s? Rca rer-v-;-^ ye now 


Fig- 33- Unfolded design of the lower part of the lacquered vessel no. 38:12. 

some samples were brought back, and among these the following are worth men- 

No. 38: 1 is a head-dress of plain red-brown silk, fitting tight to the head. PI. 
23:2 is a piece of silk with a die-printed pattern: some kind of figure of curved 
lines repeated six times, a rather early example of printed textiles. 

A coarsely made clay cup with a handle, PI. 27: 5, and two wooden food-trays or 
troughs, PI. 27: 1 — 2, were recovered, the latter having dried-up remains of sour 
milk sticking to the surface, apparently a food-offering to the dead. (Cf. Appendix 

There was also a much broken cylindrical vessel of a finer quality than the rest 
of the objects. It was once lacquered in four colours with a design, the remains of 
which are seen in Fig. 33. When complete the vessel was probably twice as high 
as seen in the figure, and fitted with a small handle. A similar vessel, also from 
the Lop-nor region, is published by Mr. Huang Wen-pi (Huang 1933, 1, Fig. 27). 

The two wooden combs PL 25 : 4 and 6 are of the ordinary Han type. Both of 
them were roughly re-shaped in ancient time, probably after having been slightly 

The content of this second collective grave is less varied than that of the one first 
discovered. It also contained fewer individuals. I have also the impression that it 
was searched in a more careless or rapid way than the first one, and that this is 
partly the cause of the poorer result. 


38: 1. Oval cap of silk in plain weave, vari- 

ous shades of brown. The crown con- 
sists of three layers: furthest out light reddish- 
brown silk rep; interlining of coarse yellow fabric 
in plain weave, of animal's hair; inner lining of 
loosely woven yellowish-brown silk rep. Around 
the crown a strip, folded and sewn together on the 
inside, of nutbrown rep, attached towards the 

front to a piece of lighter reddish rep of the same 
kind as in the crown. The strip at the back is sewn 
on to Ihe crown and tied in a knot in front over 
the forehead. Along the crown from back to front 
a seam runs through all three materials. 

38 : 2. 

Piece of yellowish silk felt, tied in a 
large knot. 



Tress of black hair and plait of yel- 
lowish white wool. 

38:4-5. Two pieces of wool rep, undycd and 
deep red. 

38:6. Narrow strip of silk rep, probably 

undycd, discoloured to yellowish 
brown, with printed pattern in black China-ink: 
incomplete scrolls, repeated six times. PI. 23:2. 

38 : 7. Fragm. of yellow silk rep with attached 

strip of green silk rep and three small 

fragm. of a green strip with the edges turned in. 





Large piece of undyed ( ?) yellowish- 
brown silk rep with one selvage. 

More or less triangular piece of yel- 
lowish-brown silk rep with two seams 
and hem along biased edge. 

Small fragm. of a rug, woven in twill 
of grass fibre, probably a single thread 
of animal's hair. 

Small earthenware cup with ring- 
shaped handle, and opposite to this a 
small lip. Flat bottom. Roughly shaped. Light- 
red ware intermixed with grains of sand. Rim 
damaged. Diam. of bottom 7.5 — 8 cm. H. 8 cm. 
PL 27:5- 

38:12, Fragm. of cylindrical wooden vessel 
with traces of lacquer. The round 
bottom consists of a flat piece, lacquered red on 
the inside, brown on the outside. Diam. n. 1 — 
1 1.3 cm. The wall consists of a thin pane shaped 
into a cylinder, the ends overlapping and glued 
together (now open). The larger part of the wall 
is preserved from the bottom to a height of 8 cm., 
though broken in several pieces. On the outside 
the ground has been brown, the pattern red, black 
and yellowish-brown, all in lacquer. The preserved 
parts of the pattern is shown in Fig. 33. The 

inside is lacquered red. Thickness of wall increases 
towards top. 

A fragm. from the upper rim is lacquered red 
on the inside and brown on the outside, 7.6 cm. 
high. Traces of red and yellow stripes on the 
outside along the rim. A small flat handle, 1.8 cm. 
wide, in the shape of half a cylinder, 1.7 cm. below 
the rim. Only the ends remain sticking in their 
holes in the wall. On the inner side of the wall the 
ends have been joined together with two small 
wooden needles, 1.8 cm. long. This fragm. of an 
upper rim might belong to another vessel. 

38: 13. Three fragm. of an oval wooden food- 

tray or shallow trough, with four low 
legs, made out of one piece. The legs are round 
in section, about 2 cm. high. The original size of 
the tray probably 46X28 cm. For reconstruction 
cf. PI. 27:1. 

38:14. Wooden trough, quite shallow, rect- 

angular, with rounded corners and 
slightly rounded ends, which are somewhat higher 
than the long sides. L. 45 cm. Br. 25—26 cm. H. 
in the middle about 5 cm., at the ends about 8 cm. 
PI. 27 \ 2. 

38:15. Wooden comb with high back, origi- 

nally parabolic, and fine teeth. Cut 
off in ancient times. H. 7.9 cm. Br. 5 cm., origi- 
nally broader. PI. 25:4. 

38:16. Main part of a wooden comb with 
very coarse teeth. The high back ir- 
regular, deformed. H. 5.9 cm. Br. 5.2 cm., origi- 
nally broader. PI. 25 : 6. 

38: 17. Wooden peg, semicircular section, the 

ends tapering and having a step. 17.5 
X0.8 cm. 

38:18. Wooden peg like — 117 but without 

steps at the ends. 18.2X0.9 cm. 

38: 19. Small thin pointed wooden peg. L. 18.2 


F. GRAVE (?) NEAR HEDIN'S CAMP 80. (NO. 39) 

Camp 80 in Qum-darya's delta served as a base for Dr. Hedin and Mr. Chen 
during their common efforts to survey the Lop lake with canoes. During their ab- 
sence some of the servants collected about one hundred beads of glass, shell, 
and carnelian. Mr. Chen, who handed over these finds to me, was of the opinion 
that they originated from one or more graves which the servants had come across 
on a mesa in the vicinity of the camp. 

The glass beads are all small, mostly white translucent, but a few had originally 


been gilded, PL 15: 19. The double-bead PL 15: 13 had also been gilded and recalls 
beads from Lou-Ian. Eleven small white beads are identical with some from Ceme- 
tery 5 (cf. PL 15:15)- PL 15:12 depicts thirty-one diminutive beads of violet 
glass. PL 15: 17 is of carnelian, and PL 15: 18 probably of frit. 



39: 1. Sixty small glass beads, two of which 

are yellow (one even showing traces 
of gilding) the rest white. Diam. 5 — 3 mm. PI. 

39 : 2. 


Thirty-one very small beads of violet 
glass. Diam. 2 — i mm. PI. 15: 12. 

Double-bead of gilt glass. L. 7 mm. PI. 

39 = 4- Eleven small flat beads of shell, 

identical with 5:21. Have been thread- 
ed on a brown woollen string. Diam. 4 mm. 

39:5. Spherical carnelian bead. Diam. 17 

mm. PL 15: 17. 

39:6. Spherical carnelian bead. Diam. 9 mm. 

39: 7. Spherical bead of frit (?) with parallel 

grooves. Once possibly covered with 
blue glaze. Diam. 12 mm. PI. 15:18. 


Among the graves along The Small River found by me there are only single 
graves, but those found by Dr. Hedin in the delta consist both of single graves and 
mass-graves. If we classify them according to their contents we find that Cemetery 
5 ("Order's necropolis"), Grave 36 and 37 are autochthonous, whereas the two 
mass-graves and Grave 35 are Chinese. As to the minor burial places 6 and 7, 
they may be Indian (and Chinese?). I leave No. 39 out of consideration as we 
know too little of the circumstances around this "find". 

Let us turn first to the autochthonous graves. 

As pointed out in the description of the outer setting of the funeral site called 
"Order's necropolis" as well as in the treatment of the individual graves, the uni- 
form type of coffin, with a small variant, is noteworthy, especially as this site is the 
largest cemetery known from the Lop-nor region. The same homogeneity is a char- 
acteristic of the funeral deposits, as far as they can be ascertained after the 
deplorable destruction caused to most of the coffins by both man and Nature. These 
facts prove that those buried have had one and the same civilization, and most likely 
belonged to one and the same people. 

It is to be regretted that the circumstances did not allow of any complete mummy 
being brought back to Europe for professional examination. This was, however, 
impossible on account of practical difficulties in connection with transport, and 
even the "finds" themselves led to complications with certain officials, as Dr. 
Hedin has told in his personal narrative (Hedin 1936). The skulls lying exposed 


were defective or partly destroyed by the elements. We have thus only some photo- 
graphs of mummies from this Cemetery 5 but no measurable bodies. 

From comparisons with Stein's cemeteries from the regions more to the east, 
i. e. in and around the present delta, it is evident that our Cemetery 5 belongs to 
the same group as those which Stein assigns to the autochthon Lou-Ian popula- 
tion. Stein brought away two skulls from this kind of graves. Joyce characterizes 
them as belonging to Homo alpimts. Nowadays Homo alpinus is best represented 
among the Iranian-speaking hillmen of the valleys adjoining the Pamirs, and also 
forms a very conspicuous element in the racial composition of the present popula- 
tion of the Tarim Basin. 

Stein emphasizes the non-Mongolian features of the Lop-nor mummies, and I 
have been able, on the whole, to confirm his statement. One or two of the mummi- 
fied heads at Cemetery 5 had, however, broad cheek-bones giving them a "Mon- 
golian" look, but this might be due to the individual variations that occur in every 
race or type (Cf. the photo facing p. 209 in Hedin 1937). The long hair is a non- 
Mongolian feature. 

In Stein's grave L. Q. Ill the mummy had a red moustache, and in a partly 
destroyed grave 2.5 km. NNE of L. I. the corpse had fair hair (Stein 1928, p. 288), 
traces that would confirm the supposition of the race as non-Mongolian. In Mass- 
grave I, which I have labelled as Chinese, Dr. Hedin found human hair of dark- 
brown but also of red-brown colour. 

If we compare the autochthon graves known from the delta region with 
"Order's necropolis" we find less homogeneity in the first group. The types 
of coffin vary considerably, and so do the wooden monuments surrounding them, 
where such exist and have been preserved. The woollen textiles seem to be of a 
finer quality than those most common on "Order's necropolis", the felt head-dress- 
es are of thinner felt and more elegant, and the small baskets are decorated with 
another pattern than those from Order's place. The triangle pattern on the wooden 
pegs also differs in some details. These phenomena do not denote anything but local 
or chronological variations in the handicraft of the same people. It is possible that the 
autochthon population living in the present delta region had closer relations with 
some other people, from whom they received cultural influences which somewhat 
changed their funeral customs. The people buried at "Order's necropolis", on the 
other hand, seem to have been living isolated, at least from Chinese influence. As 
far as I know, none of the articles which are typical of the autochthon graves have 
been found outside the Lop-nor region. 

Racially the autochthons may have been rather homogeneous over large parts 
of the Tarim Basin. The political divisions into many small kingdoms can be ex- 
plained by the curious physical conditions prevailing: sharply defined oases separat- 
ed by large desert regions. 

From Chinese sources we know of intercourse between the Lou-Ian people and 


PL X1I1 

a I )r. 1 ledin at Mass-grave I. 
Photo by Mr, Chen, 


b. The mummy in Grave 35, Photo by Mr. Chen. 

C. Grave 35. The mummy removed from 

the coffin and resting on the lid. 

Photo l.v Mr. Chen. 



a. The ruined watch-tower 

near The Small River, seen 

from X, 

b. The ruined watch-tower 

Sanjc or Tsonch (Stein 

Y, VII) between Korla and 

Ving-pan, seen from E. 

c. The ruined watch-tower 

near Sai - chekc (Stein 

Y ; VI) between Korla and 

Ying-uan, seen from S\V. 

the Hsiung-nu (Huns) and this is hinted at also on p. 166 (and Bergman 1935 c, pp. 
106—108), though there have been no close affinities between the two peoples. 
This is attested for instance by the textiles. Miss Sylwan has drawn my attention 
to the fact that the woven fabrics of wool from the Lop-nor graves are technically 
of a higher quality than the felt from there. The Lou-Ian people were skilful weavers 
and knew well how to utilize their primitive resources. We know nothing about 
any definitely Hunnish textile fabrics, 1 but we are fully aware that the Huns manu- 
factured e. g. excellent felt carpets (the Noyan-ola tombs). In this respect the Mon- 
gols are true successors to the Huns : they have not learned the art of weaving to 
this day, but they produce felt of high quality. Miss Sylwan will enter more 
thoroughly into this matter in her forthcoming publication on the textiles. 

The Chinese expansion into the Tarim Basin started in the last decades of the 
second century B. C, and the Lou-Ian kingdom must have been the first part to be 
subdued. At the beginning there were hardly any Chinese settlements here. In 
B. C. 49 the military station T'u-ken existed, and by and by the Chinese influence 
must have made itself perceptible. The homogeneity of the graves at "Ordek's necro- 
polis" and the absence of silk stuff there might be used as arguments for regarding 
this cemetery as anterior to the time of the Chinese domination of the Lou-Ian 

Finally we will touch on the question of the chronology of the Chinese graves. 
The Lop-nor mass-graves are no doubt secondary graves and have nothing in 
common with, for instance, Siberian mass-graves. The primary tombs have prob- 
ably in most cases consisted of single graves, such as Grave 35 (and possibly double- 
graves). If these latter were placed on too low ground where inundation would one 
day threaten the tombs with destruction, or if they were exposed to the ill-effects 
of the ever active wind-erosion, the corpses had to be moved and reburied at a 
safer place in accordance with the pious Chinese custom to take care of the dead 
relatives. Only the tops of the big mesas could afford a relatively safe resting place 
for the dead. Inundation from the river could never reach so high, and the effect 
of wind-erosion was also less strong on the hard mesa material than on the rather 
soft yardang clay. Stein, who advocates this theory, is of the opinion that the 
Chinese settlers in Lou-Ian, when they perceived the grave situation approaching 
through the diminishing water-supply in the Tarim delta, collected the contents of 
all exposed graves before leaving the region and reburied them in safe places on 
the high mesas. 

This explanation is quite reasonable and explains the mixed contents of the collec- 

1 I am not at all convinced of the correctness of Camilla Trever's statement when she ascribes certain of 
the woollen textiles from Noyan-ola to the Huns. And the examples of Hunnish textiles which Alfoldi mentions 
in his review of Trever's book (in Artibus Asiae 6, pp. 160 ff.) may refer to embroideries or felt carpets and 
not to really woven materials. 



tive graves as well as their incomplete skeletons. The sepulchral articles in each 
grave must consequently be of a somewhat varying age. We therefore cannot date 
these objects more precisely than within the earlier and middle part of the Lou-Ian 
period, say ioo B. C. — 300 A. D. Most of the datable objects in the mass-graves 
seem to point to the later Han dynasty. Our Mass-grave 1, for instance, cannot 
have been built earlier than the end of the second century A. D., probably later. This 
is attested by Prof. Konow's dating of the Kharoshthi script on the silk strip No. 

I have to object to the method used by Stein in dating one of the Chinese silks 
found at Lou-Ian. He compares his L.C.x.04 with T.XXII.c.ooio a, the latter from 
a refuse-heap near one of the watch-towers on the Tun-huang Limes, where a 
wooden record dated 98 B. C. was also found. If these objects had been excavated 
from a single grave the date of the record would have been more valid for the silk. 
Now they originate from a refuse-heap which has been long "in use", and under 
such conditions we have to reckon with the whole period of occupation of the ruin 
to which the refuse-heap belongs, and we thus come well down into the second 
century A. D. Only if we count in this way are we on the safe side. The stylistic 
analogies are also far from convincing, as can be seen from the reproductions. This 
date has nevertheless been generally accepted and quoted in all cases where the 
chronology of the Lou-Ian silks has been considered. I do not deny that both of the 
silks are among the oldest known from Central Asia. They may perfectly well be of 
the first or even the second century B. C, but such a statement must be based only 
on stylistic criteria. 

When Stein comes to this silk L.C.03ib and compares it with the silk piece 
T.XV.a.002 from another Tun-huang tower with MSS. from B. C. 53 to A. D. 
137, he applies these chronological limits to the Lou-Ian silk. Here his method is 
unassailable, and the stylistic analogies are evident. These years do not, however, 
constitute absolute limits for the occurrence of these silks in Central Asia. 

The barrenness and desolation of the Lop desert is only intensified by the occur- 
rence of so many grave-yards. The best preserved mummies give more an impression 
of human beings asleep than dead, and the few who have experienced the strange 
sensation of confronting them have stood in amazement at the marvel of Nature 
which has kept them so life-like for two milleniums. In the delta region the high 
mesa plateaus, which had the same appearance then as they have now, were chosen 
as grave-yards in order to secure the dead from moisture and animals. There the 
people of Lou-Ian are resting in their last sleep, all faithfully joined in death. From 
their relatives they have got provisions and symbolic objects meant to enable them 
to carry on their accustomed life also beyond the grave. Uncounted storms have 
roared over their heads, stars have glistened over the tombs on quiet nights, and 


every summer the hot glowing sun has burned down on their tombs. A peaceful 

resting-place they certainly had, until strangers came and disturbed them in trying | 

to reveal something of the unknown and to dispel something of the oblivion which 

has for so lang rested over this lonely part of Central Asia. 


The ruins of solidly constructed fortresses with walls of stamped clay, stupas of 
sun-dried bricks, and dwelling houses or temples with less solid walls but having 
reinforcements of timber, form the most conspicuous remains of human settlements 
of bygone ages in what for so many centuries has been an absolute desert. Thanks 
to the efforts of all visitors — in reality they are not very many — to these desolate 
regions quite a number of ruins have been discovered and put on record. In all prob- 
ability many more await discovery, though probably none of any marked size. 

Sven Hedin was the first to discover ancient ruins in the Lop desert, which 

happened on his expedition 1900 and 1901. He has fully described these events in 

his great work "Scientific Results of a Journey in Central Asia", Vol. II, and in 

his personal narrative "Asien". I have already discussed these questions in BMFEA 
7, pp. 72—74. 

The next to visit these grounds was the American geographer Ellsworth Hunt- 
ington. Between Altmish-bulaq and the Lou-Ian station he, early in 1906, came 
across a good-sized house on the top of a great mesa, and half a mile from there 
were parts of an ancient s a t m a or shepherd's hut of reeds (Huntington p. 262). 
On his map he has marked seven ruins (beside the Lou-Ian station) between Alt- 
mish-bulaq and Chivillik-kol. Save the two just mentioned he gives no particulars as 
to their appearance or exact position, and it is impossible to correlate them with 
the ruins found by later explorers. I have thus been unable to enter them on mv 
maps. As far as mentioned in his book no collections of antiquities were made. 

Sir Aurel Stein surveyed the Lou-Ian region both in the winter season 1906 — 07 
and 1914, visiting all ruins discovered by Hedin, and tracing many others. In the 
following I use Stein's designations also for those ruins found by Hedin, cf. the 
map Fig. 37. In practically all localities he undertook excavations which yielded rich 
collections of antiquities of about the same kind as those brought to light by Hedin. 

The Japanese scholar Tachibana paid a visit to the Lou-Ian station in 19 10, but 
I am unaware of any discoveries of ruins made by him. 

The Chinese archaeologist Huang Wen-pi, who took part in Dr. Hedin's great 

1 I have discussed the Lop-nor graves anterior to the ruins from there because the former have yielded much 
more important finds, though it would have been more logical to start with the ruined dwellings and take the 
graves last. 


expedition to Sinkiang in 1927 — 30, travelled, in 1930, to the northern part of the 
Lop-nor basin. There he located a ruined station and several structures at one of the 
three northernmost freshwater bays of the present lake Lop-nor. From the context 
of some Chinese records on wood bearing the dates B. C. 49 and B. C. 12 — 9, which 
were excavated by Huang, he has stated the name of the ruin to be T'u-ken 
(Huang 1930). Huang's discoveries here are of outstanding importance for the 
chronology of the Lou-Ian settlements as his dated manuscripts are the oldest 
known from the whole area. 

Horner and Chen, in 1931, passed Huang's place T'u-ken, and it is thanks to 
their mapping that the position of the ruin has been fixed. According to Horner 
( T 93*> P- 370 tn ere are ruins of one big house with partly standing timber posts 
from the walls, and one smaller, more solidly built structure. Probably there were 
formerly still more buildings. 

Horner and Chen found the upper part of the iron knife PI. 30: 10 and the bronze 
tube PI. 30: 5 in these ruins. The knife is of a Chinese Han dynasty type, and was 
at least 30 cm. long when complete. It may be labelled as a weapon. The bronze tube 
is the upper part of a hooked socket which protected the end of a wooden rod in a 
canopy (cf. p. 168). Its nearest parallel is from the tomb of Wang Kuang in Korea 
(Oba and Kayamoto, PL 84), which is also of the Han dynasty. 



The main site of the whole Lop-nor region, and its once military centre, is the 
ruined station of Lou-Ian which Dr. Hedin was fortunate enough to discover in 
March 1901, and from which he brought away a certain number of Chinese records 
on wood and paper besides various other finds. The manuscripts and the small finds 
were published by Conrady in 1920, and after another fifteen years the wood- 
carvings were described by me together with a fuller treatment of all the small finds. 

The ruins have been searched twice by Stein, and also visited by Huntington, 
Tachibana, Horner and Chen. The latter is the only Chinese to have seen, in our 
days, what is left of this Chinese outpost on the Silk Road. He has visited the site 
thrice, which is more than any of the others have done. 

The joint visit of Horner and Chen resulted in a collection of various small 
articles (listed as No. K. 13378 below), and Chen's visits in 1934 gave an addition 
to this collection (No. 32 in the list). 


Of Wang Mang's issues Huo-ch'uan and Ta-ch'iian-wu-shih there were found 
two, and one specimens respectively, and of the normal Han dynasty Wu-ch'u 


twenty-one specimens. Besides these there are one clipped Wu-ch'u, eight without 
outer rim, and twelve Wu-ch'u of small size, i. e. debased. Twenty-one "Goose-eyes" 
and twenty-two uncertain fragments were also recovered. No. 32 : 57 may be a non- 
Chinese copper coin, but this is very dubious. 

The discovery of these coins confirms the numismatic results arrived at through 
the studies of earlier Lou-Ian collections. 


Two bronze arrow-heads with triangular section are of the ordinary Han type. PI. 
28 : 43 has a triangular depression on each surface, and a short circular shank, 
whereas the specimen No. 32 : 59 lacks both of these distinctions. 

PI. 28: 42, of iron, is either a tanged arrow-head or else some sort of awl. 


PI. 28 : 1 — 2 show two fragments from the rim of bronze mirrors of Chinese make, 
apparently of Han types. The first one has about the same decoration on the thick 
rim as the complete specimen from Ying-p'an (PI. 15: 4). The second fragment is of 
the same type as Umehara 1933 PI. 76, which is dated to the second or the third 
century A. D. The rim is thin with a low ridge just as is PL 28: 4. A third fragment, 
No. 32 : 62 may be from the same mirror as the second one. 

PI. 28 : 4 is from a small mirror with floral design in low relief, of the type Ume- 
hara PI. 77 — 78 from the later Han dynasty, and No. K. 13378: 35 also comes from 
a mirror of this type. 

For further discussion of the mirrors cf. p. 165. 

Personal ornaments, strap fittings, etc. 

The nice bronze finger ring PI. 28: 37 has an oval ruby as bezel. 

PI. 28 : 36 is another finger ring of bronze, a sewing ring. Besides these there is 
a fragmentary finger ring and a small piece of a second sewing ring. 

There is a number of beads from Lou-Ian, seventeen of glass, seven of stone and 
two of shell. The double-beads PI. 28: 15 — 17 have exact parallels among Hedin's 
earlier finds (Bergman 1935 c, PI. XIII: 11 — 13). PI. 28:6 is an eye-bead of blue 
glass and of inferior quality. PI. 28: 25 — 26 are round beads made from the marine 
shell of a Turbo. The same material has been used for the fragmentary ring PI. 28 : 
8, whereas Hedin's beads of shell were made of a Quadrula, i. e. a freshwater 


shell (Bergman 1935 c, PI. XIII 123 — 29). A piece of an Anodonta, a freshwater 
shell, was also found here. 

The glass object PI. 28: 5 has also an exact parallel among Hedin's finds (Berg- 
man PL XIII: 1). It is not a proper bead but has been attached to a rod of some 
kind as ornament. A third specimen was found by Dr. B. Boiilin in a tower of the 
Tun-huang limes together with Han objects (MFEA K. 13473:3). 

Of other glass articles there are just a couple of sherds from vessels, No. 32 : 138 
is yellowish-white, translucent and has traces of large ground ovals of a kind 
occurring in Hedin's old finds from here. Two other sherds are of light green and 
uncoloured glass. All the glass objects are certainly importations from the eastern 
part of the Roman Empire, and it is interesting to observe how exactly the same 
Roman beads occur both in the Tarim Basin and in Sweden. It has now been 
proved by spectrum analysis that some of the Lou-Ian glass objects from Hedin's 
old collection are certainly of western origin. This applies both to fragments of 
vessels and beads (Seligman 1938, PI. IV: 7 — 9 and 12). 

The simple bronze ring PI. 28:40 occurs in several examples in Hedin's old 
collection. Now we have also got a square one, PI. 28:41. 

The two-looped button PI. 28: 39 has a parallel in Stein's collection (Stein 1928. 
PI. X, Badr. 01 17, from Khotan), and there is also a specimen in The Hallwyl 
Collection in Stockholm (I: C, z. 2) besides several in MFEA, especially K. 11003: 
1406 which has been gilt. This button type seems to be Chinese. 

Diminutive bells are well known from this region, but the specimen PL 28: n is 
extra small. 

It may appear a little risky to reconstruct such a fragment as PI. 28 : 38 but I am 
convinced that it has been of about the same shape and had the same function as 
those depicted in the publication of the Keishu Gold-crown Tomb (Hamada and 
Umehara Fig. 33), i. e. a heart-shaped hinged girdle fitting. The Korean specimens 
are not more precicely dated than within the Six dynasties (265 — 589). J They are 
supposed to go back to nomad prototypes. 

The two identical strap fittings PI. 28: 34 — 35 of thin bronze have been fitted on 
a girdle or strap to suspend rings. 

There are no complete belt buckles from the Lou-Ian station, only three possible 
tongues of bronze buckles. 

The leaf-shaped plate PI. 29: 5 has iron rust at the broad end. In shape it coin- 
cides with PI. 29 : 7 but its use is unknown. 

As there is some refuse from bronze casting here as well as in many other places 

in the surroundings, the manufacture of various bronze articles must have taken 
place locally. 

1 Hentze's opinion that the gold crown tombs are of ihe Han dynasty as stated in his paper in OZ 19 is 
difficult to understand. 


Other metal objects. 

The lead hook PI. 28: 48 has possibly been used as a weight in some way or other. 
Of such small sinkers as PL 28 : 44, 46 there are eight specimens. They are all of 
lead and are quite common in the Lop desert. 

The thin small lead disc PL 28: 33 with its irregular hole may be a coin, but it is 
very uncertain. For lead coins cf. Bergman 1935c p. 100. 

One iron point has already been mentioned. In the list I have labelled PL 29: 20 
as a hammer but this designation may be questionable because of the small hole. 

Several more fragments are of iron; some of them being from nails. 

Wooden objects. 

The comb PL 29: 1 is of a typical Chinese shape used in the Han period. It has 
many parallels from the grave finds described in this volume, in my Han dynasty 
finds from Edsen-gol (still unpublished), the Chinese tombs from Korea, and so 

A crescent-shaped small object PL 29: 6 has possibly served as the top ornament 
on a miniature stupa from some Buddhistic altar. 

Pottery and stone articles. 

From the Lou-Ian station very few potsherds have been collected. No. 32: 174 
is a shard from the flat bottom of a larger vessel which has had five steam holes. 
Horner brought back a small pottery lamp, PL 28:45 in the shape of a low, flat 

Five spindle whorls are made of potsherds, PL 29: 14, two of bitumen. There are 
seven specimens of more or less regular whorls of blue limestone, some of which 
may have been used in spinning, others as net sinkers, PL 29: 8. 

Four more or less complete whetstones come from here, PL 29: 19, made of slate. 
The smaller specimens have apparently been carried hanging at the girdle. 

Of stone objects there is also a marble mace-head (broken in three) PL 29:9, 
which may be compared with the more spherical specimen PL 29: 12 from the neigh- 
bourhood of Lou-Ian. Stein found a mace-head at Fort L. K. (Stein 1928, L. K. 
0130) and a stone sphere of lamellar structure with a large hole at the Lou-Ian sta- 
tion (Stein 1928, L. A. 093). From Vash-shahri there is another fragment depicted 
on our PL 37: 10. Such stone weapons were apparently in use during a long period 
of time. 

On his last visit Mr. Chen collected several small limestone and marble pebbles 
which must have been carried thither by man, as no stones exist in the clay desert 
around Lou-Ian. Some of them seem to have been polished by art, and they may have 
been used in some kind of game. 



I B 


K- 13378: 5- 

K. 13378 : 6. 
K. 13378 : 7- 
K. 13378:8. 

K. 13378:9. 
K. 13378: 10. 

Objects collected by Horner and Chen, in 1931. 
K. 13378:1. Low, round earthenware cup, 

brick-red. Apparently a lamp as 
the rim has a small lip. Diam. 79 mm. H. 25 mm. 
PI. 28 : 45- 

K. 13378:2-4. Three spindle whorls made of 

grey potsherds. Diam. 40—26 mm. 
— :2. PI. 29:14, — :4. PI. 29:4. 

About half of a large spindle 
whorl of blue limestone. Diam. 62 
mm. Th. 15 mm. 

Irregular sinker of blue lime- 
stone. PI. 29:8. 

Disc of blue limestone, unfinished 
whorl. Diam. 4 cm. 

Mace-head of white marble (in 
three parts), spheroid. Diam. 65 
mm. Th. 31 mm. PI. 29:9. 

Fragm. of much used whetstone 
of slate with suspension hole. L. 
85 mm. 

Eye-bead of blue glass. Two 
"eyes" empty, the other two filled 
with black, brown and white giass. 
Diam. 8 mm. PI. 28 : 6. 

K. 13378:11-13. Three fragm. of carnelian beads. 

K. 13378:14. Small piece of turquoise. 

K- 13378: I5 _I 8. Four Wu-ch'u coins, two of them 

fragmentary. Diam. 27 — 24 mm. 

K - 1 33/8: 19-20. Two fragm. of Chinese copper 

coins without legend. 

K. 13378 = 21-24. Four Wu-ch'u coins (three of 
them fragm.) without outer rim 
and with incomplete characters. Not clipped but 
cast in this way. — :2i diam. 17 mm. PI. 28: 28. 

K. 13378:25. Fragm. of Chinese copper coin 

with thick verdigris. Diam. 21 mm. 

K. 13378 : 26-32. Seven coins without legend, 

partly "Goose-eyes". Diam. 20 — 
10 mm. — :26 PI. 28:31, — 127 
PI. 28:30. 

Leaf-shaped bronze plate. At the 

broader end traces of iron rust. 

55X33 mm. PI. 29:5. 

Fragm. of rather small thin 

bronze mirror with floral pattern 

executed in low relief in the middle part. The rim 

is slightly ridged, 2.4 mm. thick. Diam. has been 

about 86 mm. PI. 28 : 4. 

K- 1 3378: 33- 

K. 13378 : 34- 

K. 13378 : 35- 

K. 13378:36. 
K. 133/8:37. 

Small fragm. of bronze plate with 
relief design on one side. From a 

Small semicircular bronze fitting 
with a rivet. 15X10 mm. 

K. 13378:38 

K- 13378:39 
K. 13378:40 

K. 13378:41 
K. 13378:42 

Fragm. of small bronze fitting 
with a rivet hole. Cf. No. 32:90. 
16X18 mm. PI. 28:34. 

Tongue-bar of bronze, from 
buckle, slightly curved. 

Part of bronze pin. 

Twelve bronze fragm. and refuse 
from casting. 

Small piece of slag. 

Oblong bar of lead, the pointed 
end terminates in a semicircular 

hook. Used as some kind of weight ? 65X14 mm. 

PI. 28:48. 

K. 13378:43. Small iron arrow-point? square 

section on pointed part, otherwise 
circular. Portion of tang remaining. Might pos- 
sibly have been an awl. L. 55 mm. PI. 28:42. 

K. 13378 : 44- Wooden comb with rather coarse 

teeth and parabolic back. 65X40 
X6 mm, PI. 29; 1, 

K. 13378:45. Small crescent-shaped wooden 

object with a round central hole. 
Probably from top of miniature stupa. W. between 
points 41 mm. PI. 29:6. 

K. 13378:46. Portion of a shell of an Anodonta. 

K. 13378:47- Piece of sulphur. 

Objects collected by Mr. Chen in 1934. 

32:1-2. Two fragm. of Chinese coins, Huo- 
ch'iian (Wang Mang issue). Diam. 21 

Fragm. of Chinese coin, Ta-(ch'iian- 
wu-shih). Wang Mang issue. 

Fragm. of Chinese coin, possibly = 
— : I. Diam. 22 mm. 

Three Chinese coins, Wu-ch'u. Diam. 
26 mm. 

Wu-ch'u coin with partly clipped rim. 
Diam. 24 mm. PI. 28:3. 

Fourteen fragm. of Wu-ch'u coins. 

Seventeen coin fragm. without visible 
legend, probably Wu-ch'u. 


= 3- 


: + 










32: 24-27. Four Wu-ch'u coins with insignificant, 
or entirely missing outer rim. Diam. 
24 — 21 mm. 

32:28-39. Twelve Wu-ch'u coins, three of them 
fragmentary, the outer rim missing, 
and cast so small that the legend is only partly 
visible. Diam. 20 — 14 mm. — =36 PI. 28:29. 

32 : 40-53. Fourteen "Goose-eye" coins. Diam. 
14 — 8 mm. — : 49 PI. 28:32. 

32 : 54. Small coin, possibly a late Wu-ch'u. 

The size is that of a "Goose-eye" but 
the shape is more regular. Diam. 11 mm. 

32:55-56. Two fragm. of "Goose-eyes". 

32:57. Non-Chinese copper coin? covered 

with thick verdigris. Diam. about 16 

32 : 58. Triangular bronze arrow-head with 

short, circular shank. The sides are 
slightly convex, each having a small triangular 
depression. 29X11 mm. PI. 28:43. 

32 : 59. Triangular bronze arrow-head with 

flat sides. The edges slightly rounded 
towards the base. 23X9 mm. 

32:60. Fragm. of fairly large bronze mirror. 

The thickened rim, 23 mm. wide, has 
a "double-wave" band and a "saw tooth" pattern. 
Inside this runs a zone with "oblique comb tooth" 
pattern. Diam. has been about 14.5 cm. Th. of rim 
3.5 mm. PI. 28: 1. 

32 : 61. Fragm. of the rim of a bronze mirror. 

The rim, 13 mm. wide, is slightly 
thickened. Inside it are traces of a distinct star 
pattern. Diam. has been near 9 cm. Th. of rim 2.5 
mm. PI. 28 : 2. 

32 : 62. 
32 : 63. 

32 : 64. 
32 : 65. 

Small fragm. of bronze mirror, possibly 
belonging to — :6i. 

Front part of bronze finger ring 
(broken in two) with an oval ruby as 
bezel. PI. 28:37. 

Small fragm. of bronze finger ring, 

Sewing ring of bronze. Diam. 19 mm. 
Br. 8 mm. PI. 28:36. 

32:66. Fragm. of sewing ring of bronze. Br. 

5 mm. 

32 : 67. Bronze ring, made of a bent rod. 

Diam. 19 mm. PI. 28:40. 

32:68. Square bronze ring. 18X18X8 mm. PI. 

32:69-71. Three fragm. of small round bronze 

plates with central hole. 

32 : -j2. Round bronze button with two big 

loops on the reverse side. The front 
part is slightly vaulted and has two steps. Diam. 
21 mm. PI. 28:39. 

32:73. Small bronze button with a loop. 

Diam. 1 cm. 

32 : 74" 75- Two small bronze buttons with a pin 
on the reverse side. Diam. 14 and 12 

32:76-78. Three small bronze rivets with vault- 
ed heads and a small plate at the other 
end. Diam. 8 mm. L. 10 mm. — : yy PI. 28: 10. 

32 : 79. Small bronze pendant shaped as a 

hollow pyramid. 12X11 mm. PI. 28:9. 

32 : 80. Small globular bronze bell. Diam. 9 

mm. PI. 28: 11. 

32:81-85. Five fragm. of bronze pins; at least 
two are from hair pins. — :8l is 65 
mm. long. 

32:86. Half of a heart-shaped bronze fitting, 

hollow; for the belt. PI. 28:38. 

32 : 87. Fragm. of bronze buckle ? 

32:88-89. One complete and one fragmentary 
tongue-bar of bronze from buckles. L. 
24 mm. 

32 : 90. Small double bronze mounting for 

strap, kept together by a rivet (broken 
in two). One end has a square part. 26X18 mm. 
Cf. K. 13378:37. PI. 28:35. 

32:91. Fragm. of double bronze mounting, 

possibly of the same kind as — :oo. 

32 : 92. Rectangular, thin bronze mounting 

with two rivet holes. 21X11 mm. 

32:93. Fragm. of narrow bronze mounting 

with three rivet holes through slightly 
vaulted parts. Br. 8 mm., present L. 35 mm. PI. 
28 : 47- 

32:94-96. Three fragm. of different bronze 
mountings or rods. 

32:97. Eight small indeterminable bronze 


32:98. Various bronze pieces, fragm. and 

refuse from casting. 

32:99. Small lead disc with irregular hole, 

possibly a coin. Diam. 13 mm. PI. 

28 : 33- 
32: 100-107. Eight small lead discs with central 

hole, probably sinkers; oval or semi- 
circular in section. Diam. 16 — 12 mm. — : 100 PI. 
28 : 46, — : 106 PI. 28 : 44. 


32: 108-109. Two f^t lead pieces, one of which has 
two deep grooves. 

32:110. Iron hammer (?) with rectangular 
hole near centre. 77X21 mm. PI. 29: 20. 

32:111. Twenty- four small iron fragm. Some 
of them nails. 

32:112. Semicircular ornament of yellowish- 
brown glass. The straight part is 
grooved. 12X8X6 mm. PI. 28:5. 

32:113. Barrel-shaped bead of white, striated 
chalcedony with crystals at one end. 
L. 14 mm. PI. 28 : 12. 

32 : 1 14. Fragm. of light-blue glass bead with 
three longitudinal grooves. PI. 28: 13. 

32:115. Oblong yellow glass bead with three 
irregular ridges. L. 12 mm. PI. 28:14. 

32: 116-117. Two double-beads of honey-coloured 
glass, once gilt. L. 10 mm. PI. 28: 15 

32 : 1 18. 


32 : 120. 


Double-bead of blue glass. L. 6 mm. 
PI. 28:17. 

Polygonal bead of dark-blue glass. L. 
5 mm. PI. 28: 18. 

Small dark-brown glass bead. Diam. 
4 mm. PI. 28: 19. 

32: 121-124. Four blue glass beads, nearly spherical. 
Diam. 6—8 mm. PI. 28 : 20-23. 

32:125. Flat dark-blue glass bead. Diam. 12 
mm. PI. 28:24. 

32: 126-127. Two spherical beads made from the 
shell of a Turbo. Diam. 6 mm. PI. 
28 : 25—26. 

32:128. Barrel-shaped bead of striated brown 
and white agate. L. 11 mm. Diam. 8 
mm. PI. 28: 27. 

32: 129-133. Five fragm. of blue glass beads, two 
of which are from double-beads. 
— : 129 from an eye-bead (?) PI. 28:7. 

32:134. Fragm. of polygonal bead of rock- 

3 2:I 35- Half of spherical bead of yellowish- 
brown glass. Diam. 8 mm. 

32:136. Half of spherical bead of carnelian. 
Diam. 1 1 mm. 

32:137. Fragm. of pierced turquoise. 

32:138. Small fragm. of yellowish-white, 
translucent glass, probably from a 
vessel, with large, ground ovals. 

32: 139-140. Two fragm. of light-green and white 
glass, probably from vessels. 

^2 : 141. Small piece of turquoise. 

^2: 142. Fragm. of small shell ring (made from 
a Turbo) with grooved surface. PI. 

32 : 143. Piece of light-green, semi-translucent 

32: 144-164. Twenty-one small pebbles of white or 
blue limestone. Some of them appar- 
ently polished by man. 

32:165. Spindle whorl of bitumen, one side 
convex, the other flat and having four 
small impressions. Diam. 42 mm. 

32:166. Spindle whorl of bitumen, the rim 
damaged? Diam. 29 mm. Th. 14 mm. 

32: 167-171.FWC spindle whorls or sinkers of blue 
limestone, partly irregular in shape. 
Diam. 37-15 mm. 

32:172. Spindle whorl or sinker, of thick, 
brown potsherd. 

32:173. Spindle whorl of light-grey potsherd, 
one side flat, the other convex. Diam. 
3 cm. 

32: 174. Potsherd from the bottom of a largish 
vessel with traces of five steam holes. 
Reddish-brown, hard earthenware with darker 

32:175. Whetstone of slate with suspension 
hole. 86X23 mm. PI. 29: 19. 

32: 176-177. Two fragm. of whetstones with 
suspension hole. 

32: 178. Small flake of brown jasper. Neolithic? 

32:179. Some small pieces of sulphur or 

32: 180. Some small pieces of slag. 



In 1931 Mr. Chen found two ruined houses near to the north of the present head 
of Qum-darya's delta. The western one was a house of the same construction as Dr. 
Hedin's Ruin I (cf. Fig. 34) but smaller. On the map Fig. 37 it is marked 401. 
Mr. Chen made a trial excavation there and found the wooden object PI. 31:8, 
which is no doubt a die. It can be compared with Stein 1928 PL XXVI, L. M. I. 012 
though the marks are not identical. This is an uncommon shape of die and unusu- 
ally large. The following articles were also recovered from here: a small piece of a 
fish-net with thin threads, a fragment from the sole of a shoe woven of hair, and a 
bunch of black feathers. 

The eastern ruin, about 3 km. to the ENE of the other is described by Mr. Chen 
as a site where a house was going to be built, there being about ten worked timber 
— like beams or posts — lying around. It is marked with the number 404 on the 
map Fig. 37. The bronze dress-hook PI. 30: 7 was found here. It is clumsy and of 
inferior workmanship, the "seams" from the casting are not removed, which makes 
it likely that the hook is of local make. It might very well be of the Han period when 
such long hooks came into general use. A very similar specimen was found in the 
tomb of Wang Kuang in Korea (Oba and Kayamoto PI. 33: 1). 

8 km. NE of the Lou-Ian station Horner discovered the ruins of a pottery kiln 
close to 384 on the map Fig. 37 on the shore of a freshwater lake. The ground 
was quite strewn with potsherds at this site. 

A few logs shaped by man were observed by Horner in the desert about 13 km. 
east of the Lou-Ian station, where they had formed part of a house not very far 
from the edge of the salt crust. 

On the big mesa LM3 about 2 km. to the west of Stein's castrum L. E. Horner 
noticed the remnants of a cave. On the map Fig. 37 only the adjacent cemetery has 
been marked (No. 390). The inner wall was formed by the mesa clay in situ, the 
outer wall was built of blocks of salt-encrusted clay. The interior of the vaulted 
structure was plastered with clay containing straw. The cave was 1.5 m. wide, 1.3 
m. high and had been more than 2 m. long. The only "finds" made here was a lot of 
bones of rodents. Horner suggests that the cave had been used as a granary, where 
rats had feasted on the stores left, and been killed when part of the roofing crashed 
down on them. 

This structure is of special interest as it is unique in the Lop-nor region. 

In 1934, finally, Hedin and Chen found a hitherto unnoticed house to be treated 
here. In the same season Mr. Huang Wen-pi revisited his ruin T'u-ken, but it is 
unknown to me if he made any discoveries at other places in the Lop-nor region. 
During this visit in 1934 Mr. Huang found two wooden records on which are 
mentioned the granaries of Chii-lu-tzu and Chiao-ho-ch'ii. (Huang 1935). The first 
place is called Chii-lu in the Han annals and Stein has placed it at Besh-toghraq. 




Find made inside the walls of Stein's 
Fort L. K. 6/i— 31. 

K. 13369. Polished miniature axe or chisel of 
green chert. Thin and neatly made. 
The sharp cutting edge has rounded corners. 50X 
34X8 mm, PI. 5:11. 

Finds from a ruin, probably Stein's 
L. B. II. 14/1— 31. 

K. 13377:1. Spindle whorl of dark-blue lime- 
stone, wind-eroded on one side. 
Diam. 3 cm. PI. 29: 13. 

K. 13377:2. 
K. 13377:3-5. 

Thin bronze fitting or suchlike 
with two holes. 

Three small bronze fragments. 

Ruined house 401 on N side of Qum- 
darya near the head of the delta. 

K. 13401 : 1. Oblong wooden die, square section. 
One side blank, the second has three 
carved lines perpendicular to the length of the peg, 
the third side is covered with six crosses, the 
fourth side has a figure shaped like an hour-glass 
or the Chinese seal-character "Wu" carved on 
the middle. The ends are blank. 140X15X16 mm. 
PI. 31:8. 

K. 13401 : 2. Fragmentary net-work of twisted 
hemp(?)thread, 0.9 — 1.2 mm. thick. 
Side of mesh 4.5 cm. Ordinary knot. 

K. 13401 : 3. Fragm. of woven shoe, torn all 
round. Coarse weave of hair, brown 
and grey, brittle. Warp: th. 1.5—2 mm., 6 threads 
to 2 cm. Weft: th. 1 — 1.5 mm. 20 threads to 2 cm. 
L. about 16 cm. W. about 7 cm. 

K. 13401 : 4. Bunch of black feathers with the butts 
cut off. 

Ruined house 3 km. ENE of the ruin 
that contained the finds K. 13401. 

K. 13404. Bronze dress-hook of uniform thick- 
ness, clumsy. Nearly round section. L. 
118 mm. PI. 30:7. 

The ruined fort T'u-ken. 26/2 — 31. 

K. 1343° • *• Fragm. of bronze tube with glob- 

ular knob ; mounting for the end 
of a canopy rib of wood. Below the knob a raised 
ribbon with elevated middle line. Present L. 37 
mm. PI. 30: 5. 

K. 13430:2. Fragm. of iron knife. The upper 

part of the handle shaped into an 
oval ring. Very rusty. Present L. 121 mm. PL 
30 : 10. 

Ruin I. (No. 33). 

Very near the«head of Qum-darya's delta Sven Hedin's party discovered a ruin- 
ed house on May 5th 1934. It was situated on the left side of the river, 210 m. from 
the shore on a 2 m. high terrace. 1 The ground plan shows a rectangle lying ENE — 
WSW about 12.5x7 m., containing four rooms, and with an enclosure or yard 
about 13 x 15 m. at the south-western end. 

The walls of the house were marked by eighteen standing posts, among these the 
jambs of two doors. Between there had been a wattle of tamarisk branches and 
reeds filled out with plastered-on clay. The lowest part of this wattle was preserv- 
ed, showing that the tamarisk branches were arranged vertically. In a corner there 
was a fireplace with traces of charcoal. In the NW room there were some sheep 
droppings, probably from a time when the house had been abandoned by the last 
proper occupants. Stein has also observed that one of the Lou-Ian ruins (the once 
beautifully decorated residence L. B. IV) had served as shelter for the flocks of 
shepherds for a considerable number of years. 

1 It is not marked on the map Fig. 37 but it must be situated in the neighbourhood of 40J. 


Fig. 34. Ruined house on N. shore of Qum-darya, from WSW. Drawing from a photo by Mr. Chen. 

Besides the drawing Fig. 34, made after a photograph by Mr. Chen, I refer to 
the drawings by Dr. Hedin in his popular narrative "Den vandrande sjon" pp. 95 


As is the case with most ruins in Central Asia the surroundings of this one was 

also strewn with potsherds. They were of a well-burnt thick ware, in colour rang- 
ing from red-brown to blue-grey and grey. The sherds brought home come from 
rather large jars, most of them with a marked rim, Fig. 35: 1, 3, 6 — 8 and 10. 

The iron knife PI. 25: 12 was found in the house as well as the fragmentary 
signet ring PI. 27:9 (of bitumen?), two fragments of an iron cauldron, a rectang- 
ular piece of red-brown woollen material, the flat bottom of a large oval basket, and 
the rim of another basket, PI. 18:7, probably of the same type as No. 37:2. The 
heavy wooden "comb" PI. 27: 12 is a weaving instrument, used to press down the 
threads. Stein has found two similar specimens at Niya (Stein 1907, PI. LXXIII 
and 1921, PI. XXVIII), and he also refers to the fact that such an implement is seen 
in the hand of a weaving lady on a painting from Dandan-oilik (Stein 1907, PI. 
LXIII). In Egypt they are said to appear from late Roman time and onwards 
(Petrie, LXV: 148). The bone comb with long curved handle from the Minusinsk 
region (Teploukhov, PI. 1 : 71) 1 might possibly be an instrument for the same pur- 

1 A larger picture in L'Antropologie 39 (1929) p. 422. 


Fig. 35- Sections of rims of vessels from the I -op desert I— to earthenware, n bronze, i) 33: t. 2) 9: 7. 3) 33: 4. 
4) 16: 1. 5) 18:1. 6) 33:9. 7) 33:7. 8) 33:13. 9) 7.C:i. 10) 33:15. n) K.13382. All 1/3. 


1 1 1 


pose. It is grouped together with the Kurghan I culture, dated somewhat previous 
to B. C. 500. 

All the objects enumerated were collected from the surface of the ground in and 
around the ruined house. Like the two ruined houses found by Mr. Chen in this 
same region it awaits future excavation. 


33:1-15. Fifteen potsherds from the rim of 
thirteen or fourteen vessels, mainly 
large ones, with rather short neck and projecting 
rim. Hard-burnt ware, the colours ranging from 
reddish-brown to grey. — : 1 Fig. 35: 1, — 14 Fig. 
35:3. — -7 Fig. 35:7, — ;g Fig. 35:6, —113 Fig. 
35:8, — :I5 Fig. 35:10. 

33= '6. Potsherd from the rim of a vessel with 

slightly marked neck and decorated 
with a coarse incised zig-zag line on the shoulder. 
Reddish-brown ware like the preceding ones. 

33:17. Lug from big earthenware vessel, 62 

mm. broad, projecting 40 mm. from 
wall of vessel. 

33:18. Potsherd from the flat bottom of a 

large bulky vessel. The ware is blue- 
grey on the outer surface, reddish-brown within. 

33:i9- Iron knife with slightly convex back. 

L. 15 cm. PI. 25: 12. 

33:20-21. Two fragm. of an iron cauldron, one 
of which has two raised mouldings. 

33 : 22. Heavy wooden comb for pressing 

down threads in weaving. The lower 
edge wedge-shaped, the short blunt teeth being at 
the thin end. The upper part rounded to a shape 
to fit into the palm of the hand, and furnished 
with a projecting knob. The edges slightly frag- 
mentary. L. 155 mm. Br. 77 mm. Th. 35 mm. PI. 
27: 12. 

33 :2 3- Fragm. of signet ring of black mate- 

rial, resembling bitumen. Very little 
remains of the impressed bezel. PI. 27:9. 

33:24. Rectangular piece of dark reddish- 

brown, tight warp rep of fine wool. 
The yarn firmly spun, similar in warp and weft, 
th. 0.6 mm. The warp 250 threads to 10 cm., the 
weft 90 to 10 cm. Selvages at the short sides, folds- 
at the long sides. Full width of fabric = L. of 
piece, 20 cm. W. 8.7 cm. Stitches of bright rose- 



coloured wool in the folds show that the piece has coarse single-rod foundation. 74X36 cm. 

been joined to some other material. 33 = 26- Fragm. of rim of large basket, prob- 

33 :2 5- Flat bottom of large oval basket, coil- ably a tray-basket of the same kind as 

ed with interlocking stitches on a No. 37:2. (PI. 18:7). 


The distribution of ruins, cemeteries and stray finds clearly shows that the settle- 
ments have been limited to the western side of the large salt crust between the 
glacis of the foot hills of Quruq-tagh and the northern marshes of Qara-qoshun. 
We have thus to deal with a delta-settlement. If we take into account only the re- 
mains of buildings and graves we can distinguish three groups. The first one is 
centred around the present complicated delta of Qum-darya, and is no doubt the 
most important of the groups, containing many ruins and the main part of the 

The second group consists of Stein's ruins L. K., L. L., L. M. and L. R., situated 
to the south and near the northern shore of the Qara-qoshun. These settlements 
have probably drawn their water supply from one and the same river branch, 
apparently the southernmost delta branch in the time of Lou-Ian. Prof. Herr- 
mann's construction of a "River of the South", passing through the middle of 
the Takiamakan, the fortress of Merdek and the ruins just mentioned, seems too 
much out of touch with realities. In his last work he has also queried it on on the 
map. (Herrmann 1938, Taf. VIII). 

So far, no graves have been discovered belonging to this second group of ruins. 

The third group is formed by the graves discovered in the western part of the Lop 
desert along The Small River. There the water has returned and is now following 
a single bed, which must be practically identical with the old course. This region is 
more protected against wind erosion than the more easterly parts of the desert, 
thanks to its cover of sand dunes. At the time of Lou-Ian this region was covered by 
less sand, but with the passing of the centuries more and more drift sand has ac- 

Future researches will of course increase the number of ancient remains — even 
in the areas between these three groups — and quite new centres may come to 
light. In the main, however, I believe that the differentiation as given above will re- 

The first group forms the centre of the whole Lou-Ian settlement, and this fact 
alone makes it evident that the then delta must have watered this region. It is re- 
markable, though, that the Lou-Ian station, which during at least the latter part of 
the occupation was the centre, is the southernmost ruin so far known in this group. 

The total absence of structural remains between the Lou-Ian station and the 
southern group of ruins is worthy of special attention. On this stretch of 45 km. 


separating the Lou-Ian station and the fort L. K. one would expect some sort of 
signal-towers as the important road to Miran must have run here. The region is not 
untouched by man, because stray finds both of stones and metal do occur here, but 
the water supply was most likely insufficient to sustain any permanent settlements 
or allow any construction of watch-towers. 

A little to the east of this line lies the route along which Dr. Hedin carried out 
his levelling from the Lou-Ian station to Qara-qoshun, and where he discovered a 
flat depression, which he identified with the bottom of the lake Lop-nor of Lou- 
lan's time. The extension of this basin is too limited to have been the only lake, and 
it was hardly inundated at the time of Lou-Ian as Horner's finds K. 13356—8 
are made in the deepest part of it. We oan therefore hardly count with the presence 
of a lake here as an explanation of the absence of ruins. 

As seen from the above the ancient settlements in the Lop desert are not limited 
to any special still traceable shore-line but have been grouped along the river 
branches of a delta. This kind of settlement has many parallels among the present- 
day oases of Eastern Turkistan. The same kind of settlement existed in the Han and 
the Sung- Yuan periods at lower Edsen-gol. 

Taking the known ruins as a starting point one can thus, to a certain degree, re- 
construct some features of the configuration of the Tarim delta at the time of Lou- 
Ian. Thanks to the surveys carried out by Stein and Horner certain parts of an- 
cient river beds have been put on record. In many cases it is very hard to determine 
the location of the old river courses as the ground is so strongly wind-eroded. Only 
some trifling spots of the actual land surface of the Lou-Ian time now remain. All 
the rest has been ground off by the violent force of the north-eastern winds. Stein's 
criteria of ancient river beds, i. e. long depressions lined by rows of trees, are not 
conclusive in all instances. Some of his river beds as shown on his map (Sheet B) 
can hardly be proved until more extensive surveys have been made. 

When surveying the area immediately to the south of Qum-darya, between the 
height of Yardang-bulaq and The Small River, I encountered several features, 
which at first sight seemed to be old river beds. They consisted of river-like depress- 
ions, 8—10 m. deep and 50—100 m. wide, and the edges were bordered by groves 
of dead poplars and tamarisks. But they were anything but old river courses. Clo- 
ser study proved them to be oblong, but closed, depressions, i. e. wind-hollows of 
very considerable dimensions. 

In some instances the bottom contained moist, black clay and even water of the 
utmost salinity, PI. V b. 

If I had only crossed these depressions at right angles, without studying their 
extensions, the river-like appearance would certainly have led me to mark them on 
my map as old river beds. 

I The distribution of ruined dwelling sites does not necessarily mean that all of them 

were within reach of water at one and the same time. It is very probable that they 


are not quite contemporaneous. The houses along one delta arm might have been 
deserted because of insufficient water supply at a time when houses along another 
delta arm were inhabited. Such minor changes inside the delta are impossible to 
prove with naked facts just now, but they certainly took place. Around 260 A. D., 
for instance, the region around the Lou-Ian station was apparently best suited to 
the requirements of an agricultural military station, and thus selected for the found- 
ation of the base camp. It may have been the administrative centre even before that 


The most interesting Lop-nor finds are those recovered from the tombs, but also 
the small finds picked up from the ground in many different parts of the region are 
important inasmuch as they furnish valuable information about the distribution of 
land and water, settlements, roads and so forth in ancient days. As to the origin of 
the stray finds we are left in uncertainty. In some cases they probably come from 
destroyed tombs, in others they may have been picked up from dwelling sites where 
the structural remains are not to be recognized (i. e. 'tati'-finds) and finally, they 
may have been dropped by travellers in ancient time. 

Evidently the stray finds cannot all be contemporaneous but none of those which 
can be dated is younger than the known end of the Lou-Ian occupation. 

When Horner and Chen, in the winter season 1930 — 31, made their survey of 
the new lake Lop-nor and the delta of Qum-darya, they also found time to collect 
archaeological objects as already mentioned. The major part of these consists of 
loose finds from the eroded clay surface of the ground. In the descriptive list all 
the articles are mentioned; here only the more important will be treated. On the 
map Fig. 37 only those finds have been plotted which can be localized to a fixed 
spot. The inventory numbers of the objects are used also on the maps, though long 
numbers, e. g. K. 13396 have been shortened to the three last numerals: 396. 

In the summer of 1934, Mr. Chen also collected a certain number of small ob- 
jects in the delta region. They will be treated in this chapter as well as a few articles 
found by Norin. The small finds collected by me and my men in 1934, in a more 
westerly region than the above (south of Yardang-bulaq and along The Small 
River) will also be mentioned here. 


The Wu-ch'u is the most predominating issue. Of the normal type there are 89 
pieces, many of them having a small elevation on the middle of the inner rim at its 
lowest part, PI. 30:8. 

■ 1 


Two samples, not illustrated here, have special marks : short ridges radiating from 

the corners of the hole on the reverse K. 13379: 11, and a "nailmark" on the ob- 
verse K. 1 3421: 1. 

The cash strings PI. 31 : 1 consist, as far as can be judged, of the ordinary Wu- 
ch'u coin. Nos. 26: 1 — 5 are covered with thick incrustations, but the size is that of 
the normal Wu-ch'u. 

There are two samples of a coin of Wu-ch'u type lacking the outer rim, and five 
debased Wu-ch'u such as PI. 28:28 — 29, and one clipped PI. 30:9, making in all 
245 Wu-ch'u coins. 

Besides these there are only two "Goose-eyes" and some trifling fragments. 

We may be quite sure that what I have called the normal Wu-ch'u is a true Han 
issue. The chronological limits for Wu-ch'u given in numismatic works are 118 B. C 
— 581 A. D., but at the end of the Han dynasty the Wu-ch'u currency was rapid- 
ly debased, as is clearly visible on the specimens from here. They became smaller 
and of much inferior make. If the Wu-ch'u were revived again it is hardly likely 
that they were minted exactly after the same pattern as in the beginning of their 
use. Both through Stein's finds and my own from well dated strata we have now 
a fair number of undeniable Han Wu-ch'u, and the Lop-nor specimens referred to 
as normal Wu-ch'u are of exactly the same shape and size. 

Among these finds of the then current money there are especially two which are 
worth consideration; they were made very near each other at the northernmost part 
of the delta, at Horner's camp 106 (marked 420 on the map Fig. 37). The first 
find bears the number K. 13421 and consists of 63 Wu-ch'u coins which were lying 
scattered along an area of 30 m. in length and 1 m. in breadth. Some of them are 
very thin from wind erosion. 

On the occasion of Mr. Chen's second visit to this spot three years later still an- 
other heap of coins was found there, No. 41 : 1 — 13. 

The other find, K. 13423, depicted on PI. 31 : 1, is a partly preserved cash string 
consisting of single coins or lumps of up to twenty coins adhering to one another 
through the thick, hard incrustations. The latter arc caused by moisture. The most 
predominating colour is not, however, green but the dark brown of the desert patina. 

These two finds of money current during the Lou-Ian occupation in nearly the 
same place show that this region immediately to the north of the present delta was 
of special importance, and probably saw much traffic. Other bronze objects, too, 
that have been found there point in the same direction. 

The Chinese coins have certainly been minted in China proper, possibly with the 
exception of some simple types such as the "Goose-eyes". It is impossible to give true 
statistics of the coins from the Lop-nor region, only that more than one thousand 
have been found, and that the majority consists of Wu-ch'u. 







*A 'jhsn-buteq 





^■ < -°B-,.^b- 



S3 ^ V La 


A'BB c^tt*; 4< f*jp 



£5 £" 


• Cemetery 

.Gr. Single grave 

- Other finds 


Zjp^L 1 Herd $3/t crust 

Recently dr/ed-up 
lake bed 



J ./ 

5\ 3 





V J 















9 J 

Fig. 36. The Lop-nor region. Preliminary map compiled from the surveys of Hedin, Horner, Chen, Norin and 

Bergman. (The two special maps referred to are Figs. 18 and 37). 


Of true weapons very little is found in the Central Asian fortifications of anci- 
ent times. When the garrisons left they took their weapons along with them, or 
when an aggressor was successful he took possession of the weapons of the conquer- 
ed and carried them away with him. What is left to us are only broken fragments or 
accidentally lost objects, and some arrow-heads, the latter corresponding to spent 

The best object found by Horner and Chen is the cross-bow mechanism PI. 
29: 18. It is of the ordinary type used in the Han period, quite plain, but in good 
order. Hedin found the trigger of a similar mechanism, PI. 31:7, and Stein has 
a bolt with square head from the Lou-Ian station (Stein 1921, PI. XXXVI, L. A. 
II. v. 002), though he did not recognize its use as a bolt of a cross-bow mechanism. 

The cross-bow is an infantry weapon of defensive nature, and was apparently in- 
vented by the Chinese. It was in use as early as B. C. 228 as a cross-bow lock was 




found in the tomb of Yu Wang at Shouchou dating from that year (Karlbeck 
1938, p. 36). It probably existed long before that, though we lack definite proofs 
(Wilbur, p. 428 f.). 

The four bronze arrow-heads PL 30: 12 — 15, all with triangular section and of 
well-known Han types, are cross-bow points. The two larger specimens, PL 30: 12 
and 15, have unusually blunt tips. 

The iron arrow-point PL 30: 16, of the three-winged tanged type, has been used 
with an ordinary bow, and so has the three- winged, socketed bronze point No. 
44:2, which is of the same type as Bergman 1935c PL X:2. It was found some- 
where along the northern side of the delta. 

The bow is an offensive weapon, and especially the composite bow invented by 
the Central Asian horse nomads was highly effective. 

Of the cross-bows we know only the mechanism and the stock (a complete Han 
specimen excavated at Lo-lang in Korea, Oba and Kayamoto 1935, PL 82) but we 
are still ignorant as to the appearance of the cross-bow bow, which must have been 
of the composite type. 

K. 13368:33 is a fragmentary and much corroded dagger blade (or spear head) 
of iron, about 15 cm. long. 

It is possible that the bronze tube PL 31 : 10 has served as the socket of the lower 
end of a /Co-handle. I found it together with five coins of Wu-ch'u type to the south 
of Qum-darya a little above Yardang-bulaq (at point 26 on the map Fig. 36). I 
found a quite similar socket together with Han objects at Edsen-gol in Mongolia. 

The leaf-shaped bronze plate PL 29: 7 is of unknown use. It is not absolutely out 
of the question, though, that it has been riveted to a coat of mail. Laufer depicts 
similarly shaped armour plates (Laufer 1914, Fig. 34), but they appear to have 
several perforations and ours has only one. 


The three bronze knives PL 30: 22, PI. 31 : 2 and 12 may be of non-Chinese origin, 
as they closely correspond to the nomad style knives (Ordos and Siberia). The long 
one, of uniform breadth, PL 31:2, has close parallels among the Minusinsk 
knives (Martin 1893, PL 20:28 and Merhart 1926, Taf. IV/V:2), and in MFEA 
there are three iron knives of this primitive shape which were found in graves at 
Belotsarsk on the Yenisei (K. 4089:3). 

The blade of PL 31: 12 is slightly curved and only 7.5 cm. long. This knife 
could as well have been found in the Minusinsk region or in the Sino-Mongolian 
border land. 

PL 30: 22, only the blade, is of the slightly curved type with concave cutting edge. 



Three fragments from one and the same bronze mirror are seen on PI. 30: 20. 
This mirror is of "the hundred nipples, stars and clouds" type, which first appears 
in the earlier Han dynasty. 

Two small fragments from the thickened rim of mirrors (K. 13379: 14 and 
K. 13409) may be of about the same date as the one first mentioned — at least they 
cannot be older. One has the border decorated with a double "saw tooth" pattern 
like PI. 28: 1, though smaller. 

Stein collected three complete and twenty-six fragmentary bronze mirrors in 
the Lop-nor region. Eleven of the total number come from the Lou-Ian station. 
Among his reproductions there are for instance three TLV-mirrors, one with 
"four animal design", two or three of the same type as our PL 28: 2 and one with a 
lapidary inscription with eight characters reading: "When you see the light of the 
sun the world is very bright" quite a common sentence on inscribed mirrors. 1 A 
study of the originals might reveal more types. Those mentioned above were com- 
mon in the Han dynasty. Most of them seem to be small, and as far as can be judged 
from the illustrations they are of about the same quality as ours. These relics ac- 
quire antiquarian interest from the fact that they are no doubt importations from 
China proper. The fragment No. 8: 3 seems to be from a small, plain mirror, which 
may be of local make. 

Girdle and strap fittings. 

The bronze buckle PI. 30: 1 was found by Horner in the southern part of the 
Lop desert. I have reproduced it once before (BMFEA 7 Fig. 7) and labelled it as 
belonging to the nomad style bronzes. The hook projecting from the front part of 
the rim is large, but curiously enough turned "inwards" instead of "outwards" as 
in ordinary cases. This shape might be partly due to wear; because of the thick ver- 
digris it is impossible to get any definite impression of possible damage. There are 

1 It is ralhcr interesting to find that a small Chinese bronze mirror which has been excavated from a South 
Russian barrow is of the same type as this Lou-Ian mirror and carries the same inscription (Ebert's Real- 
lexikon 13, Taf. 40 C, and Stein 1928, PI. XXIV, L. C 013). A certain number of Chinese jade objects (fittings 
for sword sheaths) also readied Sarmatian South Russia (Ebert's Reallex. 13, Taf. 40 Df). Besides Chinese silk 
stuffs found in a Crimean tomb not posterior to the first century A. D. and the Chinese silks excavated in Palmyra 
from tombs not posterior to the third century wc know of a couple of most interesting cases of Chinese exports 
from the time of the existence of Lou-Ian. In the Dane John at Canterbury. England, a bronze vessel of the 
type Hu with Huai style decoration has been dug up (Ashton & Gray, PI. 14) and another Huai style Hu was 
found in Rome (Vessberg in BMFEA 9). Both are good specimens and real pieces of art, and their presence in 
Europe at the beginning of our era goes to prove that the Chinese exported not only silk stuffs but also other art 
products, such as were in demand e. g. by the Romans. Some finds of Chinese wares in graves dating from the 
Roman time are said to have been made long ago in the region of the Rhine. None of the objects is preserved, 
and it is doubtful if we have here to deal with an ancient import of Chinese goods. A pottery vase depicted 
in Bonner Jahrbiicher XV (1850) Taf. Ill: 1 cannot be of such a great age. Laufer has drawn attention to 
several of these ancient but uncertain finds (Globus July 20th 1905; reviewed in TP 1905, pp. 511 f). 


close parallels to this buckle, except the wrongly turned hook, from Minusinsk 
(Martin 1893, PI. 31 : 20 and Tallgren 1917, PI. XI : 43, especially the former one). 
A true representative of the Ordos and kindred bronze cultures is the fragment- 
ary plaque or buckle PL 30: 4, which was found by Norin at point 416 on the map 
Fig. 37f v * z - not ver y f ar to the north of the northernmost branch of the present 
delta. Unfortunately only the front part is preserved and only the rim of the central 
part where the main decorative element must have been placed. The nippled buttons 
in the corners are, however, typical of the Ordos bronze art, and so is the projecting 
hook for fastening the strap end. 

The occurrence here of objects showing affinities with the Ordos bronzes might 
possibly be regarded as a proof of intercourse between the Lou-Ian people and the 
Huns, as the Huns are said by several authorities to have been the carriers of the 
Ordos bronze art and we have, moreover, literary evidences of connections between 
these two peoples. It is, however, by no means certain that the Huns were the sole 
carriers of this art. 

PL 30: 2 — 3 are two identical buckles of the "ordinary" construction with a 
tongue, in these cases hinged to the central bar running across the oval frame. Be- 
sides the two specimens in this collection I know of six others of exactly the same 
shape: Stein 1921, PL XXXVI, L. A. 0013, and Pl.LIII, T. VII. 001 ; K. 13470:165 
—166 and K. 11003: 1565 of the MFEA in Stockholm, and finally one specimen 
found by me at Edsen-gol. Five of these have been recovered scientifically and can 
be proved to be af Han date. A slightly different variation of this type has one 
edge straight. I know of three specimens in the MFEA: K. 13483: 9 (from Stein's 
tower X LI Ie in the Tun-huang limes), and K. noo3:732A and 1566 (both 
bought in Kuei-hua). Both of these two variations seem to be of the Han and 
immediate post-Han periods, and they probably formed part of the soldier's outfits. 

The strap end of bronze PL 30: 23 has close parallels among the early migration 
age types. The same construction with a freely hanging tongue is found on a silver 
fitting from a grave near Stalingrad on the Volga from about the fourth century, 
probably Sarmatian-Gothic (ESA 1, p. 37). A similar ornamentation is seen on a 
girdle fitting on a painted figure from Kucha (Grunwedel 1912, Fig. 56).- The bev- 
elling somewhat recalls the treatment of associated strap ends from the Isle of 
Gotland (4th — 7th century). 

Various metal objects. 

Norin found a complete armlet, PL 30: 24, the flattened ends of which are de- 
corated with some coarse lines, probably meant to represent snake heads. 

A fragmentary finger ring PL 31:6 may come from the Lou-Ian station, but the 
place of finding has not been definitely verified. In Dr. Hedin's old collection 
there is a similar one (Bergman 1935c, PL XI: 12) and Stein has found several 


Fig. 37. The present delta of Qum-darya and the western part of Lop-nor, with archaeological re- 
mains. (Ruins and cemeteries found by Stein are also plotted). From the surveys of Horner and 
Chen. One or two-figure numbers correspond to the inventory numbers in the lists. To three-figure 

numbers K. 13 must be added to get the inventory number, 


* , 

of this sort of rings with incised linear designs on the oval bezel, probably used as 
signets, both at the Lou-Ian station and at Niya. Their appearance is non-Chinese. 
Finger rings in general are rare in China until much later periods. 

Other round or square "rings" such as PI. 30: 21 and 30:26 have probably been 
fastened to straps or ropes. The square specimen may have been a buckle. 

A hemispherical boss with a central pin, PL 30: 25, is one of the supports of some 
case or vessel, probably of wood. Many objects of this kind are known from the 
Lop-nor region, but this one is pretty large. Stein found a rectangular basket with 
such bosses as supports (Stein 1928, PI. XXV, L. M. 1.01— 4). On lacquer boxes 
from tombs at Lo-lang in Korea there are in some cases similar bosses on the lids. 

Four identical specimens of the hooked tube PL 30:6 were found together with 
the fine arrow-head PL 30: 15 above the high shore cliff to the east of the ancient 
lake Lop-nor; the spot is marked 434 on the map Fig. 36. They are in fact the only 
objects in this collection that have been found in this region, and they have most 
likely been lost there by travellers. The four bronze tubes or sockets are of special 
interest. The function of these hooked tubes has until recently been obscure — as a 
rule they have been associated with arrows — which of course is absurd, as they 
are unsymmetrical. Finds in the tombs at Noyan-ola show that they have been fixed 
to the ends of wooden canopy ribs, the hooks having served to fasten the cover of 
cloth or hide. In the case of Noyan-ola it has apparently been an umbrella or 
canopy of such chariots as are depicted on the famous Shantung tomb reliefs. We 
cannot be absolutely sure that all tubes of this kind were used on chariot canopies 
or "umbrellas" — there were probably other kinds of "umbrellas" with such 
fittings — but if our tubes belonged to a chariot it is not unlikely that this had to 
be abandoned at the place where the bronze tubes were found. In any case the finding 
place of these objects is worth particular consideration. It lies about 40 km. 
from the present shore of the lake, and about 83 km. due east of the Lou-Ian stat- 
ion. The position becomes of the utmost importance when we find that it lies in a 
straight line from the south-western promontory of the Pei-shan ridges and the 
easternmost outpost of the Lou-Ian ruins, i. e. that of Stein's tower L. J. It there- 
fore seems likely that a direct road existed straight across the salt-crust, which ac- 
cording to Horner's surveys seems to have a much more limited expanse here than 
is shown on Stein's maps, and there were apparently several "islands" of better 
ground in the salt-crust. It is doubtful whether the more northerly route found by 
Stein was easier to negotiate than this direct one, and it was at least 30 km. 
longer; but it was less liable to inundation. 

Another fragmentary tube with lost hook, PL 30: 5, has been mentioned already 
in connection with the ruins of T'u-ken. 

A small bronze scoop PL 30: 18 has an exact parallel in Dr. Hedin's old collect- 
ion from Khotan. It has just been published by Montell (1938, PL IV: 13), and 
he supposes that it has had some function in Buddhist ritual. Otherwise there are no 


Buddhistic objects in our collection, with the exception of the stupa ornament PI. 
29:6 from Lou-Ian. Similarly shaped scoops, though probably larger, are known 
inter alia from the Scythian royal tomb of Solokha in South Russia (about 300 
B. C.) Ebert's Reallexikon 12, PL 85 a. 

Some of the small bronze fragments come from vessels, but only one is from the 
rim of a basin (K. 13382) Fig. 35:11, which can be compared with one of 
Hedin's old finds from the region immediately to the north of the present delta 
(Hedin 1905, p. 64). 

There are several small perforated discs of lead, which have probably served as 
net sinkers, PI. 30: 19 and 31 : 3. They are well-known from earlier collections from 
Lop-nor. A larger piece is shown on PL 29: 17. 

Stone objects, etc. 

The whetstones are more or less rectangular and have usually a suspension hole at 
one end; at least such small specimens as PL 29: 16 and 19 and PL 31 : 11 have been 
carried at the girdle. 

Spindle whorls are quite common, as already stated, and made of stone, pot- 
sherds or bitumen, PL 29:3 and 31:4- From the graves we know of wooden ones. 

A flat ring of white marble, PL 29: 10, is of the type Pi, the Chinese symbol of 
heaven. This type existed in China proper as early as in late neolithic times, but this 
specimen is more likely from the Lou-Ian period when Chinese influence was strong 
in this region. It is strongly worn by sand on one side, and the outer rim has been 
ground off on about one half of the circumference so that the diam. varies from 
84 to 81 mm. The rim of the hole is also worn mostly on the half opposite to the 
worn portion of the outer rim. The ring must thus have been lying exposed to 
pretty constant winds for a considerable time. 

Another marble object is the cylindrical bead PL 29: 11. Similar beads were found 
in the Sha-kou-t'un cave (Andersson 1923, PL VIII: 13). There is thus a possibility 
that our bead dates from prehistoric time. The two fragmentary mace-heads PL 
29: 9 and 12 have already been treated. 


Among the stray finds there are only few potsherds, not that they are uncom- 
mon in the field — on the contrary — but as they are often plain and undecorated 
they have not been collected so eagerly as stone and metal objects. 

Most if not all of the Lou-Ian pottery was manufactured locally. Both Stein 
and Horner have found pottery kilns. 

The ware is hard-burnt and of dark-brown, red and greyish colour. The most 
common shape is the bulky jar. The rim is more or less strongly moulded (cf. Fig. 




35 : 4 — 5) ana " the bottom is flat. As there are only fragments the size of the vessels 
cannot be determined, but most of them were middle-sized, only a few of them were 
large. No. 17: 1 is a fragment from a wide pot with a stout, tubular spout near the 


In addition to the places which have been marked on the map Horner noticed 
potsherds in many places: 3 km. SE of 400; 2 km. S of 404; 1 km. SE of 404; around 
L. A.; between L. A. and 365 in three places; around 387 and the kiln site 384; 
between 384 and L. C; between 363 and 361 in four places, one of which lies close 
to 361 and also had some flints; between 360 and 359 pottery and worked flints in 
three localities; between 359 and 358 flints or pottery in six places; between 358 and 
356 coarse potsherds; in the delta about 5 km. NE of 392 and 2.5 km -WNW of 390. 



It is a matter of course that the stray finds are distributed over a larger area 
than are the ruins and the tombs. Attention has already been drawn to the bronze 
objects found together on the eastern side of the salt crust above the shore cliff of 
the prehistoric Lop-nor (434 on the map Fig. 36). There are also some finds on 
the western border of the salt crust quite close to it. The existence of Horner's 
ruined house due east of Lou-Ian station is a proof that it was possible to live quite 
near the edge of the salt in the time of Lou-Ian. 

The finds 35°— 8 on the map Fig. 37 are worthy of attention as they are situ- 
ated in the middle of the depression which Hedin found to the south of Lou-Ian 
station, and which he supposed to mark the site of the Lop lake at the time of Lou- 
Ian. These finds indicate that a lake could hardly have existed here at the time in 

The concentration of finds around Horner's camp 106 at the northernmost 
part of the present delta, marked 420 on the map Fig. 37, is so obvious that we 
may suppose an important centre here. Nos. 41 and K. 13419—27 originate from 
here, altogether more than one hundred objects, mostly of bronze and of a good 
quality (i. e. good for the Lop-nor region). As suggested in the section on the roads, 
the Silk Road must have passed here, and the many coins may have been dropped by 
travellers on the road. The possibility of an undiscovered or totally decayed ruin 
here must also be reckoned with. The neighbourhood of T'u-ken deserves attention. 



1 : 1. Potsherd from rim of vessel with wide 

mouth, brownish to grey ware. 

1:2-3. Two small potsherds, red-brown and 

grey ware. 

1 : 4- Fragm. of small oval iron ring, prob- 

ably from a buckle. 

1:5. Small bronze knife of nearly uniform 

breadth. 70X13 mm. PI. 30:11. 


2: 1. Polished axe of light-green jade, un- 

usually large. The cutting edge some- 
what convex. Only part of one narrow-side is 
polished. 185X95X24 mm. PI. 5 : 16. 


About 700 m. NNE of Cemetery 4. 

3:1. Four fragm. of a bronze hair-pin. U- 

bent wire thickened at bend. 

Scattered finds collected by Ordek S of 
Qum-darya, probably along "The Small 

8:1. Nearly spherical bead of light-red 

carnelian. Diam. 12 mm. PI. 15: 11. 

8:2. Drop-shaped carnelian bead. L. 16 mm. 

Diam. 8—6 mm. PL 15: 10. 

8:3. Nearly half of a small bronze mirror 

covered with thick verdigris. Rather 
thin. The edge slightly thickened. Diam. about 
6 cm. 

About 35 — 40 li S of camp B 64 at 
Pataliq-kol, a lake on the right shore of 

11 : 1. Two joined potsherds from the rim of 

a large vessel of rather thin red ware, 
grey inside. The slightly concave collar is decor- 
ated with slanting lines arranged in alternating 
rows, thus forming a kind of zig-zag pattern. PI. 

11:2-8. Seven potsherds, apparently of the 

same vessel as — : I. Two of them 
decorated in the same way. 

About 40 li S of camp B 64. 

12:1. Three joined potsherds from the rim 

of a vessel with slightly projecting 
rim. Brownish ware intermixed with coarse-grain- 
ed sand. 


Potsherd of the same vessel as — : 1. 

Unspecified locality amongst the sand 
dunes S of Qum-darya, SE or E of camp 

13: 1. Three joined potsherds from the lower 

part of a very large vessel of thick, 
reddish-brown ware, hard-burnt and intermixed 
with sand. The bottom has been flat. 


Sherd, probably from the same vessel 
as — : 1. 

Unspecified localities amongst the sand 
dunes S of Qum-darya, probably S or 
SE of camp B 64. 

14:1. Flat spindle whorl of bitumen. Diam. 

43 mm. Th. 7 mm. PI. 31 : 4. 

15: 1. Flake of grey flintlike stone with worn 

edges. 55X12 mm. 

16:1. Three joined potsherds from the rim 

of a bulky vessel with short neck. 
Hard-burnt ware, brownish-red to blue-black in- 
termixed with grains of sand. Fig. 35:4. 

16:2. Two joined sherds from lower part of 

the same vessel as — : I. 

16:3. Sherd from the same vessel as — : 1. 

17: 1. Potsherd from the rim of a squat pot 

with a short, thick tubular spout. Red, 

hard-burnt ware intermixed with grains of sand. 

18: 1-6. Six potsherds, most likely all from one 

vessel, rather large with slightly mark- 
ed neck. Reddish-brown brick-like ware, slightly 
weathered. — :i Fig. 35:5. 

19:1. Small potsherd from the flat bottom 

of a smaller vessel. Reddish-brown 

19:2. Small potsherd from the rim of a 

vessel of blue-black ware. 

19:3*4- Two handles of earthenware vessels. 

19:5-12. Eight potsherds, probably from four 
different vessels of reddish-brown and 
greyish ware. 

20: r. Thin whetstone of green slate with a 

suspension hole near the broader end. 
98X32 mm. PL 31: 11. 

20:2. Bronze knife, nearly straight. The 

handle terminates in a ring with a 
small knob on top. Back of blade slightly convex. 
On one side a neat brown "desert patina" green 
on the other side. L. 17 cm. Br. across ring 1.8 
cm., handle 1.2 cm. PL 31:12. 

21:1. Bronze knife, practically straight and 

of uniform breadth and thickness. 
Broken in early times across a small suspension 
hole. Later on the blade was broken in two. Both 
handle and blade have triangular section and are 
not clearly separated from each other. Green ver- 
digris, especially on one side. L. of blade about 
9.5 cm. L. 18.6 cm. Br. 1.3— 1.4 cm. PL 31:2. 

About 2 km. above camp B 62, S of 

22:1. Two joined potsherds of thin reddish 

ware intermixed with grains of sand. 

22:2-4. Three fragm. of small flint flakes. 

22 : 5. Fragm. of small flint flake with the 

median ridge chipped on both sides. 

22:6-9. Four small flint chips. 




Near to the W of camp B 62, S of 

23:1-3. Three potsherds of hard-burnt ware, 
blue-grey or reddish. Recalling Han 

23 : 4-5. Two small flint flakes. 

23:6. Chip of light-green flint. 

23 : 7. Small piece of lead. 

23:8. Small piece of iron. 

Scattered finds between camp B 62 and 
a point 4.5 km. W of it, near the right 
shore of Qum-darya. 

24:1-21. Twenty-one potsherds of fairly uni- 
form ware, hard-burnt, reddish-brown 
to blue-grey. 

24:22-23. Two small iron fragm. 

1600 m. SW of camp B 62, S of 

25:1. Potsherd of brownish and blue-grey 

ware, intermixed with sand. 

25:2. Irregular core of light-brown flint or 


Two small flint flakes. 

Small flint scraper; indistinct type. 

Small flint chip. 

Bifacial implement of light-green flint. 
Coarse knife, unfinished? L. 55 mm. 
Br. 29 mm. PI. 5: 10. 

Chip of green flint. 

Flat piece of light-red chert with green 
striation. A little chipped along two 
edges. L. 105 mm. 

25:10. Pebble of grey flint, one side struck 

off by man. 

S of Qum-darya, between finds Nos. 25 
and 27. 

26:1-5. Pour complete and one fragmentary 

coins with thick verdigris. The shape 
recalls that of Wu-ch'u. 

26:6. Bronze socket, cylindrical with a small 

perforation 1 cm. below the rim. Prob- 
ably a mounting for the lower end of the handle 
of a /Co-weapon. L. 57 mm. Diam. 33 mm. PI. 
31: 10. 




= 5- 









Between camp B6i and B62, about 4 
km, S of the latter. 

27: 1-5. Five potsherds of a thin-wallcd, light- 
red vessel with slightly projecting rim- 

About 2 km. SSW of camp B6i, S of 

28: 1. Potsherd from the rim of a vessel with 

straight neck and a plain moulding i 
cm. below the rim. Red, rather thin ware inter- 
mixed with coarse sand. 

28:2. Small potsherd with traces of applied 

decoration. Thin, brownish-red ware. 

28:3-10. Eight potsherds of the same ware as 
— : 1. 

28: 11. Part of small core of grey flint. 

28:12-14. Three flint flakes. 

28:15. Fragm. of arrow-point of green flint. 

The base shaped into a short tang. Br. 
14 mm. PI. 4: 14. 

28:16. Arrow-point, willowleaf-shaped, of 

translucent agate. L. 29 mm. Br. 10 
mm. PI. 4: 13. 

28:17. Flint scraper?, irregular. 

28:18. Small knife of green flint, nearly 

crescent-shaped. 36X19 mm. PI. 4:6. 

28: 19. Bifacial implement of dark-green 

chert, one end straight and unworked, 
the other end convex. 29X31 mm. Pi. 4:17. 

28:20. Oval chip from a flint pebble, worked 

on one side. 

28:21. Oval knife of grey flint, worked on 

one side. 58X29 mm. PI. 5:9. 

Small knife of brown flint. 45X19 
mm. PI. 4:9. 

28 : 22. 
28 : 23-24. 
28 : 25. 
28 ; 26. 

Two chips of green flint, slightly 

Roughly worked piece of greenish- 
grey flint. Unfinished axe? 

Fragm. of a flat piece of quartzitc 
with one edge worked. 

Various flint chips. 

28 : 27. 

Qum-darya, near camp B 61 about 2 km. 
below Yardang-bulaq. 

29: 1-4. Four potsherds of uniform reddish- 

brown ware, rather thin and inter- 
mixed with coarse sand. Wind-eroded. 


About 10 km. W of Hedin's camp 74 on 
S shore of Qum-darya, and about 44 km. 
WNW of Lou-Ian station. 

30:1-4. Four cores of yellowish-brown agate 
and grey flint 

30 : 5-8. Four flakes of agate and flint, two 
of them having retouched edges. 

30:9. Flat, oval stone, probably shaped by 

nature though very symmetrically. 

Hedin's camp 75 on an island in the 
westernmost part of the delta of Qum- 

31: r. Bronze trigger from a cross-bow 

mechanism. 115X18X11 mm. PI. 31:7. 

31:2. Fragm. of a circular bolt of bronze 

from a cross-bow mechanism. Diam. 
1 cm. 

31 : 3. Sheep's tooth. 

Finds collected by Mr. Chen 1.5 — 2 km. 
N of the Qum-darya delta between 417 
and 420 on the map Fig. 37. 

40: 1. Two pieces of a corroded coin of Wu- 

ch'u type, without legend. Diam. 21 


40:2. Three fragm. of a corroded coin of 

degenerated Wu-ch'u type. Nearly 
square. Diam. about 18 mm. 

40:3. Strap-end of bronze in two parts. A 

rectangular part with a lower narrow 
end turned backwards (around strap) and fastened 
to the wider part with a rivet. In the loop thus 
formed hangs the second part, rectangular, the 
lower end with an obtuse point. Both parts have 
chamfered edges at the outer ends and two crossed 
lines. 83X12 mm. PI. 30:23. 

40:4. Rectangular bronze ring, possibly 

from a buckle. 26X20 mm. PI. 30 : 26. 

40:5-8. Four smallish flakes of grey-blue or 
green flint. 

40:9. Piece of flake of yellow-brown flint, 

one edge a little retouched. 

Finds from the same place as K. 13421. 

41:1-3. Three Wu-ch'u coins, diam. 22 and 

20 mm. 

41 : 4- Coin of Wu-ch'u type but without 

visible legend. Diam. 26 mm. 

41 : 5. Wu-ch'u coin, diam. 23 mm. 

41:6. Wu-ch'u coin, with clipped rim. PI. 


41 : /. Coin of Wu-ch'u type but without 

visible legend, possibly clipped. 

41:8-11. Four Wu-ch'u coins without outer rim 
and cast in such a way that the legend 
has become incomplete. Diam. 18 — 16 mm. 

41:12-13. Two "goose-eye" coins, diam. 13 mm. 

Finds either from a place in the Qum- 
darya delta, or from Lou-Ian station. 

42: 1. Small coin fragm. with a Wu. 

42:2. "Goose-eye" coin? PI. 31:5. 

42:3. Bronze boss, nearly hemispherical, 

hollow, with a straight central pin. 
Slightly projecting flange at the base of the boss. 
The top is a little flattened. Diam. 35 mm. H. 16 
mm. PI. 30:25. 

42:4. Front part of a bronze finger-ring 

with flat elliptical bezel with linear 
design. Diam. has been 22 mm. PL 31:6. 

42 : 5. Small bronze pendant, a flat oblong 

piece with ring-shaped loop at one 
end; worn out. L. 32 mm. PI. 31 :g. 

42:6. Bronze bead of wire laid spirally. 

Diam. 8 mm. 

42:7-8. Two fragm. of bronze pins. 

42:9. Flat oblong bronze object with a 

broader, oval part at one end. The 
broader part has two perforations and a longi- 
tudinal groove. The other end probably broken 
off. L. 85 mm. Br. 22 — 6 mm. PI. 30: 17. 

42:10. Various bronze fragm., mostly refuse 

from casting. 

42:11. Small lead sinker, disc with central 

hole. Diam. 15 mm. 

Finds from a place in the Qum-darya 
delta, or from Lou-Ian station. 

43:1-2. Two iron fragm., one bent to form 
an angle, one straight. 

43 : 3- Iron arrow-head, three-winged with 4 

cm. long tang. Damaged. L. 7.8 cm. 
PI. 30:16. 

43:4-5. Two iron fragm., one of which is 
from a nail or pin. 

43 : 6-8. Three small coin fragm., bronze. 

43 : 9. Various bronze fragm., partly refuse 

from casting. 




43 : is- 


Two small fragm., probably 
bronze vessels with fluted wall. 

from 44 : 2. 

Spindle whorl made of grey potsherd. 
Diam. $2 mm. 

Small piece of turquoise. 

Finds collected by servants on N side of 
the Qum-darya delta at an unknown 
locality, or localities. 

44:1. Wu-ch'u coin, broken in two. Diam. 

25 mm. 

Bronze arrow-head, three-winged with 

socket. The bases of the wings form 

barbs. The socket has three small slit-like openings 

between the wings. L. 35 mm. W. between the 

points of the barbs 15 mm. 

44:3. One end of a wooden slip with eight 

indistinct Chinese characters careless- 
ly written in black. L. 106 mm. Br. 11 mm. PI. 

44:4-5. Two small fragm- of much decayed 
wooden records with nearly effaced 
writing. Br. 8 mm. 

Horner's and Chen's Lop-nor collection, (except the finds from ruins). 

.i, ' 




Find made about 9 km. to the W of the 
salt crust at the southern end of the new 
lake Lop-nor and 8 km. SSE of Stein's 
Fort L. K. 5/1— 31. 

K. 13352. Small flake of yellow flint, finely 
retouched edges. L. 42 mm. 

About 3 km. to the east of K. 13352. 
5/1— 3i- 

K. 13353 : *• Core of green flint. Flakes chipped off 
from one side only. L. 51 mm. PI. 
4: 16. 

K. 13353:2. Chip from top of grey flintcore. The 
straight edge retouched as a scraper. 
PI. 4:15. 

About 4 km. to the east of K. 13353. 
5/1— 3i- 

K. 13354- Core of dark-grey flint. Oval section. 
L. 26 mm. 

Find made in a wind-eroded hollow some 
km. W of the large salt crust and a few 
hundred m. E of K. 13354. 5/1 — 31. 

K- '3355- Bronze buckle with a strong button- 
shaped hook on the middle of the front 
part. The rear part has an oval hole for attaching 
the strap. Thick verdigris. 55X40 mm. PI. 30:1. 

About 26 km. due S of Lou-Ian station 

near the W border of the large salt crust. 
1/2— 31. 

K. 13356: 1-5. Five small flakes of yellow-brown 
and grey flint. 

About 500 m. S 75° E of K. 13356. 
1/2— 31. 

K- x 3357- Core of brown flint made of a flat 
stone 9 mm. thick. 

About 4 km. almost due N of K. 13357. 
1/2— 31. 

K. 13358: 1. Part of an oblong whetstone of grey 
slate with a suspension-hole near one 
end. L. 75 mm. 

K. 13358:2. Small chip of striated opal or jasper. 

12.5 km. SSE of Lou-Ian station near 
the W border of the large salt crust. The 
pick from a rich site. 2/2 — 31. 

Core of brown quartzitic stone. 
Cylindrical. L. 45 mm. PI. 4: 18. 

K- 13359 : 1- 
K. 13359:2. 

K. 13359: 3- 

Core of dark grey flint or agate. 
L. 38 mm. 

Roughed-out core of dark grey 

K. 13359:4-22. Nineteen small fine flint flakes 

with one or both edges retouched. 
The longest is 55 mm. 

K- 13359:23-32. Ten small fine flint flakes. 

K. 13359:33-36. Four flint chips. 

About 4 km. NE of K. 13359. 2 / 2 — 3 1 - 

K. 13360. Polished axe of green chert with 
brown flames. The polishing is con- 
centrated on the broad sides and especially on the 
cutting edge, which is almost straight but slants 
slightly, not being parallel to the median line. The 
narrow sides are not worked. 53X35X12 mm. 

PL 5:13- 


400 m. nearly NNE of K. 13360. 

K. 13361. Thick lead ring, irregularly shaped. 
Probably a sinker. Diam. 33 mm. Th. 
19 mm. PI. 29: 17. 

About 4.5 km. NE of K. 13361. 2/2 — 31. 

K. 13362. Core of grey flint, regular, slightly 
pointed. L. 30 mm. 

500 m. NE of K. 13362. 2/2 — 31. 

K. 13363: I. Small potsherd of rather thin, sandy 
ware, grey and reddish. 

K. 13363:2-5. Four small flint flakes. 

600 m. NE of K. 13363. 2/2 — 31. 

K. 13364. Small fine flake of light-grey flint. 
L. 41 mm. 

About 200 m. NE of K. 13364. 2/2 — 31. 

K- 133^5- Polished axe of brown chert, very well 
made throughout. The cutting edge is 
nearly straight (damaged in one place). 63X46X13 
mm. PI. 5:21. 

Scattered finds in the region somewhat 
to the W of K. 13363, about 11 km. ESE 
of Lou-Ian station. 20/2 — 31. 

K. 13366: 1. Piece of bronze sheet, possibly from 
a vessel. 

K. 13366:2. Small roughed-out core of grey 
flint. One end battered. 

K. 13366:3-5. Three flint flakes with retouched 

K. 13366:6-7. Two small flint flakes. 

Between K. 13361 and K. 13365. 

K. 13367. Polished axe of dark-grccn chert. 
Short and broad. The cutting edge is 
quite straight. The butt left unworked. 50X41X13 
mm. PI. 5:20. 

Scattered finds between K. 13359 an d a 
spot 5 km. NE of K. 13364. 2/2 — 31. 

K. 13368: 1-4. Four small cores of grey flint 

and Hght-green agate. 

K. 13368:5-15. Eleven small flakes of grey, green 

and yellow flint and agate. 

K. 13368: 16-24. Nine small flakes with retouched 

edges. — : 18 PI. 4: 11. 

K. 13368:25. Flake of yellowish-brown agate 

with retouched edges. The some- 
what broader point forms a good scraper. PI. 5 : 6. 

K. 13368 : 26. Flake of yellow agate with re- 
touched edges. The median ridge 
is partly chipped on both sides. L. 6 cm. PI. 5:7. 

K. 13368:27. Large pointed scraper made of a 

triangular sherd of green flint. 
One straight edge retouched. 75X48 mm. 

K. 13368:28. Polished axe of black-green chert, 

very thin. The butt left unworked. 
The cutting edge slightly convex. 60X44X9 mm. 
PI. 5:18. 

K. 13368:29. Polished axe of green chert, short 

and broad. Only the lowest part 
of one of the narrow sides is polished, the rest and 
the butt being left unworked. The cutting edge 
nearly straight. 54X47X15 mm. PI. 5: 19. 

K. 13368:30. Polished miniature axe or chisel 

of green chert. The cutting edge 
is slightly convex. The butt left unworked. 42X 
32X7 mm. PL 5: 12. 

K. 13368:31-32. Two chips of flint and chert. 

K. 13368: 33. Iron dagger blade or javelin. Much 

corroded and broken in several 
pieces. L. about 145 mm. 

K. 13368:34. Fragm. of a bronze ring made of 


About 9 km. nearly N of Stein's Fort 
L.K.6/1— 31. 

K. 13370: 1-2- Two small flakes of yellow flint. 

About 12 km. N of K. 13370. 7/1 — 31. 

K- I 337 I : I_2 - Two flint cores. 

K. I337i:3' Small flint flake, weathered. 

11 km. nearly N of K. 13371- 7/1 — 31. 

K. 13372. Fine flake of yellow flint. 48X11 mm. 

About 300 m. NE of K. 13372. 7/1 — 31. 

K- 13373. Small oval bronze ring made of wire. 
Diam. 19 — 15 mm. 


K. 13375 = 3-5- 
K- 13375:6-7. 

Scattered finds along the route between 
the finds K. 13371 and K. 13376. 

7/1— 31- 

K. i3374:i-3- Three small fine flakes of green 

and brown flint with well re- 
touched edges. 

K- 13374:4-5- Two small flint flakes. 

K. i3374:6-7- Two chips of light-green flint. 

Sandy depression in wind-eroded clay 
14 km. WSW of Lou-Ian station. The 
pick from a rich site. 7/1 — 31. 

K- *3375 : *• Fragm. of brown flint core. 

K- 13375:2. Small flake of brown flint or 

agate with partly retouched edges 
and the median ridge chipped on both sides. L. 
47 mm. 

Three small flint flakes with re- 
touched edges. 

Two piercers or awls made of 
small flint flakes. L. 34 and 27 

K. 13375 = 8-46. Thirty-nine small flint flakes with 

one or both edges retouched. The 
largest, — :8, is 62X11 mm. PI. 5:3. — : 12 PI. 

K. 13375 : 47-68. Twenty-two small flint flakes, 

several with worn edges. 

K- 13375:69-72. Four flint chips (refuse). 

Scattered finds between K. 13375 and a 
point 2 km. N of it. 7/1 — 31. 

K - J 3376: 1. Tubular bead of white-blue marble, L. 
21 mm. Diam. 11 mm. PI. 29:11. 

K. 13376:2. Half mace-head of white marble, 
nearly globular. Diam. along hole 61 
mm. perpendicularly to the hole about 70 mm. PI. 
29: 12. 

K - 13376: 3- Oblong whetstone of grey slate. 155X 
22X29 mm. 

K. 13376 : 4- Lump of metal from bronze smelting. 

K. 13376: 5- Small bronze piece with fine verdigris. 

Scattered finds along a line 1.5 km. 

towards NNE from the Lou-Ian station. 
20/1 and 18/2 — 31. 

K - T 3379:*-5. Five smallish cores of grey flint. 

— :i PI. 5:14. 

K. 13379:6-9. Four small fine flint flakes, two 

of them having one edge slightly 

K. 13379: 10. Small eye-bead of dark blue-green 

glass. Only the hollows remain of 
the four "eyes". Diam. 8 mm. 

K- 13379: "• Wu-ch'u coin. On the reverse is a 

diagonal rib from each of the two 
upper corners of the hole. Diam. 25 mm. 

K. 13379: ' 2 - Small open ring made of thin 

bronze wire. 

£.13379:13. Fragm. of long bronze pin, prob- 
ably a hair-pin. 

K. i3379 : *4- Small bronze fragm. possibly from 

rim of mirror. 

K- 13379:15- One end of a rectangular iron 

fitting or suchlike with a big rivet 
hole. Br. 3 cm. 

Scattered finds within a distance of 6 km. 
towards ESE from the Lou-Ian station. 
'9/2— 31. 

K. 13380: 1. Core of grey flint, flaked off on 

one side only. L. 4 cm 

K. 13380:2-3. Two small flakes of grey flint. 

K. 13380:4. Broad irregular flake of yellow 

flint or agate. Probably an un- 
finished scraper. L. 43 mm. 

K. 13380:5. Bronze lamina, leaf-shaped, with 

small hole through the widest part. 
Broken in two in ancient times. 67X43 mm. PI. 

About 6 km. NNE of K. 13365, near old 
river bed. 3/2 — 31. 

K. 13381. Bronze ring, circular with oval sec- 
tion. Thick verdigris. Diam. 36 mm. 
PI. 30:21. 

About 4 km. N of K. 13381. 4/2 — 31. 

K. 13382. Fragm. of the rim of a large bronze 
basin or cauldron. Thin ware. Fig. 

35: "• 

About 2 km. NE of K. 13382. 4/2 — 31. 

K- 1 33^Z- Lump of bronze, refuse from smelting. 


Near the pottery kiln 8 km. NE of the 
Lou-Ian station. 21/2 — 31. 

K. 13384:1. Core of brown flint. L. 37 mm. 
K. 13384:2. Small bronze fragm. 

About i km. ENE of K. 13384. 5/2 — 31. 

K. 13385 : 1-4. Four small flint flakes, three of 

them having retouched edges. 

Finds made quite near to K. 13385. 
17/2— 31. 

K. 13386:1-5. Five small flint flakes, some with 

worn edges. 

K. 13386:6. Piercer made of a small flint 

flake. L. 32 mm. 

K. 13386:7- Knife made of a naturally thin 

piece of green flint. Equally 
worked on both sides. One straight edge, the other 
worked only to half its length. Unfinished? L. 7 
cm. PI. 5:8. 

K. 13386:8. Fragm. of whetstone of slate with 

a large suspension hole. Br. 28 
mm. PI. 29: 16. 

K. 13386:9. Small piece of bronze. 

K. 13386: 10. Small piece of iron. 

I km. N of K. 13386. 5/2 — 31. 

K. 13387. Wu-ch'u coin. Diam. 25 mm. 

Finds from two places between K. 13385 
and a place 6 km. N of it. 5/2 — 31. 

K. 13388. Spindle whorl of a brown-red pot- 
sherd. Diam. 5 cm. 

K« r 3389: 1. Core of grey flint, cylindrical. L. 

3 cm. 

K. 13389:2-3. Two small flakes of grey and 

yellow flint. 

Below mesa LM 3 about 2.3 km. WSW 
of L. E. 25/1— 31. 

K. 13391: 1-2. Two cores of dark grey flint. L. 

35 and 19 mm. — : 1 PI. 4:20. 

Mesa about 9 km. WNW of L. E. (On 
the top of the mesa there is a cemetery). 
23/1— 31. 

K. I339 2 - Foot of a clay Ting tripod, much 
weathered. Yellowish-red ware, the 
surface has probably been dark blue or grey. 

About 9 km. W of K. 13391. 23/1 — 31. 

K. 13393- Axe? of light-green flamy chert or 
jade. One side probably polished by 
art, the other strongly wind eroded. L. 42 mm. 

About 12 km. WSW of L. E. 19/2— 31. 

K. 13394- Round flat piece of bronze. Diam. 32 

500 m. SW of K. 13394. 19/2— 31. 

K. i3395:i-9- Nine small flint flakes, one of 

them with retouched edges. 
K. 13395: JO- Six small flint chips. 

About 500 m. SW of K. 13395. l 9/ 2 — 3 1 - 

K. 13396. Wu-ch'u coin. Diam. 25 mm. 

About 3 km. SW of K. 13396. 19/2 — 31. 

K. 13397 : *■ Core of green-grey flint. L. 25 mm. 

K. 13397:2. Fragm. of a Wu-(ch'u) coin. 
K. 13397:3-4- Two pieces of bronze sheet. 

About 800 m. SW of K. 13397 an ^ IO 
km. nearly due N of Lou-Ian station. 

19/2— 3 1 - 

K. 13398:1. Small core of grey flint. 

K. 13398:2-8. Seven small flint flakes, one of 

them with a retouched edge. 

Find from Mr. Chen's route along the S 
border of the delta and almost due N of 
Lou-Ian station. 19/2 — 31. 

K. 13399:1-5. Five small flint flakes, two of 

them with retouched edges. 

Find on S side of Qum-darya near the 
head of its delta, and about 16 km. NW 
of Lou-Ian station. 8/1 — 3 1 - 

K. 13400. Flat ring of white marble. One surface 
well preserved, the other wind-eroded. 
Diam. 81 — 84 mm. Th. 6 mm. PI. 29: 10. 

Between 392 and 400 on the map Fig. 
37. 7/2—31- 

K. 13402:1. Flake of black flint, retouched 

edges. L. 8 cm. 

K. 13402:2. Flake of green flint. 



Near the ruin that contained the find 
K. 13404. 12/2— 31. 

K. 13405:1-2. Two cores of grey flint, — :2 

fragmentary. — : I PI. 4: 19. 

K. 13405:3 — 5. Three small flint flakes, one with 

retouched edges and one with 
worn ones. 

Scattered finds between Chen's camp 
91b and 91 c. 13/2 — 31, either NE or 
SW of 404. 

K. 13406:1-4. Four small flint flakes, one of 

them with a retouched edge. 

Scattered finds between 400 and 41 1 on 
the map Fig. 37. 20/2 — 31. 

K. 13407 : 1. Irregular core of light-green flint. 

K. 13407:2-12. Eleven small flakes of grey, green, 

yellow and brown flint and agate, 
three of them with retouched edges. 

6 km. ENE of the ruin that contained the 
finds K. 13401, and at the N shore of the 
northernmost branch of the delta. 
20 — 21/2 — 31. 

K. 13408:1. Miniature bronze vessel, shaped 

like a scoop. The bottom is flat- 
tened, othenvise the shape is nearly semiglobular. 
The 25 mm. long handle is hollow to receive a 
wooden haft that has been kept in place by a rivet 
through a hole in the socket. Two grooved lines 
run round the widest part of the vessel; the handle 
has some lines crossing one another. Diam. 44 
mm. H. 25 mm. PI. 30: 18. 

K. 13408:2-3. Two small pierced lead discs, prob- 
ably sinkers. Diam. 18 and 10 
mm. — .2 PI. 30:19, — :3 PI. 31: 3. 

K. 13408:4. Fragm. of a whetstone of green 

slate with suspension hole. 

K. 13408:5. Spindle whorl of bitumen. One 

side flat, the other vaulted. Diam. 
45 mm. Th. 18 mm. PI. 29:5. 

Find near camp 91 (though it might have 
been found elsewhere and merely dropped 
near the camp). 

K. 13409. Small fragm. of the thickened rim of 
a bronze mirror decorated with two 
rows of small triangles, "saw tooth" pattern and 
a zig-zag line. Br. 18 mm. Th. 4 mm. 

Between Chen's camp 91 a and 91 b. 
12/2 — 31, somewhere between 401 and 
412 on map Fig. yj. 

K. 13410: 1-4. Four small flint flakes, —14 with 

retouched edges PI. 4:10. 

K. 13410:5. Flake of yellow flint or agate. 

Thick, and with retouched edges. 
The median ridge is chipped on both sides. Prob- 
ably used as a scraper. 47X11 mm. PI. 5:5. 

5 km. NE of ruin 404. 22/2 — 31. 

K. 13411:1. Fairly large core of green flint. 

Flakes split off along half of the 
circumference. PI. 4:22. 

K. 1341 1 : 2. Axe made of a flat piece of brown 

and red, flamy chert. The convex 
cutting edge has probably been polished. The 
whole object is much weathered. 67X35 mm. PI. 

About 1 1 km. ENE of ruin 404; in the N 
part of the Qum-darya delta. 11/2 — 31. 

K. 13412. Small flake of grey flint with re- 
touched edges. L. 43 mm. 

Mesa somewhat to the north of the delta 
and between 41 1 and 418 on the map Fig. 
37. 22/2—31. 

K. 13413. Blade of bronze knife (broken in two) 
with convex back, which is thicker 
than the rest of the blade. The edge is damaged. 
L. 89 mm. PI. 30 : 22. 

Along the route between 411 and 418 
on the map Fig. 37. 22/2 — 31. 

K. 13414: 1. Core of grey flint. L. 43 mm. 

K. 13414:2-5. Four small flakes of flint, three 

of them having retouched edges. 

K. 13414:6. Irregular drill of red agate with 

short point and one convex edge 
retouched as a scraper. L. 35 mm. PI. 4:8. 

Nearly 1 1 km. SSW of Astin-bulaq and 
2 km. N of the northernmost branch of 
the delta. 24/2 — 31. 

K. 13415. Irregular axe of dark-green chert, 
polished round the straight cutting 
edge. 83X37X19 mm. PI. 5:15. 


Between Astin-bulaq and the Qum-darya 
delta, 29.5 km. N I9°E of Lou-Ian 
station. (Norin). 

K. 13416. Front part of a large bronze plaque 
or buckle. The lost central part has 
apparently been wider than the rectangular front 
part. The strap has passed through a slitlike hole 
and been fastened to a projecting hook. The up- 
per and lower edges are bordered with a rope 
pattern. In each corner a tumular knob with seven 
elevated dots. Besides there are three raised circles 
with a marked centre. A raised line has surround- 
ed the lost central part. Br. 73 mm. PI. 30:4. 

About 8 km. SE of Astin-bulaq. (Norin). 

K. 13417. Bronze bracelet. The ends are flatten- 
ed and decorated with three lines 
crossing one another at one point, and at the sides 
of these are some V-shaped lines. Probably meant 
to represent a serpent's head, though very de- 
generate. Diam. about 65 mm. PI. 30 : 24. 

Near to the N rim of the delta, and due 
S of Astin-bulaq. (Norin). 

K. 13418:1. Small flake of grey flint. 

K. 13418:2. Arrow-point of reddish-brown 

flint, willowlcaf-shapcd. 28XTI 
mm. PI. 4: 12. 

K. 13418: 3-8. Six Wu-ch'u coins. Diam. 25 mm. 

K. 13418:9-10. Two Wu-ch'u coins with a small 

elevation in the middle of the 
lower rim of the hole. Diam. 25 mm. — 19 PI. 

K. 13418: 11-12. Two broken Wu-ch'u coins. 

K. 13418:13. Five fragm. of coins, with a 


K. 13418:14. Five fragm. of coins, with a 


K. 13418:15. Ten small fragm. of coins, prob- 
ably of Wu-ch'u. 

On the W side of the northernmost fresh- 
water bay of Lop-nor, between camp 
H. 98 and H. 106. 16/3 — 31. 

K. 13419. Small flake of grey flint. L. 63 mm. 

Near camp H. 106 at point 420 on the 
map Fig. 37. 8/3—31. 

K. 13420. Bronze arrow-head, triangular with 
hexagonal shank. The three edges arc 

prolonged to form barbs. On each flat surface a 
triangular depression. The tang has been iron. 
26X12 mm. PI. 30: 13. 

100 m. N of camp H. 106. Scattered 
along a line of 30 m. 2/3 — 31. 

K. 13421 : 1. Wu-ch'u coin with a raised 

crescent-shaped line on the upper 
part ("nail impression"). Diam. 24.5 mm. 

K. 13421 :2-n. Ten Wu-ch'u coins with a small 

elevation in the middle of the 
lower rim of the hole. Diam. 25—24.5 mm. 

K. 13421: 12-63. Fifty-two Wu-ch'u coins, some of 

them very thin owing to wind 
erosion. Diam. 25.5 — 24 mm. 

(Cf. Nos. 41 m— 13 found at the same place). 

Near camp H. 106. 13/3 — 31. 

K. 13422. Core of green flint. Wind-eroded. L. 
4 cm. 

Near the shore at camp H. 106. 1 1/3 — 3 1 

K. 13423: 1-13. Thirteen lumps of coins joined 

together by corrosion, and con- 
taining from twenty-seven to three coins, Wu-ch'u 
as far as can be judged, about 120 coins in all. 
They were stringed when lost. 

K. 13423: 14-21. Eight Wu-ch'u coins with a small 

elevation in the middle of the 
lower rim of the hole. Diam. 25.5 — 24.5 mm. 

K. 13423 : 22-31. Ten Wu-ch'u coins. Diam. 25—24.5 


K. 13423: 32-36. Five fragmentary Wu-ch'u coins. 

Diam. 25 mm. For the entire find 
sec PI. 31: 1. 

On the shore near camp H. 106. 

K. 13424: 1. Three fragm. of a bronze mirror. 

The thickened rim forms arcs on 
the inside. (Complete specimens have sixteen such 
arcs). The central part has been decorated in high 
relief; apparently a "hundred nipples" type. Diam. 
has been 108 mm. Th. of rim 4.5 mm. PI. 30:20. 

K. 13424:2. Short curved bronze wire. 

Near the shore and near camp H. 106. 

K. 13425. Bronze arrow-head, triangular, with 
hexagonal shank. Very blunt point. 
35X12 mm. PI. 30: 12. 



Near the shore and near camp H. 106. 

K. 13426. Bronze buckle, oval with two sym- 
metrically arranged openings for the 
strap. The tongue is hinged to the strong middle 
part. 50X45 mm. PI- 3° =2- 

At the shore near camp H. 106. 9/3 — 31. 

K. 13427. Crossbow mechanism of bronze. The 
main body is 122X33X42 mm. The 
straight trigger is 83 mm. long. The two bolts 
have cubical heads. One side has green verdigris, 
the other brown desert patina (just as is the case 
with most of the Lop-nor bronzes found on the 
surface of the ground). PI. 29: 18. 

Find between the western and the middle 
one of the three freshwater bays at N 
Lop-nor. 12/3— 31. 

K. 13428. Oblong rough knife or unfinished 
point of green flint. 59X18 mm. PI. 

5 = 2- 

500 m. W of the ruin T'u-ken. 2/3 — 31. 

K. 13429: 1-2. Two pieces of sheet bronze, from 

a vessel? 

Find on the E side of the easternmost of 
the three freshwater bays in the Lop-nor. 

17/3— 31. 

K. 13431:1. Small flake of grey flint. 

K. 13431 : 2. 
K. 1343 J : 3- 

Piercer made of a flake of yellow 
flint or agate. L. 27 mm. PI. 4: 7. 

Thin coup-de-poing or bifacial 
blade of brown flint. 66X35X10 
mm. PI. 5: 1. 

Find about 3 km. SSE of T'u-ken. 
(Marked 433 on the map Fig. 37). 
2/3— 3 1 - 

K. 13432. Bronze buckle identical with K. 13426. 
48X43 mm. PI. 30:3. 

150 — 200 m. W of K. 13432. 1/3 — 31. 

K. 13433. Bronze arrow-head, triangular with 
hexagonal shank. Much corroded. 28X 
10 mm. PI. 30: 14. 

Above shore cliff E of Great Lop-nor, 
about 84 km. E of Lou-Ian station. 


K. 13434: 1. Bronze arrow-head, three-winged 

with round body. The wings arc 
rather small, with blunt edges and ending in a 
very blunt point. Between two of the wings the 
body has a shallow, triangular depression. An iron 
tang has been inserted in a hole in the base. L. 
49 mm. Diam. 9 mm. PI. 30: 15. 

K. 13434:2-5. Four bronze tubes with a strong 

hook near the closed end. Mount- 
ings for the ends of canopy ribs of wood. L. 42 
mm. Diam. 7 mm. — :2 PI. 30:6. 

7. YING-P'AN. 

Ying-p'an is situated on the border between the Lop-nor and the Quruq-tagh 

regions. On the way from Shindi to Tikenliq, in April 1928, one afternoon was spent 

there, and the ruins of stupas as well as thecircumvallation were visited. Kozlov had 

discovered them in 1893, and they had afterwards been searched by Stein. I did not 

undertake any excavation. Near to the east of the circular fortress a few pottery 

fragments were picked up from the ground together with the small bronze buckle 
PI. 15:2. 

Afterwards, when I had returned to Shindi, Abdurahim handed over a bronze 
mirror to me as a present to Dr. Hedin, his old master. Abdurahim had found 
this mirror (PI. 15:4), which is of a common type with dragon and tiger motif, 
near the graves excavated by Stein. His statement as to its origin is completely 


The occurrence of this mirror of the later Han dynasty 1 in this place is of special 
importance, as it is one of the few datable objects known from here. As well as the 
coins and the silk found by Stein it was imported from China proper. Stein, 
however, discovered four Kharoshthi documents among the stupa ruins, documents 
written by some Indian, i. e. a foreigner. And in one of the graves he found a small 
glass tumbler with cut ovals, undoubtedly an importation from far off Syria 
(Ying III. 3. 06). This mixture of Chinese, Indian and Near Eastern objects makes 
Ying-p'an a typical representative of the Lou-Ian culture. 

The lacquered wooden vase Ying. III. 3. 07 (Stein 1928, PI. CX), is of the same 
type as the one found by Hedin outside the coffin in Grave 35 (PL 27: 6). 

The geographical position of Ying-p'an predestinates it to be a station on the part 
of the Silk Road running between Lou-Ian and Korla. The part lying east of Ying- 
p'an has been abandoned, most likely, for 1600 years, the western part from Ying- 
p'an to Korla was still used in the Tang period. It is marked by a line of Han 
dynasty watch-towers, ten in all, traced by Hedin in 1896 and 1900, and subse- 
quently examined by Stein. I have visited a few of them; in PL XIV b-c are seen 
Stein's towers Y. VI and Y. VII. 2 When they were constructed Konche-darya may 
have followed a slightly more northerly bed, water thus having been nearer to the 
towers than at present. On the other hand, some of the towers are situated so far 
from any present or old water-course that the necessary water supply has had to be 
drawn from wells in any case. 

The present road from Turfan via Tikenliq to Charkhliq passes Ying-p'an. It may 
very well have existed at the time of the early settlement, but the traffic between 
North and South can hardly have been heavy at that time. In 1934 I discovered a 
hitherto unknown line of communication between Ying-p'an and Charkhliq follow- 
ing the Qum-kol and what I have called The Small River, and probably passing 
Merdek, cf . p. 100. But if any traffic coming from Turfan followed The Small River 
it did not touch Ying-p'an but followed a direct line between Toghraq-bulaq and 

Stein has identified the Ying-p'an site with "the town of Chu-pin" of the Ch'ien 
Han-shu. Herrmann has lately proposed its identity with I-wu, though earlier he 
located I-wu, as do all other authorities, at Hami. Chu-pin he places at Merdek in- 
stead. I have corresponded with Prof. Herrmann regarding this problem, and in 
his last letter he informs me that he has now returned to his former standpoint 
and again places I-wu at Hami. 

Long after the abandoning of the old Chinese "town of Chu-pin" with its circular 
fortress, its shrine and stupas, and its grave yards, the place was resettled by Mo- 

1 Karlbeck, who is the last io have published a mirror chronology, places this type in the first century A. D. 
(Karlbeck 1938, E. 22). 

2 The first of these towers Stein calls Sanje. This is the Mongolian word for tower. It is generally 
pronounced tsonch or tsonchi, and goes back to the Tibetan dzong, fortress, watch-tower, etc. 



hammedans. We do not know the exact date of this settlement. Judging from the 
rather well-preserved tomb structures of mud it existed a few centuries ago. Hedin 
supposes 150 — 200 years. The age of this settlement has no direct bearing on 
Quruq-darya and the hydrography of Tarim. As pointed out by Huntington it has 
drawn the water supply necessary for the cultivation of its fields from the brook 
Buyantu-bulaq. The irrigation was effected by means of a canal and a reservoir, 
the remains of which are still to be seen. Nowadays the water of Buyantu-bulaq 
reaches Ying-p'an only after heavy rainfall in Quruq-tagh, as we had an op- 
portunity of witnessing in April 1928. But with the aid of a well constructed canal it 
might reach as far as this more or less permanently. The quality of the water is, how- 
ever, not the very best for the purpose. Immediately outside the mouth of Buyantu- 
bulaq there are traces of ancient fields and canals on the left-hand side of the river 
bed. Abdurahim of Shindi informed me that these fields were cultivated some 
sixty years ago, but had to be abandoned after the lapse of a few years because of 
the salinity of the water in the brook. The fields once watered by the same stream 
further down, at Ying-p'an, must have suffered much more from this unsuitable 
quality of the water. 

When a postal service was inaugurated between Urumchi and the lower Tarim 
region (i. e. the present-day district of Lop) a rest house was built at Ying-p'an 
near the spring-fed pools in the ancient river bed. All that remains of this brick 
house is the crumbled walls. Contemporaneous ruins of post stations are to be 
found at the wells of Toghraq- and Azghan-bulaq along the road to Turfan. 


Find made by Abdurahim of Shindi on 
the burial site at Ying-p'an. 

K. 13436- Chinese bronze mirror. The central 
vaulted knob is surrounded by a 
quatrcfoil. Outside this runs a raised plain band. 
Between this and the thickened border lies the 
main decoration, bordered on each side by a 
striated band and consisting of four animal repre- 
sentations (dragon and tiger) with raised con- 
tours. Between each animal there is a small boss 
similar to the central one. The outer border has a 
"double wave" band with a small dot in each in- 
terspace. Brown-red patina with green spots. Diam. 
125 mm. Th. of rim 5 mm. PI. 15:4. 

Near to the E of the ruined circum- 

K. 13437: 1-2. Two potsherds probably from the 
same large vessel. Decorated with 
straight or curved bands incised with a three- 
toothed instrument. Hard-burnt, tight-red ware. 

K. 13437:3. 

Fragm. of the narrow neck (or 
spout?) of a vessel of the same 
earthenware as the preceding one. 

K. 13437:4. Bronze ring, D-shaped, probably 
from a buckle. 21X16 mm. PI. 15:2. 





^VXTThen Henning Haslund and I travelled from Shindi to Ying-p'an, in 
VV/ April 1928, we followed the most direct road through the Buyantu-bulaq 1 
▼ ▼ canyon, a small road that is far from suitable for camels. In the deep-cut 
valley with its luxuriant vegetation of poplars and tamarisks the going is good 
except for one place where the path leaves the canyon and runs up among the 
mountains on the right side to avoid an impassable spot in the river valley where 
there is a waterfall. In this detour in the mountains the camels had a very hard time 
crossing steep slopes, ravines with large boulders and some passages that were too 
narrow to allow a loaded animal to pass. 

6.5 km. south of Shindi we saw that the lower part of the beautiful steep cliff, 
more than 100 m. high, on the left-hand side of the valley was covered with rough 
pictures engraved in the rock, PI. XV. We did not stop to examine them at that 
time, but on my next visit to Shindi I spent several days in early November at the 
spot, filled the engravings with white colour, and took many photographs, some of 
which are reproduced here. 

After having got access to "Innermost Asia", published in 1928, I found that 
Stein had been the first foreigner to observe these rock pictures, but he had had no 
opportunity to pay any closer attention to this interesting place, which he calls 

The brook makes one of its largest windings at this place, encircling a small 
open space with poplars, tamarisks and high grass. The foot of the limestone cliff 
with the engravings is washed by the water of the brook. 

1 The name given to the Shindi river by the Turks is Buyantu-bulaq, i.e. a mixture of Mongolian and Turki, 
not altogether uncommon in this region. It means 'the propitious well'. In Hedin's German transcription the first 
part is spelled Budschentu; those using English transcription have written it Bujentu. It is interesting to note that 
Stein, unaware of the first part being Mongol, supposes the name to be a "transformation which the name Bejan- 
tura has undergone in careless Turfanlik pronunciation" (Stein 1928, p. 752 note 6). Bejan-tura is the name given 
to the Buddhistic ruins at Ying-p'an. Abdurahim assigned the same name to the ruined tower in the northern 
mouth of the Shindi river. According to Jarring bejan is a medicinal plant, tura is tower. Abdurahim pronounc- 
ed the river name something like Bdjcntu-bulaq. 



: ' 

The distance between the extreme groups on the cliff is 54.5 m. On the central 
part the highest figures are situated as much as 5.45 m. above the ground, the low- 
est only 0.65 m. Thus the main part of the central group could not be reached by a 
man standing on the ground, and there are no ledges or breaks in the wall to stand 
on. Only with the help of a ladder, which, fortunately, was at hand at Shindi, was I 
able to trace the upper engravings with white. As the artists most certainly did 
not stand on ladders when making the figures, it is obvious that some change in 
the level of the ground has taken place. It was also soon discovered that the brook- 
had not always flowed close to the cliff, but 40 — 50 m. away from it, where traces 
of a dry bed were found. The cliff itself also showed how it had been covered by 
detritus to an average of 3.5 m. above the present level. Below this level the wall is 
quite smooth and clean, showing that it has been protected from the influence of the 
atmosphere, above it the surface of the rock is much weathered and covered with 
lichen. In PI. XVI a the letters A — a mark the clear line of demarcation between these 
parts, i. e. the level of the ground before erosion set in. This hint given by Nature 
herself suggests a division of the carvings into one older and one younger fades. 
These two "strata" are also clearly differentiated stylistically. Below the lower 
stratum there is a third facies, quite modern, as is easily discernable both from the 
style and the content. 

There are four main groups of engravings on the wall of the rock, and some 
scattered figures in the interspaces. The description runs from left to rigt, i. e. 

The first group, PI. XVII a, is only 60x95 cm., the lower edge 2.8 m. above the 
brook. It consists of a man on horseback, five men on foot, one of whom seems to 
be leading a camel with one hand, an ibex, and some unclear lines. The figures are 
of poor quality both in point of style and technique. The camel, for instance, is 
characterized only by means of two vertical lines denoting the humps. The horns 
of the ibex are considerably exaggerated and badly traced. The figures are care- 
lessly hacked into the rock, probably with a stone. The markings are quite shallow, 
and the contours are therefore not very distinct. 

The second group is the most instructive, on account of its "stratigraphy" already 
touched upon, and also because it is the richest one. On the total view PL XV it 
is seen in the centre, whereas PI. XVI a shows it separately. It measures 6.35 m. in 
length and 3.55 m. in height. On PL XVI a the different levels which mark the three 
stages in the origin of the carvings, have been marked in such a way that the oldest 
lies above an almost horizontal line A — a, the middle stage between this line and a 
line B — b, and the youngest stage below the last-mentioned line. All carvings are 
on an almost vertical wall. 

On the left part of the upper level there are small antelopes (or at least antelope- 
like animals) two ibexes, two men on horseback each followed by a dog? or colt?, 


a bird, a hand with slender fingers, a small foot, a swastika, a sword?, a t a in g h a 
sign? 1 and some indeterminable figures. Most of the animals are turning right. 

The central part of the upper level has three similar hands close together, and 
two hands separately just on the border to the next level, a pair of small feet, four 
horsemen riding to the right, a snake-like band, and some unclear figures, the larg- 
est of which resembles a pair of scissors with dentated blades. 

The right part of the upper stratum is dominated by two stylized trees with 
straight parallel branches having hooked ends. They are possibly meant to re- 
present the tree of life. Immediately below them are pairs of vertical lines with a 
hook at the lower end and the upper ends joined by a horizontal line to form three 
groups of one, three and five pairs respectively. They rather suggest the shape of 
human legs, as the hooks are turned left and right alternatingly.* Above and on 
both sides of the three hands there may have been similar "legs". There is also a 
curved line with hooks to the right of the trees. A row of three horses, the last with 
a rider, may represent an equestrian figure in pursuit of two horses. They have a 
well defined broad body, whereas two other horses quite near are much thinner. 
There are also one "thin" and one "fat" camel beside several fragmentary figures. 
In all, there are about eighty-five figures on this upper stratum. 

The figures of this level are executed in profile and are quite naturalistic, i. e. 
from a primitive point of view. There are no marked exaggerations in the shapes of 
the animals. They seem to have been made with a metal chisel as the lines are narrow 
and well defined. Both style and technique are rather homogeneous, which points to 
a limited period for the genesis of the figures. This part of the rock is covered with 
lichen. Some of the figures are fragmentary, as small parts of the surface have peel- 
ed off as a result of long exposure to the weather. 

Practically the whole surface of the middle stratum is crowded with figures, and 
there is no need to make any vertical divisions. The animals are predominant. 
There are about twenty camels with more or less tower-like humps (one may have 
a rider), thirteen dog-like beasts, ten "horses" with long legs and tails, seven ibexes 
and one deer (the latter probably belonging to the lowest stratum). Four men are 
mounted on horses and three are on foot, one of these may be an archer. There are 
several unclear animal representations as well as other figures, for instance a ring 
and a highly stylized hand. In all, the number of figures on this middle stratum is 
about ninety. They are less distinct and more shallowly made than those on the 
upper level, probably made by pocking with a stone. Only on the figures bordering 
the upper stratum is there any lichen, otherwise the whole surface is clean. Not all 
of the indistinct figures have been filled in with white colour, cf. p. 188. 

1 In using this term I follow the precedent set by those who have published rock pictures from N. Mongolia 
and S. Siberia, even though the signs on our petroglyph may have another meaning than the proper tamgha 
signs, which are owner's marks. 

2 Otto Manchen-Helfen (1931, p. 123) mentions the occurrence of freely walking legs, the body never having 
been executed, on a rock painting in Uryangkhai (Tanu-tuwa). 



:< ■ 

The middle and lower levels jut into each other. On the left part for instance the 
lowest line of figures marked with white in PI. XVI a belong to the middle level. They 
are well-made ibex and goat representations, and two curious scenes with a man 
holding a goat by the tail. 

The lowest level, about the lower third of PI. XVI a, is relatively recent work. 
This is attested both by content and technique. The two camels, two horses and two 
birds are drawn with a totally different conception of art than that manifested in 
the upper figures. The proportions are good, and even the narrow legs are marked 
with double contours. The lamaistic signs, two endless knots, a spoked wheel etc., 
are of a piece with the Mongol script engraved here. On the left lower part there 
are three lines, PI. XVIII b (also visible on PL XVI a though they are not painted 
white). I am indebted to Mr. W. A. Unkrig, Frankfurt-am-Main, for his kindness in 
reading this inscription. It runs burxat cakgiin suruk, i. e. 'Pictures from the time 
of the BuddhasV 

It is written with the script used by the Torgut Mongols of Sinkiang in our days, 
which was invented in 1648 by Zaya Pandita, but it is not quite modern. Whether 
the author of the inscription or some of his fellow Mongols at the same 
time drew the well-designed animals and the Buddhistic symbols, or whether the 
occurrence of the latter inspired the writing of the three words is of no conse- 
quence, as they are equally modern as compared with the pictures higher up on the 
cliff. In any case the Torgut wanted to express his belief in the very venerable age 
of the existing engravings. 

Above the three lines of writing a single line is visible on PI. XVI a but it is ap- 
parently without meaning. There are also three more single lines of very uncertain 
writing, also of Mongol type but too poorly made to allow of any reading. 

These modern figures are executed with dotted lines pocked into the rock with a 
pointed tool. The surface of the lines looks fresher than is the case with the upper 

On this main carving there are apparently to be found both the oldest and the 
youngest of the stages in the development of this Quruq-tagh rock engraving. It 
thus forms an excellent example of how the Inner Asiatic rock pictures were made 
successively during prolonged periods. The same observations can be made on the 
reproductions of certain Siberian and Mongolian petroglyphs. 

The third group of engravings lies a few metres to the right of the preceding one. 
It, also, is quite large, about 9 m. long and 3.5 m. high. Here the rock is uneven and 
forms a rounded ledge; when standing on this one can easily reach the highest 
pictures. The lowest ones lie 0.8 m. above the water-level. Here the "stratigraphy" 
is less evident, but four "styles" can be discerned: 1) highly stylized animals, high- 
est up on the wall and corresponding to the upper level of the preceding group, 2) 
long-legged animals, corresponding to the middle stratum of the preceding group, 


3) ibexes with narrow contours, 4) shallow figures in the interspaces between the 
rest, quite modern. Cf. PL XVI b. PL XVII c shows the righthand part. In all, this 
group contains some 165 figures. 

Those highest situated, which also look oldest, consist of a man with spread fing- 
ers, PL XVII c, an archer(?), seven low and highly conventionalized beasts, three 

bucks, and some fragmentary elements. 

Of the long-legged animals only one or two are seen on PL XVII c, but the ibexes 
are well represented on that photo. They have been given enormous horns, a good 
many of them being very artistically made. Some of them have the body marked 
with a double line. A few camels, both "fat" and "thin", some smaller quadrupeds, 
and two elegantly outlined beasts running right on the right edge of the surface 
complete the fauna here. A few human representations (only one on PL XVII c) are 
also mixed with the animals, one of them seems to have a phallus, one carries a 
burden on his back, two or three are riding on horseback. There are one large foot- 
print and four hands of the same short and broad type as on PL XVII b. 1 Two long 
lines may possibly be interpreted as snakes, but the meaning of some "enclosures" 
with dividing lines is uncertain. There is a wheel-shaped figure and possibly also 
a couple of t a m g h a signs. Grano depicts some tamgha signs from N W 
Mongolia of about the same appearance (Grano 1910, Figs. 18 and 40) and 
Appelgren-Kivalo's Plates 118, 199, 204 and 224 also show some analogies to the 

Also on this group all the indistinct engravings and most of the modern ones 

could not be filled with white. 

Near to the right of this group lie the six figures on PL XVIII a: a buck with 
slightly curved horns reaching to the tail, a camel, a small indeterminable beast, an 
ibex, a tree-like tamgha and a "hand" with only three fingers. They cover about 

one square metre. 

From here onwards the cliff is more uneven and thus less suited for large 
groups of figures. Consequently, only scattered elements have been engraved here. 

Next to the group PL XVIII a follows an isolated tree of the same fine execution 
as that of the two trees on PL XVI a, and situated at the same height above the 


About 3 m. further downstream there is a man on horseback, one hand lifted. 
His mount is drawn as a horizontal line with four straight legs. 

Below this there are an ibex and a camel, both incomplete. Then come two bucks. 

The last group, PL XVII b, is composed of two hands with very small palms, quite 
different from the elegantly shaped hands on PL XVI a. Between the hands are some 

> Among the rich and variegated rock carvings in the Swedish province of Ostergotland there are a few ele- 
ments resembling these short and broad hands. Otherwise hand pictures seem to be missing in Sweden. They have 
been interpreted by Nord£n as footprints, probably of bears (Norden Fig. 46 and PI. 38)- The claws of these 
"bear's feet" are much shorter than the fingers on our hands, and I therefore prefer to call our figures hands, 
though they are far from naturalistic. 


geometrical lines forming an open enclosure, a trident-shaped figure, a ring with a 

central dot and some unclear lines. The lower edge lies about 1.5 m. above 

the brook, the height of the carved surface being 1.9 m. The lines are broad and 

The filling with white colour does not always do full justice to the engravings, 
as all the pictures have become equally white. In reality they are of different shades. 
The elements of the highest level have, however, a homogeneous appearance. Not so 
the other parts. Some other visitor who cares to undertake the labour of filling in 
the pictures will no doubt arrive at a different number, because I did not fill in the 
most uncertain ones, and as I worked in November the light was not always of the 
best. Even on some of the photos I can now discern animal figures which I have not 
filled in with white. In any case they give nothing but a quantitative addition. 

Having finished the description of the pictures on the cliff, we now turn to those 
on three large boulders lying a little upstream on the other side of the brook. 

The first boulder lies close to the water and has one side covered with a confusion 
of obscure carvings where only one camel and some curved ibex-horns could be 
distinguished. Two "elfin mills", i. e. small cup-shaped hollows, were clearly defined. 
Under better light conditions these figures may stand out more clearly. In November 
the sun never reached this block. 

The middle boulder has a carving which is distinct at both ends, whereas the 
centre is impossible to interpret. To the left is a man, one hand stretched out to 
grasp the tail of or to carry a big bird ( ?) with hanging wings and raised head. The 
right extremity shows a deer, a camel, a crane, and a walking man. In the centre 
there may be, among other things, a man and a couple of camels. 

The lines are thick and the broader surfaces of the figures are hollowed out. This 
carving makes a modern impression. The animals recall some of the middle level on 
the main engraving, but the movements of the human figures are much more lively. 
This carving seems to correspond, in point of style, to the one from Langar-kisht on 
the Panja in the Pamirs (Tallgren 1933, Fig. 17). 

The third boulder, finally, has a few engravings as shown on PI. XVIII c: three 
hands and some incomplete elements, one of which may be an animal. 

These stone blocks must have been hidden in the detritus which covered the 

lower part of the cliff when the upper level of its pictures were engraved, and the 

pictures on the blocks must therefore be younger than this oldest facies. To make 

any further chronological distinction is difficult, but it may be added that the 

figures on the central boulder look relatively fresh whereas the others are weather- 

For those seeking the explanation of this extended rock carving at Buyantu- 
bulaq in Quruq-tagh, Prof. Tallgren's paper in ESA 1933 affords excellent 


T * 

guidance. The centre for the Inner Asiatic rock carvings is the Sayan mountains, 
i. c. Uryangkhai (Tanu-tuwa) and the South Siberian district of Minusinsk. Ac- 
cording to Tallgren's map the nearest rock picture to that of Quruq-tagh is situ- 
ated some 700 km. to the north of it at Kurchum in southern Altai. To the south- 
west none has been found nearer than Ladakh 1300 km. away. To the east, a group 
of rock carvings which I studied in Lang-shan lies about 1700 km. away (Bergman 
1935 a, Fig. 6). The nearest is situated about 360 km. to the SSE and was dis- 
covered by Dr. Hedin in 1901. 1 

The Quruq-tagh rock carving therefore occupies a most important geographical 
position, forming a link between rock pictures at tremendous distances. 

The main features of the topographical position which might have any bearing 
on the carving are the following: proximity to water, vegetation and good hunting 
grounds. The water now washes the very rock, the vegetation is luxurious but, as 
the valley is narrow, insufficient to feed any large heards. The hunting in Quruq- 
tagh is good. Another important feature is that a road or at least a path passes the 
place. Most of these characteristics are also typical for the rock-pictures in N. 
Mongolia and S. Siberia. If we turn to the subject-matter of our petroglyph we also 
find analogies on many other Asiatic rock pictures. 

As already mentioned, the animal representations form the major part of the 
Quruq-tagh petroglyph, and most of the figures no doubt represent wild animals 
such as ibex, antelope, deer, i. e. members of the local fauna. It is somewhat uncer- 
tain if the camels are meant to be wild or domesticated, especially as the eastern 
Quruq-tagh is one of the few places where wild camels exist. As the humps are 
drawn very high, indeed, exaggeratedly so, and wild camels never grow fat enough 
to develop anything like erect humps, the pictures most likely show domesticated 
camels. Only one or two of them have a rider. 

Most of the horses have riders. Among the confusion of separate figures with- 
out any obvious connection there may be a couple of real scenes: the two riders 
with dogs (or colts?) following, the mounted man driving two horses (below the 
trees) and the two men each clutching the tail of a goat-like animal. There are no 
love scenes such as abound on e. g. Scandinavian rock pictures, only one man is 
ithyphallic, and only one has his sex marked in the same way as several figures of 
the Sulek engraving (Tallgren 1933, Fig. 11; this part of the Sulek rock picture 
shows several analogies with the older facies of our petroglyph though the number 
of men and beasts are in inverse proportions). 

The trees are possibly the tree of life or the tree of the world, the hands, the feet, 


1 II is situated in the Kalta-alaqan-tagh about 140 km. SSE of Charkhliq and is published in Hedin 1905 Vol. 
3. PP. 189 — 191, Figs. 154 — 157, and consists of a few hunting scenes with various animals. The hunters carry bow 
and arrow, and arc partly on foot. According to Hedin the figures are naturalistic and executed with an iron 
chisel. Most of the pictures have contour lines only. Hedin ascribes them to some Mongol hunters, or, though 
less plausibly, to pilgrims. 


the "elfin mills" and probably some of the undecipherable signs are purely magical. 
The oldest level has the most varied subject-matter, and it seems as if this level 
covered a wider range of conceptions than the rest. Otherwise we have no doubt to 
deal with imititative magic and especially hunting magic. The hunters passing here 
have drawn the outline of their game on the rock, by which action they got power 
over the animal in question and would be successful on their hunting-expedition. 
Tallgren writes: "The primitive rock-pictures in Northern Central Asia express, 
I suppose, an idea which once prevailed among the Eurasian peoples of the Old 
Stone Age, and which still lives among the primitive hunters in the Siberian Taiga 
and on the mountain chains of Central Asia. The pictures of this really "timeless" 
culture have been executed by pocking or painting. The main elements in its re- 
pertory are animals and conventionalized men, worked in the same manner as in 
the corresponding late rock pictures in Africa, Spain, Arctic Scandinavia and among 
all primitive hunting nomads in general. It must be noticed, however, that the 
Central Asian rock pictures of the primitive group are seldom naturalistic or life- 
like. They are mostly conventional, being products of a "frosen" shamanism rather 
than of a hunter's imagination, as the Palaeolithic pictures are. In Siberia we have 
to do with an inherited art, not with one which depends on the personal observa- 
tions of the painter." 

How far our carving can be labelled as an inherited art is hard to tell, but it ob- 
viously has connections with the Siberian and Mongolian rock pictures, above all 
with the group that Tallgren calls the primitive. There is, however, one dif- 
ference in the subject-matter of the Siberian-Mongolian rock carvings and the one 
in Quruq-tagh. The latter contains several incised hands, whereas this element seems 
to be lacking among the former groups. I have not been able to trace any hands in 
the publications of Siberian and Mongolian rock pictures available to me, and Prof. 
Tallgren of Helsingfors, the famous specialist on the prehistory of these regions, 
has kindly confirmed this observation. Otherwise the pictures of hands have a very 
wide distribution. On the Panja rock pictures there are hands, both large natur- 
alistic ones (Tallgren 1933, Fig. 19) and short and broad ones executed in the same 
stylized manner as are some of the Quruq-tagh hands (Tallgren 1933, Fig. 17, our 
PL XVII b). Exactly the same curious shape is found on an Indian seal from Barenrah, 
Hamipur (Wilke 1913, Fig. 210 b) and on one of the Lang-shan carvings (Berg- 
man 1935 a. Fig. 6). Some of the hands in our carving have only four, or even 
three fingers, but it is far from certain that they are meant to represent mutilated 
hands. The general meaning of the hands is explained as apotropaic gestures ; in 
other instances they are interpreted as symbols of proprietorship and as means of 
keeping possession when they are over or next to animal figures. This latter ex- 
planation would fit in perfectly with the general meaning ascribed to the other 
elements, and on PL XVI a a little to the left of the centre there is a hand covering a 
part of an animal, though this is incomplete, only the hind part being executed. 


After all, the hands on the Quruq-tagh petroglyph show connections with the 
south-west and the south and not with the north. 

Stylistically the majority of the animals are poorly executed; they are stiff, and I 

outlined in profile. Some of the human figures are seen en face. The "artists" have I 

been most successful in depicting ibex bucks, some of them being highly suggestive | 

and recalling the best ibex representations in the Ordos bronze art. A mounted horse 
is shown at the trot, and an antelope is also depicted in lively movement. Though the 
rest of the horses are stiffly drawn, their movements have been emphasized by the 
position of the riders. With one hand they hold the reins and with the other they 
whip their small, long-tailed mounts. Everybody who has been fortunate enough to 
see a Mongol hurrying across the wide spaces of the steppes at a joyful speed, 
riding his pony in the way peculiar to these people, with his bodily weight on one 
thigh, and urging his mount by touching the rear of its hind-quarters with the 
whip, will understand that the simple rock-picture horsemen are founded on ob- 
servations of nature. 

The occurrence of domesticated animals among the wild ones shows that the 
makers of the pictures relied not only on hunting, but also on cattle breeding. In 
this instance the making of the pictures had the object of increasing the number 
of cattle. 

Whether the Mongols of our days who made the horses and camels on the lowest 
level were moved by the same wish, or whether they just wanted to show their 
superior ability in drawing is hard to say. They have in any case felt an attraction 
to this old place of primitive worship, regarding it as "powerful" and sacred and 
therefore enriching it both with animals and lamaistic signs. Stein also mentions 
that local worship of some kind attaches to the spot in another way : he saw a flag 
which a Mongol visitor had set up near the rock pictures. 

It is, of course, impossible to answer the question as to whether there exists an 
unbroken local tradition here. There may be several hiatuses in the genesis of the 
engravings, as there are rather well-marked generations. Different tribes may in- 
deed be responsible for different parts of the petroglyph, but the conception under- 
lying these manifestations is the same. 

The chronology of primitive petroglyphs is always hard to decide. For the S. 
Siberian and N. Mongolian rock pictures Tallgren gives the probable limits as 
B. C. 500 — A. D. 800. The rock pictures of Ladakh and W. Tibet are of varying 
dates. The qualifications for very early pictures exist, if we can rely on the palaeo- 
lithic age ascribed to some rock paintings in NW India. The rock carvings along 
the different routes connecting India with the Tarim and the Oxus Basins are in 
many cases of a Buddhist character: stupa representations and a few lines of script. 
Some of them can be dated in the third, others in the fifth, eighth or ninth centuries 
A. D. In some instances such Buddhist rock carvings are combined with human 




figures, animals and geometrical signs executed in a true primitive way (Cf. Ben- 
g veniste PL V). It is not possible to determine in all cases whether the various types 

of figures are contemporary or whether they are the results of successive use of 
the spots as sacred places. In many instances the Buddhist stupa carvings seem to 
form the primary element of the compositions which has attracted people and in- 
spired them to make additions. These carvings are often labelled as pilgrims' 
pictures. On the other hand there are also rock pictures in Western Tibet lacking 
the Buddhist elements (e. g. Tucci, Fig. 21) which are of the same type as the older 
parts of the Quruq-tagh petroglyph. 

Francke gives an explanation of the meaning of recent rock pictures in Kash- 
mir-Ladakh which totally differs from the generally accepted interpretations of at 
least old rock carvings. The many bucks, e. g. on a rock surface at the village Donga 
near Shimsha Kharbu about midway between Srinagar and Leh, are said to be 
offerings to the mythical pre-Buddhistic King Kesar, made in gratitude for the 
birth of children (Francke PL 9). 

Through the good offices of Mr. Henning Haslund-Christensen I have come 

into possession of a photo of this rock carving. On the left-hand part of the large 

boulder the photo clearly shows two more bucks than appear in Francke's re- 

C production. (The figures are not filled in with white colour on either picture). This 

proves that the people still embellish this rock with carvings of the same kind as 
those already existing. On this petroglyph only the Buddhistic stupa symbols may be 
of some age. The present inhabitants of the Donga village are Mohammedans and 
have nothing to do with the carvings. 

In another case Francke calls an ibex representation "the old big stone-buck, 
personification of the rock". 

According to my belief not all of Francke's buck figures must necessarily be 
connected with human fecundity. When two goats are depicted, one of them with 
a small goat within, denoting pregnancy, this is better explained as a prayer for in- 
crease in the stock of goats. 

A carved hand Francke calls a sign of Wednesday. 

As is evident from the description given above, our Quruq-tagh engravings come 
down to modern times, maybe the present century. The "stratigraphy" shows that 
the highest level must be of a certain antiquity. The origin of the art is no doubt 
very old, but in our case the earliest part must have been made by a people well 
aquainted with the use of metal tools. To give any more precise date would be 
hazardous. One could, of course venture the guess that the carving was started by 
some Huns coming from Northern Mongolia, where they probably practised this 
kind of art, and that it was continued by some people associated with the south- 
west, e.g. the Tibetans, and also by the Mongols. 

It is still too early to base any conclusions on the distribution of rock-carvings in 




General view of the cliff with the rock carving, Buyantu-bufaq, Quruq-tagh. 




ft, The central group of flic rock carving, with three "strata". 

b. The right part of the central group and the whole third group. 


Inner Asia. The development of this art is dependent on the presence or absence of 
rock faces suitable for the reception of the figures. Thus it is hopeless to expect to 
find any rock pictures in the granite hills in regions with desert climate, as the sur- 
face of this kind of rock is much weathered and easily peels off. 


A. Watch-station. 

On the top of a small hill at the mouth of the Shindi river or Buyantu-bulaq there 
are some very small remains of a watch-tower guarding the entrance to the valley 
from the north. Stein has already observed this small ruin. At the foot of the hill, 
on the SW side, there are traces of quarters. A square wall, totally covered by 
earth, is 4x4.7 m. At a depth of 50 cm. there was a layer containing few pieces of 
charcoal, animal bones and horse droppings. The walls had been built of brushwood. 
Several houses were lying close together. In one room were found remains of the 
fallen-in reed roofing, and a hearth made of three stones placed edgewise, filled 
with charcoal and ashes. Some cows' bones were also found in this room. 

When studying a photo of the place I discerned a low rampart surrounding the 
whole place to form a compound. This wall is so low and decayed that I did not 
notice it when on the spot. 

B. "Tash-oi". 

High up on the mountain-side to the west of the Shindi river and not very far 
south of the village, Abdurahim showed me a 'Tash-6i' (stone hut). The main 
structure is shown in PI. XIX b. As seen on the plan Fig. 38 it consists of a rectang- 
ular enclosure, open towards the precipice on the eastern side. A smaller room, 
which has the south wall common with the enclosure, has about one metre high walls 
of slate slabs joined with mortar. The outer wall is a dry-stone wall. Inside the 
door at the eastern side of the room there was a hearth of small stones and earth, 
23 cm. in diam. and about 25 cm. below the surface. The loessic earth was inter- 
mixed with ashes to a depth of 70 cm., and also contained a few animal bones. 

In front of this main structure but about 8 m. below the SE corner there is a 
small outwork. About 40 m. east of the main structure and about 15 m. below 
there are remains of a shelter with two (three?) rooms in a row, close to a steep 
cliff. Here I found a couple of potsherds in a layer of ashes, charcoal and animal 
bones which reached 50 cm. below the floor. 

On a level with this house and straight below the outwork mentioned above I saw 
some remains of masonry strengthened with logs and branches. 









' - 

i i i i i- 

Fig. 38. Plan of "tash-oi" near Shindi, Quruq-tagh. Complete and broken 
hatchings denote standing and fallen down masonry respectively. 

It is almost impossible to determine the age of these stone houses only from the 
potsherds found. Their position high above the ground with a fine prospect along 
the river valley made them very suitable as look-outs, and it is possible that they 
were constructed in connection with the watch-tower at the mouth of the valley 
described above. It is a priori very reasonable to suppose that all these structures in 
the valley of the Shindi river were erected, or at least inspired, by the Chinese to 

safeguard the traffic on the Silk Road passing not very far to the south of the 
Quruq-tagh range. 

C. Grave near Shindi. 

When at Shindi with Norin, in November 1928, I examined a grave about 3 km. 
to the east of the village. It was situated on a small elevation near Norin's point 
1 561 (cf. sheet Shindi of Norin's map), and consisted of a rectangle measuring 
5x6 m. with an outer and an inner wall of stones, and between these a filling of 
gravel. Half a metre of loessic earth covered an irregular layer of smaller slabs, 
and below this we found some remains of a very much decayed human skeleton. The 
left arm was lying higher than the traces of the skull. 20 cm. to the left of the skull 
there was a lower jaw of a sheep. This formed the only funeral deposit. Immediately 
below this we came upon rock. 

The grave was of course measured, but the plan was lost in Siberia together with 
many other more valuable data. I am therefore unable to state with certainty in 
which direction the skeleton was resting, but as far as I can recollect the head was 
lying to the west. 

Even this stone grave Abdurahim called a Tash-6i though it made no real im- 
pression of having been a house. 


A. Ruined fortress. 

When travelling from Korla to Shindi, in October 1928, I took the road via 
Sai-cheke at Konche-darya through the narrow mountain valley Soget-bulaq. The 
reason why I chose this route was that my guide Urayim (= Ibrahim) from Shine- 
ga informed me that there was a "Kohna-shahr" in the Soget-bulaq valley. After 
having proceeded 9.5 km. northwards (measured in a straight line) from the south- 
ern foot of Quruq-tagh we also reached a ruined fortress on the western side of the 
valley, where it forms a marked bend and is wider than elsewhere. 

The structure is situated on the top of a small but very steep hill, the walls of the 
fortress following the irregular shape of the hill, Fig. 39. 1 It measures roughly 
50x30 m. The walls are built of slabs with mortar. As seen in PI. XlXa parts of the 
masonry have fallen down. The walls do not exceed 4 m. in height. The interior 
makes more the impression of a platform than of an enclosure. There is only one 
gate, situated in the southern part on a narrow promontory. Here the walls arc 
higher but also thinner. On the eastern side an inlet between two promontories has 
been closed by a low wall thus forming a lower bastion. 

Only a couple of undecorated potsherds were picked up inside the fortress. Below 
the rampart we found the bronze pendant PL 15: 3, in the shape of a very stylized 
animal representation, a ram, the horns forming the suspension loops. There are 
pendants among the Ordos bronzes with similar conceptions of the animal. 

These meagre finds do not furnish any definite chronological clue. Considering 
the general situation of the fortress, it is evident that it was constructed to control 
traffic from North to South or vice-versa, and it was most likely built to block 
this mountain road from invasions from the north. When traffic on the Silk Road, 
or more precisely The Road of the Centre, was flourishing it was certainly very 
necessary to protect this east-westerly route from flank attacks, and in this part 
especially from the north. The Silk Road here followed the line of watch-towers be- 
tween Ying-p'an arid Korla, a line that is easily reached from the Quruq-tagh 
mountains. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that the Soget-bulaq fortress was 
built at the time when the trade along the Silk Road was lively and when the 
Chinese still feared inroads from the Hsiung-nu. 

The Soget-bulaq fortress may also have been constructed to protect one of the 
roads to the kingdom of Shan, a small state mentioned in the Former Han annals 
and located in western Quruq-tagh. This explanation, however, is less probable as 
this kingdom can hardly have been of much consequence. The name Mo-shan men- 
tioned by Li Tao-yuan probably refers to the same territory. 

1 The contours on the plan arc not measured and the intervals are thus very approximate; they do not reach 
the foot of the hill. 




Fig. 39. Sketch plan of ruined fortress in the valley of Soget-bulaq, Quruq-tagh. The complete and broken hat- 
chings denote preserved and fallen down masonry respectively. 


Some of Norin's graves and 'tash-ois' may have some connection with this an- 
cient kingdom. 

This fortification ought to be seen in connection with those at the Shindi river 
and the fortress at P'o-ch'eng-tze in Quruq-tagh. 

B. Burial place. 

Between the fortress and the small 
brook there is a group of eight closely 
placed graves built of stone slabs placed in 
rectangles. Seven of them were destroyed 
by man, the one which seemed to be un- 
touched I excavated. Plan and section are 
shown on Fig. 40. The rectangle is lined 
with slabs put edgewise. It measures 2.3 x 
1.2 m., and is about 35 cm. higher than the 
ground. Level with the ground there was a 
layer of flat slabs. Nearly in the centre and 
1 m. from the top a human skull was found, 
and a little higher up and to the side was a 
child's skull. Near the adult skull there 
was some green colour from some trifling 



Fig. 40. Grave near the ruined fortress at Sogct- 
bulaq. Plan and section. 

much decayed bronze plate. As no other 

bones or funeral deposit were met with it is most likely that this tomb, too, 

been subject to a previous search. 

The fragmentary skulls have been handed over to Prof. Backman. 



When making his topographical and geological surveys of western Quruq-tagh, 
Norin discovered a great many ancient tombs and remains of small stone structu- 
res, which have been marked on his maps. The Turki name for all the different 
kinds of these remains built of stones is Tash-6i, 'stone house', or Degipter-tash-6i, 
'stone huts of the spirits' (Norin p. 176). In some cases these structures served as 
dwellings and sheep enclosures, in other cases they were small fortifications or 
watch-stations. Huntington mentions them as "little stone shepherd's huts". 

Along the northern foot of Khara-teken-ola, south of the lake Baghrash-kol, both 
such structures and ancient graves are very common. Norin opened a grave in the 
region of Shor-tsaghan near his camp 201. It consisted of a mound of earth and 
stones in which he found a chamber measuring 2 x1m., walled with rough stones and 
about 1 m. deep, which was filled with fine sand and stones. At the bottom rested the 


*.- .- 

i* ^ 


■^^ **^ \L^ I 



m >«.' 

•» u 

Fig. 41. Grave at Yukken-gol, Quruq-tagh. Drawing from a photo by Dr. E. Norin. 

strongly decayed remains of a human skeleton with the head eastwards, and at 
its feet some fragments of a sheep's skull. The iron objects marked in the list below 
were recovered from here. They arc all very much decayed and broken. There was 
a horse's bit with a joint at the centre and a ring at each end, an oval ring with a 
projecting hook i. e. probably a buckle of the nomad style, and some indeterminable 

It is impossible to date these fragments with any certainty. It seems likely, how- 
ever, that they belong to the first millenium A. D. 



Another grave found by Norin is shown in Fig. 41. It is situated at Yukken-gol 
600 m. due east of his camp 29 (cf. Norin's map Sheet Shindi). It consists of a rect- 
angle, about 4x6m., of slabs placed edgewise, and reminds one of certain stone 
graves in Inner Mongolia. 

It is still too early to ascribe the Quruq-tagh graves to definite periods. They have 
probably been constructed in various ages and also by different peoples. Those 
coming inte the question are Huns, Avars, Turks, and Mongols. At all events these 
tombs must be anterior to the time when Islam asserted itself among the Turks and 
before Lamaism came to govern the minds and customs of the Mongols. 


Shindi. From a ruined "tash 6i." 

K. 13438: 1. Potsherd from the projecting rim of 
a fairly large jar. Reddish-brown, 
hard-burnt ware. Diam. of mouth has been 22.5 

K. 13438:2-4. Three potsherds from fairly large 
vessels. About the same ware as 
— : 1 but with yellow surface. 

K. 13438: 5-6. Various small bones, teeth, coal etc. 


K. 13440:1. Bronze pendant? with two circular 
loops (one broken off) at one end. 
The whole object is possibly a stylized animal re- 
presentation. L. 55 mm. PI. 15:3. 

K. 13440: 2-3. Two potsherds of coarse red-brown 
ware. Found inside the fortress. 

1 - 




K. 13440:4-5. Two small potsherds of reddish 
ware. — :5 has a black line painted 
on a dark-red slip. Found at the graves between 
the fortress and the brook. 

Shor-tsaghan, tomb excavated by Norin 
in the region S of lake Baghrash-kol. 

K. 13445: 1-2. Two fragm. of an iron bridle, which 
has had a joint at the centre and a 
ring at each end. 

K. 13445:3-4- Two small iron fragm. with a hole. 

K. I3445:5- Iron buckle. An oval ring with a 
projecting hook instead of a tongue. 
25X23 mm. 

K. 13445: 6-7. Two small iron fragm., probably 
from rings. 

K. 13445 : 8. A few fragm. from a much-decayed 
iron sheet with two perforations. 
Br. 55 mm. 

K. 1344S : Q- Human incisor. 



In the early autum of 1928 I travelled from Charkhliq to Quruq-tagh. As the 
ferry-place near Ying-p'an was difficult to traverse with camels because of the 
high water in Qum-darya I followed the main road from Tikenliq to Korla. From 
there I paid a short visit to the imposing ruins of the once Buddhist monastery which 
is now called Ming-6i and situated near to the west of the road between Korla and 
Qara-shahr. On the other side of the road and a little further to the north lies the 
ruined town of Baghdad-shahri, which I also visited. 

I had not planned to undertake any excavation at either place, as the first one 
was well known through the intensive work by Oldenburg, Grunwedel and Stein, 
and the latter had proved to Stein to be very unpromising. 

From one of the central ruins in Ming-6i I brought away the two Buddhistic 
stucco heads PI. 32:9 and II, and a few trifling objects were collected from the 
ground. One of these was apparently lost by Stein, as it bears his site marks. The 
heads are very close to those found by Stein in this eighth century monastry. 


After having left Ming-6i I paid a flying visit to the ruined town called Baghdad- 
shahri. All that remains of it is the decayed walls. At the large mound in the interior 
some local treasure-seekers were digging, but they had made no interesting finds. 
We found a fragmentary Chinese coin on the ground, most likely a K'ai-yiian issue 

of T'ang period. 

Stein has identified this site with the old capital of Yen-ch'i, which the T'ang 
annals place at the right side of Khaidu-gol. 1 Stein's identification is rendered less 
certain by my discovery of the ruined walls of another city ve.-y near to Baghdad- 
shahri which I made six years after my visit to this place. 

1 This is Ihe spelling usually applied to the Mongol name o£ the Qara-shahr-darya. I have never heard it 
pronounced by any Mongol. According to Mr. Unkrig it must be a corruption of Khoitu-gol, i. e. The river in 
the rear, or to the north. 



When travelling from Qara-shahr to Korla, in March 1934* I observed the ruins 
of a rather large enclosure suggesting a town wall. It was situated about 3 km. N 
of the village Danzil, and about 1,500 m. from the ruined town of Baghdad-shahri. 
The compass bearings from the northern "gate" towards the corner-towers of 
Baghdad-shahri were: NE corner S 71 ° E, SW corner S 45 E. 

The cart-road crosses the northern wall, where a plain and quite modern p'ai-lou 
has been erected, and follows the eastern side of an inner square, Fig. 42. According 
to my estimation, which must be regarded as only approximate, the sides of the 
outer wall measure roughly 600 m. and are 2 — 3 m. high. On the southern side I saw 
no traces of any wall. The sides of the inner square measured about 250 m. Along 
the inside of its eastern wall ran a rather solid brick wall about 4 m. high. The inner 
enclosure contains several low mounds of dilapidate structures. 

The whole "town" is covered with a thorny shrub vegetation, and the ground is 
salt-encrusted, as is also the case with the surroundings. A small water-course flows 
through the ruin. The moistness and salinity of the ground makes it less probable 
that any perishables can be preserved here. 

Whether this ruin or Baghdad-shahri was identical with the Yen-ch'i of the T'ang 
annals is impossible to decide. One of them most likely was Yen-ch'i, and the other 
may have been A-ch'i-ni (Agni) of Hsuang tsang or Wu-i ( Wu-ch'i) of Fa hsien, 
because it is uncertain if these three names denoted one and the same place. 

However this may be, both of these ruins occupied an important strategical posi- 
tion along the highway between Turfan and the Tarim Basin, and also on the 
mountain road from the Hi valley along the Qara-shahr river where nomad inroads 
could be expected. 

In this connection we might mention a few objects obtained by Dr. Nils Ambolt 
from local people who had found them when digging up roots for fuel at a place 
about 6 km. SW of the village Danzil between Baghdad-shahri and Ming-6i. 

Two Chinese coins are from the periods corresponding to 766 — 784, a third is so 
covered with verdigris that the inscription is illegible. PI. 15:6 shows one side of a 
Sino-Kharoshthi coin. The Chinese characters are very unshapely and irregular; 
they read apparently liu ch'u ch'ien, i. e. six ch'u (= a weight) of money. This side 
nearly coincides with Hoernle 1899, PI. I: 14. The other side is still more obscure. 
It probably shows a horse standing to the right, and a couple of nearly effaced 
square characters. It recalls Hoernle's PI. 1 : 8. No. — : 5 is most likely of the same 
sort of Indo-Chinese coins. According to Hoernle, these coins date from the first 
and second centuries A. D. To similar coins from Khotan, where they seem to have 
been issued, he assigns the period 73 — 200 A. D. as a safe date. 


To Qorosnoh* 





m 1 








To KoHo 


Fig. 42. Approximate plan of ruined city 

between Qara-shahr and Korla. Hatching 

= masonry. 

Fig. 43. Earth rampart at Qu- 
mush, Quruq-tagh. Approximate 


The flat bronze button PI. 15: 14 is harder to place, but the strap end PL 15: 5 
can be compared with Arne 1914 Fig. 228, which was found in Qara-khoja near Tur- 
fan and is ascribed to a post-Sassanian period. The relief decoration shows affinities 
with Hungarian strap fittings of the migration period. (Hampel's fourth group). 

With the exception of the two Sino-Kharoshthi coins, these objects seem to be 
from the time during the T'ang dynasty when this region saw heavy traffic and a 
colourful life in the now ruined monasteries. 



K. 13442: 1. Three joined fragm. of a small clay 
vessel of light-red ware and with dark- 
red painting. 

K. 13442: 2. About half of a small low 
earthenware. Diam. 5.5 cm. 

K. 13442:3. Small potsherd with two black lines. 
Light yellowish, hard-burnt ware. 

K. 13442:4. Small fragm. of ornament of burnt 
clay, probably from a sculpture. 
(Marked Mi. xi, apparently dropped by Stein.) 

K. 13442:5. Stucco relief head, the upper part 
missing. Nearly full size. The arched 
eyebrows run down into the very sharp-edged 
nose. Half-closed eyes, but with large swelling 
eyeballs. Short upper lip, small much-curved mouth. 
Straight chin with double chin marked below. PI. 

K. 13442:6. Stucco relief head, much decayed. 
About half life-size. The hair is part- 
ed by a horizontal ribbon, the lower part having 
the coils laid against the sides. The ear-lobes arc 
somewhat elongated. PI. 32:11. 

lamp of Baghdad-shahri. 

K. 13444:1. Small fragm. of Chinese coin with 
the character "yuan" below the hole. 
Probably a K'ai-yiian. 

Sawn-off point of a horn-core. 

4. Two small chips of black flint. 

K. 13444 : 2- 
K. 13444: 3- 

K. 13443: 1. 

Chinese coin, Ta-li-yiian-pao (766- 
780). Diam. 21 mm. 

K. 13443:2. Chinese coin, with unclear legend, 
probably Chien-chung-t'ung-pao (780- 
784). Diam. 21 mm. 

K. 13443:3. Chinese coin, much corroded, broken. 
Diam. 22 mm. 


K. 13443 : 4. Copper coin, Sino-Kharoshthi, with 
unclear Chinese legend on one side, 
the front part of a horse standing to right and 
part of legend on the other side. Diara. about 19 
mm. PI. 15:6. 

K. 13443: 5. Copper coin, probably Sino-Kharosh- 
ihi, with very unclear legend. Diam. 
16 mm: 

K. 13443:6. Flat bronze button with incised orna- 
ment on one side. Diam. 18 mm. PI. 


K. 13443 : 7- Bronze mounting for strap end. One 
side is ornamented in relief: a floral 
design framed by a single row of dots between 
raised borders. The plain rear side is fastened 
with two rivets. 20X14X5 mm. PI. 15:5. 


When travelling" along the main road from Turfan to Qara-shahr in February 
1934, one night was spent in the then destroyed and deserted village of Qumush. On 
the south-eastern side of the small village I discovered a rhomboid enclosure, an 
earthen rampart, which must be the remains of a small fortification or military 
camp. It measured about 85 m. square and had gates in three of the sides, see plan 
Fig. 43. Near to the west of it there is a 4 m. high mound, at the top of which one 
could see metre thick layers of straw, charcoal, bones, fabrics and similar refuse 
laying in great disorder. Without digging — and I had no opportunity for this 
whatsoever — it was impossible to ascertain if the mound contained any structural 
remains, or if it was just a huge rubbish-heap. 

This small ruin has escaped the attention of earlier travellers. It might be 
identified with the fortress Kiimush-aqma, which in a note of Hsi-yu-wen-chien-lu 
1777 is said to be situated 520 li north-east of Qara-shahr. 


I f 

Si I 


About 3 km. tho the east of the village Ch'ai-o-p'u in T'ien-shan and about 1 km. 
to the north of the eastern end of the lake nearest to this village I discovered a 
fallen "baba" stone with a very rude face and an engraved line forming a girdle, 
PI. IX a. Total length of the stone 2.2 m. The girdle is 1.2 m. from the top. In the 
neighbourhood there is an earthen mound from a k a r e z or subsoil irrigation 

About 100 m. south of the main road Turfan — Urumchi there is an erect stone, 2 
m. high, and with an engraved belt or girdle 1.05 m. from the top, just as was the 
case with the nearby baba stone. It was impossible to discern traces of any face 
though there has probably once been one. 

To the north of the road and in the vicinity of the telegraph line I found another 
standing, thin stone, 1.65 m. high, but I could discover no engravings on it. Be- 
tween the latter and the road there is still another small erect stone. There are also 
probably some stone graves here. 

Afterwards I have learnt that this site is mentioned by Huntington (p. 300) : 
"Two monoliths about seven feet high, stand near the shore. Near them there are 
a number of artificial mounds of various sizes, and several lines composed of 


groups of stones. Each group consisted originally of about eight boulders from one 
to three feet in diameter arranged in a circle perhaps six feet across." 

Owen Lattimore also visited this place, and he saw three monoliths, one of 
them being the baba stone of my PL IX a. Besides he mentions "five large tumuli 
arranged in a line, surrounded by curious broken circles of small boulders on the 
bare ground. The disposition of the whole site is a little confused by the mounds 
about the shafts giving access to an abandoned karez." (Lattimore 1930, p. 
148 f.) 

In the Hi valley Lattimore saw not a few monoliths. 

As far as I am aware Stein is the first to have recorded a baba stone in Sinkiang. 
It is standing in a primitive Kirghiz shrine at Chalkoide in the mountains between 
Kelpin and Uch-turfan (Stein 1921, Fig. 341). There the stone effigy was wor- 
shipped by the Kirghiz. 

As a rule the baba stones are placed on a tomb or in the immediate vicinity of a 
tomb. It is hardly likely that the baba found by Stein and the shrine surrounding it 
are contemporaneous. Whether the baba was taken to the shrine from its ori- 
ginal place or the shrine was erected around the baba is hard to decide. In any 
case the combination of shrine and effigy is highly suggestive as a manifestation of 
the survival of ancient pre-Mussulman worship. 

Von Le Coq tells us about similar worship by the Kirghiz (Le Coq 1928, p. 
154). They regard the baba figures either as gods or as memorials of famous an- 

In Qasaqstan the baba figures are common. Le Coq mentions one along the road 
from Semipalatinsk to Sergiopol and another between Sergiopol and Kulja (Le 
Coq 1926, p. 160). 

In Sergiopol I noticed two babas which had been moved thither from the sur- 
rounding neighbourhood, and one is standing at the roadside on the outskirts of 
Urdjar. Several baba stones have been taken to the museum in Semipalatinsk. In 
the Minusinsk region and in N. Mongolia they are extremely common, and many 
specimens are also known from the eastern part of Inner Mongolia, Chakhar and 
Ulan-chap, the former discovered by Prof. J. G. Andersson, the latter found by me. 

The baba stones are distributed over practically the whole Eurasiatic steppe 
region, and seem to belong mainly to the first millenium A. D. 

The stones at Ch'ai-o-p'u have nothing to do with the few finds of worked flint re- 
covered in the vicinity and discussed on p. 26. 

I will revert to the question of the baba figures and hope to be able to treat it 
more fully in a forthcoming publication on Inner Mongolian antiquities. 


Though they have no connection with the monuments above, it ought to be men- 
tioned that there are several ruins of ancient watch-towers or signal-towers around 
Ch'ai-o-p'u along the Turfan-Urumchi road. 




This last part of my treatise is to deal with the finds obtained from three 

ruined sites at Charchan, Vash-shahri and Mi ran which I visited in 1928. 

They have been well known for many years. Though my collections from 

there are in no way unique they are nevertheless of interest as originating from 
stations on the Road of the South, the Silk Road which skirts the southern rim of the 
Tarim Basin. 



In "Serindia" Stein gives a well presented collection of data about Charchan as 
furnished by Chinese historical records, of which I give a short extract here. 

In Han-time the name of the oasis was Chii-mo, and it was still occupied towards 
the end of the third century A. D. It was the capital of a small kingdom. The Kha- 
roshthi form Calmadana is most likely meant to reproduce the indigenous name of 
Charchan. According to the Buddhist pilgrim Sun Yun it was called Tso-mo in 
A. D. 519, and was then held by the T'u-yii-hun, a nomad tribe occupying the high 
plateaus to the west of the Kuku-nor lake. In 640 Charchan was a part of the vast 
dominion of the Western Turks. When the famous Hsuan Tsang returned from 
India about 645 he found no inhabitants inside the lofty city walls of Charchan, or 
Che-mo-t'o-na as he calls it; this name is apparently a reproduction of Calmadana. 
The place was garrisoned again some fifteen years after the passage of Hsuan 
Tsang. In the period 674 — 76 its name was changed to Po-hsien. It is known to 
have been occupied in the beginning of the 8th century. At this time the place seems 
to have been called Padaki (Clauson, p. 302). The present name first appears as 
Cher-chen in a Tibetan record found in Miran. Stein suggests that this new name 
is attributable to the change wrought by the T'u-yu-huns' occupation. It was partly 
destroyed by the Mongols, but when in 1273 — 74 Marco Polo passed here, he says 
that Charchan was a province of Great Turkey, and that the people worshipped 

Stein is of the opinion that cultivation had disappeared by the end of the 18th 
century, probably for a long period earlier. Only after the first third of the last 


century did the Chinese begin to settle Charchan once more, as a penal station. Its 
growing importance as an agricultural settlement has been stated by Stein, and on 
my visit in 1928 I found that the oasis had improved still further. 

On his fourth expedition, 1883—85, Prjevalsky visited Charchan. As the in- 
formation he obtained regarding the Kohna-shahr is very important and has been 
overlooked by Stein I herewith render it in English from Hedin's Swedish trans- 
lation of Prjevalsky's narrative (pp. 396 f). 

"At Charchan there are, in the middle of the desert and partly covered by 
mounds of loess and sand, traces of an old culture — ruins of towers, houses and old 
canals. According to local tradition two cities existed here at different epochs. 
Among the remains of these the natives now and again undertake diggings, espec- 
ially after the storms when the sand is removed to a considerable depth. Here they 
find coins of copper and gold, silver bars, gold ornaments, jewellery, iron objects 
and copper vessels, and, oddly enough, sherds of glass — all in the older city. From 
the younger city they obtain burnt bricks. They also excavate tombs containing 
wooden coffins. In these the corpses are very well preserved, thanks to the extreme 
dryness of the ground and the air. The men are of very high stature and have long 
hair; the women have one or two queues. Once a tomb was discovered with twelve 
male corpses in a sitting position. Another time a young girl was discovered in her 
coffin. Her eyes were covered with leaves of gold, and her head was wound round 
with a gold ribbon from chin to crown. She had been dressed in a long garment, 
now totally decayed, but on the breast were some thin stars of gold; her feet were 
bare. The natives of Charchan told us that even the wooden coffins in some instances 
were so well preserved that the wood could be used for making various small articles. 
Together with human corpses one also found bones of horses and sheep in the tombs." 

Prjevalsky apparently made no excavations or collections of antiquities, he only 
gathered information. In the statements of the natives the riches found in the tombs 
have probably been exaggerated — this is usually the case when ignorant people 
describe archaeological finds. Another typical detail is the mention of the very high 
stature of the corpses : the size of a corpse or skeleton is always magnified when 
described. Several points are very suggestive and ring true: the good preservation 
of the corpses, the occurrence of glass and so on. It is also interesting to note that 
the existing ruins have been extensively used by the natives as "brick mines". 

Grenard's description is also interesting and worth quoting (Grenard Vol. 3, p. 
146). He visited Charchan 1893. 

'A Tchertchen a Touest de l'oasis et legerement au sud de la route de Keria, des 
maisons en ruines sont ensevelies sous le sable; les toits ont disparu, mais les murs 
sont encore assez bien conserves. lis sont faits de briques cuites, grosses et solides. 
Les anciens du village disent qu'on y a trouve aux premiers temps de la colonisation 
du nouveau Tchertchen, c'est-a-dire debut de ce siecle, des corps d'hommes vetus de 



Iaine, ayant les cheveux courts et la barbe longue, portant des anneaux aux oreilles 
et quelquef ois au nez, divers ustentiles de cuisine, des fragments de ianibou d'argent, 
des pieces de monnaie chinoises et des fragments de livres musulmans." 

Grenard acquired a coin of Wu Ti of Liang (first half of the sixth century). 

As seen from the above, Stein surveyed the historical records dealing with Char- 
chan, and he also searched the actual site. Among his acquisitions only one coin of 
the period 1054 — 56 admits of prima facie dating. He did not come across any 

As soon as the local people in Charchan, in July 1928, became aware of my anti- 
quarian interests they offered small objects which they had picked up on the surface 
of what they called the Kohna-shahr. Among the things purchased in this way 
there may be a few of somewhat dubious age and uncertain origin, but most of the 
articles are certainly genuine. When I moved out of the bazaar and pitched camp in 
the western border of the oasis I personally picked up some objects of the same 
kind as those purchased from the local people. 

The present Charchan oasis is situated on the left bank of the Charhan-darya. 
On the right bank there is a smaller, and probably rather new, oasis called Aralchi, 
which does not, however, call for further mention here. The cultivated ground, the 
fields, the orchards etc. form an elongated oval nearly 3 km. wide along the river, 
just as do most of the oases situated on river-banks. Above the cultivated ground a 
branch of the river is forced to run in a westerly direction, afterwards turning to 
the north, and finally west-northwest. Along its northern course it forms the west- 
ern boundary of the oasis. To the west of it opens a sterile, slightly undulating and 
eroded gobi surface, a soft, dusty clayey ground with a thin layer of fine black 
gravel. A rather large part of this desert is called Kohna-shahr (Old Town) as it 
yields pottery fragments and other small finds. 

Very few structural remains are to be seen, inter alia a small tower of uncertain 
age. It is possible, though, that some of the undulations which now show the same 
surface as the rest of the ground are hiding very dilapidated brick ruins. The de- 
struction of the ruins has thus been going on constantly since the time of Prjevai.- 
sky's visit. 

The most striking feature is a dry irrigation canal running roughly from south- 
east to north-west and near the western border of the Kohna-shahr. It has raised 
embankments and the bottom lies higher than the surrounding ground. Some tama- 
risks are growing along it. One time it no doubt watered a good deal, if not the 
whole, of the fields and orchards of the old city of Charchan. 

The present oasis covers probably a part of the old town, but as practically all 
the ground inside it is cultivated there was little hope of discovering any an- 
tiquities there during a short visit. I therefore limited my survey to the deserted part 
west of the modern oasis. 



*s z 




n 3 

In the eastern part of Kohna-shahr very near the border of the present oasis we 
found five graves within a distance of 17 in. (cf. the plan Fig. 44). Owing to wind 
erosion the skeletons were lying very near the surface of the ground and were more 
or less incomplete. 

Grave I with its poorly preserved skeleton 
contained a large earthenware jug PI. 35 : 4 and 
two pairs of rectangular bronze fittings, Fig. 45, 
probably from a wooden box or the like. These 
objects were found above the head of the buried 
man, Fig. 46. The jug is of dark, nearly black 
colour and has a simple ornamental band running 
round the shoulder; its age is hard to determine. 

Graves 2 and 3 were much disturbed as seen 
from the plans in Fig. 46. They contained nothing 
besides the bone fragments. 

Grave 4, also disturbed, had an earthenware 
vessel near the head of the skeleton, PI. 35 : 1. The 
shape of the vessel is about the same as that from 
Grave 1, only rather slenderer, and the ware is 
coarser and of inferior quality. 

Grave 5 had the best preserved skeleton but the 
skull was missing. The feet were lying 39 cm. 
below the upper part of the cerebral column. No 
sepulchral deposit was preserved. 

Another group of graves was discovered N and 
NW of the 'tati' surfaces which mark the extension 
of the Kohna-shahr. Two of them, Graves 6 and 7, were excavated by some tempo- 
rarily engaged people without my knowledge, and the data from the examination 
are thus very poor. 

Grave 6 contained bones of at least two individuals. The best preserved skull was 
taken for examination, for which I must refer to Prof. Backman's report. The dead 
were buried in a pit, roughly 2.5x1.5 m., and 1.5 m. deep, and the pit had been roof- 
ed with a layer of round logs covered with straw matting. 

Some fragments of a green woollen braid PL 32 : 10 were found on one of the skele- 
tons and the bottom of a low clay bowl. Fig. 47, of the same type as other Char- 
chan bowls. There was also a part of a wooden vessel made of a hollowed-out 
trunk, PL 32: 2, and having a very simply engraved figure of a deer(?) on the out- 
side, Fig. 48. The bottom must have been of leather and secured with strings in the 
holes along the lower rim. The main part of a wooden comb was also recovered and 

1 1 1 

Fig. 44. 

10 m 

Charchan, Kohna-shahr. Plan 
of graves I — 5. 


Fig. 45. Probable ar- 
rangement of bronze 
fittings from Grave I, 
Charchan. Half size. 

finally a wooden spindle whorl, or maybe more correctly the 
whorl of a fire-drill, PL 32 : 3. The comb, which has been partly 
reconstructed in Fig. 49, has had the shorter teeth secured in a 
lost transverse piece (of tendon?) and the long outer teeth have 
been tied to the sides with strings running in the marked notches 
on the upper part If this reconstruction is correct it shows a 
certain likeness with the Lop-nor comb PL 9: 1. 
Grave 7 was situated by the side of Grave 6. The construction was in conformity 
with the other one but the roof was made of reed bundles wound round with two 
cords. The pit contained one skeleton and a clay pot of the same kind as several 
purchased in Charchan and stated to originate from Kohna-shahr. The people were 
not quite certain if the cup PL 35 : 6 or 35 : 7 was found in this grave. 

Both of these graves seem to have been more or less plundered on some former 
occasion. In the earth around the dug out graves I found a small carved peg with 
a row of holes (K. 13345: 6) having quite withered wood. 

The other graves were destroyed by treasure-seekers long ago, and so was an- 
other group of five or six graves a little farther to the west. 

On the surrounding ground we did not notice any fragments of pottery, other- 
wise so common in Kohna-shahr proper. This burial place was apparently situated 
outside the old town. 

As the funeral deposits are very poor the dating of these graves is somewhat 
hazardous. It is quite clear that they are of a pre-MussuIman age, and that they 
belong to people that inhabited Charchan before Marco Polo passed here. It is not 
quite out of the question that Graves 6 and 7 belong to the Lou-Ian period, as the 
construction of these graves reminds us of some of the Lop-nor graves, but the 
sepulchral furniture is too insignificant to allow of any proper distinction. 



From the historical data regarding Charchan, as seen from the brief extract 
given above, we do not reach further back than the time of the Han dynasty, when 
the oasis was known as Chu-mo. There is nothing to contradict the supposition that 
Charchan was inhabited long before that, possibly already in prehistoric times. The 
finds furnishing the proofs, however, have been wanting. With the acquisition of 
the beautiful earthenware vase shown in PL 1 we have apparently acquired an ob- 
ject antedating the Han dynasty, cf. p. 18 f. Its general features places it among the 
chalcolithic pottery, possibly of the second millenium B. C. A few plain potsherds 
may also be prehistoric. (K. 13342: 28, 30 — 31, 52 — 53). 



n. The first group of the Quruq-tagh rock carving. 

h. The last group furthest to the south 

c. A part of the third group of the Quruq-tagh rock carving. 


a. The figures to the right of the third group 

b. Three lines of Mongol script. 

; ■ 

5 ' 

c, A carving on a boulder. 

Oerchfin. Grove |. 

therthen. Grave 2. 

Cherthen, Grave y 



I I I I I I 

Cherchen, Grove 5. 



Cherchen, Grove 4, 




i _ L 

Fig. 46. Charchan Kohna-shahr. Plans of graves I — 5. 


A few pottery fragments resemble in the ware the Lop-nor pottery from the time 
of Lou-Ian (K. 13342:20, 24 — 25). The light-grey vase PI. 35:3 is a well-known 
Han type, and closely recalls a vase found in Mass-grave 1 at Lop-nor (PI. 21 : 2). 
Together with some of the beads, and possibly a coin, these are the remains that 
can be attributed to the time of Chu-mo. 



Fig. 47. Drawing of the earthenware bowl K.13345: ' from 

Charchan. Half size. 

The main bulk of the Charchan 
pottery, a coarse, thick-walled and 
brick-red earthenware, must be 
post-Han, and probably originates 
from the time of the later occupa- 
tions, i. e. from the T'ang, Sung, 
and Yuan dynasties. A minor part 
of the sherds shows a dark grey, 
well-burnt ware, PI. 36: J. PL 
36:5 is brownish. These are not 

so thick-walled though they have belonged to large vessels. 

As is the case at Vash-shahri, a few potsherds show incised characters, probably 

Tibetan, PL 37: 3 (and possibly also PL 37 : *)> which gives a hint as to their date. 

The Tibetan occupation of Eastern Turkistan lasted from 670 to 692, and from the 

middle of the eighth century for one hundred years. I am indebted to Professor 

Helmer Smith, Upsala, for a confirmation of the nature of the incised characters. 
Most of the handles are loop-shaped, but there are also lugs. A single case of a 

horizontally applied handle is shown on PL 37: 4. 

Spindle whorls were made of potsherds, but PL 37: 9 shows a fragmentary whorl 

which was originally made for this purpose. It is also of earthenware and has some 

impressed dots. 

The bowls PL 35 : 5 — 7 have the same shape as Fig. 47. Two of these I know 

myself as coming from graves inside the Kohna-shahr, and I am pretty sure that 
all the complete vessels have a similar origin. We must also reckon with the poss- 
ibility that most of the small finds such as beads and other ornaments or metal 
fittings have come from destroyed graves. Many potsherds, on the other hand, must 
be regarded as refuse from dwellings. 

Small objects. 

Among the five copper coins obtained, one is a "Goose-eye", i. e. one of those 
much debased coins so common during the final period of the Lou-Ian time. A K'ai- 
yuan coin is a T'ang issue, and two Sung coins bear the periods corresponding to 
1017 — 22 and 1023 — 32. The fifth coin, PL 33:9, has exactly the same shape as 
the ordinary Chinese ones of the T'ang and later dynasties; the four characters, 
however, are non-Chinese and illegible. It is apparently an imitation of a Chinese 

There are three bronze buckles all without tongues. PL 33: 3 somewhat recalls a 
buckle of T'ang? type from the Tog^ijai site (Stein 1907, PL LI, M. 001. g), and 
PL 33: 2 has a parallel from the Lou-Ian station (Stein 1921, PL XXXVI, L. A. 


Fig. 48. Figure incised on the 
wooden bucket PI. 32:2, Char- 
chan. Nat. size. 

Fig. 49. Reconstruction of 

the remains of a wooden 

comb. Charchan, Grave 6. 

Half size. 

0050) and another from Inner Mongolia in the Museum of Far Eastern Anti- 
quities in Stockholm (K. 10204: 6) ; these latter are more elongated. 

PI. 33 : 1 is of a type quite common in Inner Mongolia. I myself picked up a speci- 
men in a ruined house of the Sung or Yuan dynasty near Khara-khoto at the low- 
er Edsen-gol river, and in MFEA there are five similar buckles obtained in Kuei- 
hua or in Inner Mongolia. (K. 11003: 1372 and 1383, K. 11233: 13, K. 11283: 38 
and 40). Hardly any of these last mentioned had any tongue, but the one from 
Charchan may have had one. There is always the possibility, however, that this 
type was never used as a true buckle for fastening two ends of a strap, but that it 
was hanging on the lower edge of the belt (or other strap) and used for attaching 
other objects in the same manner as on the girdle in the Korean Gold Crown Tomb 
(Hamada & Umehara, Fig. 33). A modern development of this type is to be found 
among the silver fittings that the Mongols carry on their girdles, and where they 
suspend their cinderbox, knife and chopsticks etc. It is no doubt a non-Chinese 
contrivance developed among the Central Asian nomads. 

The bronze fitting PI. 33: 4, to join the strap-end with the rear side of the buckle, 
has a parallel from Khotan (Stein 1928, PI. X, Badr. 0168). PI. 33: 5 has probably 
been used in the same way. 

Small pendants, rings and beads of bronze were also purchased in Charchan, PI. 
33 and 34. The bronze seal or signet PI. 33 : 12, is identical with some specimens 
purchased by Hedin in Khotan on one of his earlier journeys and now published by 
Montell (Montell 1938, PI. V: 1 — 3), who suggests that this type of intaglios was 
the arms or sign of a religious sect or a group of monasteries. Referring to a 
Khotan signet found by Grenard he considers them as reminiscences from the 
Nestorian time. I should like to draw attention to the similarities between this type 



of intaglios and the relief design on a slab in Gandhara style from Panjab (Stein 

1937, PL II, B.A.047). 

One of the other two signets, PI. 33 : 22, has four engraved scrolls, also recalling 
Khotan signets (Stein 1921, PL V, Khot, 06. s.) 

The three silver objects PL 34: 12 — 14, one pendant and two fragments of finger 
rings, are nicely polished by wear. The shape of the pendant reminds one of an 
Oriental object found in the Swedish Viking Age city of Birka (Arne 1914, 
Fig. 105). 

A bronze mirror with handle, PL 33 : 23, is of clear Chinese origin. The decorated 
side depicts in low, flat relief a scene which is rather popular on charms and amulet 
coins during the Sung and later dynasties. Under a fir tree is seated a man with a 
halo. He is clad in a garment with rich folds. Before him stands a smaller figure 
carrying something on his hands. Between them, in the foreground, there are a 
crane and a tortoise. The two animals as well as the fir tree are emblematic of 
longevity, but it is uncertain whom the human figures are meant to represent. They 
have been interpreted as representing the Taoist immortal Ma Ku offering a cup 
of wine to the Star of Happiness, 1 an interpretation that does not seem conclusive, as 
the smaller figure has none of Ma Ku's common attributes. In Chinese numismatic 
works 2 the scene is said to show Hsing kuan or Mandarin of the Stars being attend- 
ed by a servant. Chavannes 3 interprets the sitting figure in the same scene as the 
divinity presiding over human life and the other figure as a young boy offering him 
some sort of object. One of these explanations appears to be more justified than the 
first one given above. The closest parallel as to the outline of the mirror is afforded 
by a specimen from Turfan (Stein 1928, PL LXXI, Kao. III. oi). The Charchan 
mirror can hardly be older than the Sung dynasty for stylistical reasons; it may be 
still younger. 

Shells with suspension holes as well as beads and other small articles made of 
shells have been examined microscopically by Dr. Bergenhayn and found to belong 
partly to a freshwater bivalve Quadrula living in East Asia and North America, 
partly to various marine shells such as Cyprea moneta, Strombus floridus and 
Columbaria mendicaria. The latter have thus been brought overland to Charchan 
from the far off sea. Some of them are shown in PL 34: 55 — 59. PL 34:39 is a 
small pendant in the shape of an animal(?), and PL 34: 36 has two small engraved 
circles with central dot just as has the bronze object PL 33:8. It is indeed remark- 
able to find how the people in the Tarim Basin used marine shells, apparently to be 
carried as charms and ornaments, as they lived farther from the sea than any other 
people in the world. Cowries, and probably also other shells, were sometimes used as 

1 Lockhardt: The Currency of the Farther East, No. 1652. 

2 E. g. Ku-chuan-huei, by Li Ch'u-pcng. 

3 Le cycle Turc des douze animaux (TP 7) Fig. X. 



current money. They seem, however, to have been most commonly used as highly 
appreciated charms and amulets. I have touched on these questions in BMFEA 7, 

pp. 113 f- 

Beads and pendants are quite common and certainly from several different peri- 
ods. The materials include opal, agate, jade in several colours, malachite, lapis 
lazuli, amethyst, coral and glass. Most of them have been pictured on PL 33 and 34. 
Those of stone, especially jade, are certainly of local manufacture, i. e. made some- 
where along the southern border of the Tarim Basin, those of lapis lazuli may have 
been traded from Badakhshan, where famous mines are known to have existed 
(T P 1904, p. 66). The pendants in some instances consist only of an oblong or 
drop-shaped pebble with a perforation at one end, PI. 34:49, 51, 54 and 60. Some 
of the suspension holes are drilled from both sides and meeting at an angle, i. e. the 
holes are V-shaped. The glass beads are no doubt importations from the West, the 
main bulk of them would pass as Roman beads in any country. Of special interest 
are the eye-bead PI. 33: 16 and the mosaic bead fragment PI. 33: 18. Several others 
such as PI. 33: 28 — 33 are made of two kinds of differently coloured glass and PI. 
33: 19 has the surface covered with white, red and blue spots, standing out brightly 
against the black background. 

K. 13342: 69 is a fragment from the lower part of a glass bowl, the uncoloured 
glass looking very similar to some fragments from Lou-Ian in Hedin's old collec- 
tion, and the same is true regarding K. 13342:70 — 71, two fragments from the 
widening rim of some small glass bottles (cf. Bergman 1935 c, pp. 114 ff.). These 
sherds may very well be of Syrian glass. A few sherds of greenish, semi-translucent 
glass from here have probably been made locally in Turkistan at a later period. 

In general these 'Tati' finds from the Kohna-shahr of Charchan are of the same 
sort as those acquired by Hedin in Khotan and adjacent sites, but among the artic- 
les from Charchan there are none of a Buddhistic character, whereas the Khotan 
collection has many such objects. 

There is very little Chinese material among the finds from here, but the presence 
of some coins indicate that there was some trade with China in the Sung period after 
the interruption caused by the Tibetan conquest in T'ang time. Even in Han time 
trade must have flourished, as Charchan is situated on the very Road of the South, a 
highway that has remained in use ever since. It was along the same road that in- 
fluences from India and the West reached Charchan. 

The extent of these 'Tads', several kilometres in length and breadth, where potte- 
ry fragments and small articles occur abundantly, is sufficient to prove 
that the ancient Chii-mo and its successors must be located in the position of 
the present Charchan oasis and its immediate vicinity, as rightly pointed out 
by Stein. As far as can be judged none of the objects acquired by me is of a date 
later than the Yuan dynasty, and it therefore seems reasonable to suppose that the 
occupation of the present Kohna-shahr site ended some time during the 14th century. 




K. 13335- Pottery jar of light grey, hard ware. 

Low narrow neck, bulky shoulder 
and flat bottom. The surface of the shoulder is 
slightly wavy from a furrow running spirally round 
the vessel. H. 17.5 cm. Diam. of rim 8.3 cm. 
Diam. at widest place 15.5 cm. Diam. of bottom 8.5 
cm. PI. 35 : 3. 

K. 13336. Clay pot of reddish-brown, partly 

black ware containing rather coarse 
grains of sand. Around the short neck a leather 
strap is fixed (probably modern) to stop up a 
leak. H. 12.5 cm. Diam. of mouth 8.3 cm. Diam. 
of widest part 12.2 cm. Diam. of bottom 8.5 cm. 
PI. 35 : 2- 

K. l$337- Pottery bowl of dark grey, nearly 

black ware. Rounded bottom, the 
wall slightly widening towards the rim. H. 10.5 
cm. Diam. of rim 15.7 cm. Diam. at lower edge of 
wall 13.2 cm. PI. 35: 5. 

K- x 333& Pottery bowl of the same type as 

the preceding one but with low wall. 
Moreover, the ware is a little lighter. H. 9.5 cm. 
Diam. of rim 14.5 cm. Diam. at lower edge of wall 
13.6— 14 cm. PL 35:7. 

K. 13339- Pottery bowl of the same type as 

the preceding one. The rim is partly 
broken. Within the ware is red and contains rather 
coarse grains of sand. H. about 11 cm. Diam. of 
rim 18.4 cm. Diam. at lower edge of wall 18.1 cm. 
Probably originating from Grave 7. PL 35 : 6. 

K. 13340. Chinese bronze mirror with handle 

(broken). One side has a decoration 
in very flat relief: to the left a person is sitting 
under a tree. He is wearing a dress with many 
folds, and a halo. Behind the tree a cloud scroll. 
To the right a standing figure carrying something 
on his hands. Between the two figures are a crane 
or heron and a tortoise. The scene is encircled by 
two raised lines, and the rim of the mirror has a 
moulding that also runs along the handle. L. 18. 1 
cm. Diam. 9.9 cm. Reddish-brown patina with in- 
significant green spots. PL 33:23. 

K. 13341 : 1. Chinese coin, K'ai-yiian-t'ung-pao 
(618 — 627). Diam. 25 mm. 

Chinese coin, T'ien-sheng-yuan-pao 

Chinese coin, T'ien-hsi-t'ung-pao 
(1017— 1022). Diam. 26 mm. The 
reverse is carelessly stamped. 

Copper coin of the same shape as 
the Chinese ones but with four non- 
Chinese characters. Diam. 24 mm. PI. 33 : 9. 

K- I334I : 5- 
K. 13341 : 6. 

"Goosc-cye" coin with irregular 
contour. Diam. 10—12 mm. 

K. 13341 : 2. 
K. 13341:3- 

K. 13341:4* 

K. 13341 : 7. 
K. 13341 : 8. 

Portion of square bronze buckle. A 
rivet in each corner. 36X30 mm. 

PI- 33:3. 

Portion of bronze buckle, pear- 
shaped contour. 24X21 mm. PL 33 : 2. 

Portion of brass buckle. The front 
part is oval and has a small point, 

the rear side is rectangular to receive the strap. 

19X18 mm. PL 33: 1. 

K- I334I : 9- Bronze strap-end, from buckle. 
Rectangular plate with the short end 
wavy. From the other end projects a double hoop 
(broken) which has passed round the tongue-bar 
of the buckle. The edge is bevelled along long 
sides. One hole for a rivet 30X20 mm. PL 33:4. 

K. 13341:10. Small bronze pendant, square with 
two loops. The flat part has five 
engraved circles on each side. 17X14 mm. PL 

K. 13341:11. Bronze strap-end? from buckle? 
Two loops at one end, the other end 
rounded. Below there has been a rivet. Ornament- 
ation consisting of coarse lines. 15X10 mm. PL 

33 = 5- 

K. 13341 : 12. Small bronze pendant, triangular 
with a notch across the lower point. 
15X10X4 mm. PL 33: 11. 

K. 13341 : 13. Bronze mounting in the shape of a 
six-petalled rosette with large cent- 
ral hole. Diam. 16 mm. Th. 5 mm. PL 33 : 7. 

K. 13341:14. Bronze ring, cornet-shaped. Diam. 
20 mm. Th. 1 1 mm. PL 33 : 6. 

K. 13341 : 15. Sewing ring of bronze with three 
rows of small hollows. Diam. 21 mm. 
W. 7 mm. PL 33 : 10. 

K. 13341 -' 16. Three fragm. of a small brass finger 
ring which has contained a round 

K. 13341 : 17. Small spiral of bronze wire. L. 8 
mm. Diam. 5 mm. PL 33:13. 

K. 13341 : 18. Fragm. of flat bronze tube, traces 
of lines across. L. 24 mm. Diam. 
7—8 mm. PL 33:14. 

K. 1334' ! '9- Small bronze bead enclosed in a 
grooved bronze band. Diam. about 9 


K. 13341 : 20. Small bronze boss, hemispherical 
with central hole. Diam. 7 mm. 

K. 13341:21. Square bronze seal. Divided into 
quarters, three of which contain a 
figure recalling a four-pctallcd flower, the fourth 
contains a swastika. The loop on the other side is 
lost. 25X23 mm. PI. 33:12. 

K. 13441 : 22. Front part of a silver finger ring 

with cavity for a stone. On each 

side a small knob projecting from the edge. PI. 


K. 13341 : 23. Hexagonal silver bezel with partly 
obliterated pattern. 14X14 mm. PI. 


K. 13341:24. Silver pendant in the shape of a 
shovel. The loop slightly patterned. 
Probably the frame of some ornament. 28X16 mm. 
PI. 34:14. 

K. 13341 : 25. Pendant of sheet-brass, probably 
quite modern work. L. 30 mm. 

K. 13341 : 26. Fragm. of tube-shaped object of 
dark-green jade (?) The complete 
end is ground off on two sides and pierced with 
a suspension hole. L. 27 mm. Diam. 14 mm. PI. 

K. 13341 : 27. Small square seal of light green 
serpentine. A high loop on the upper 
side. Engraved with four small volutes. 19X18 
mm. PI. 33:22. 

K. 13341 : 28. Rectangular seal of weathered white 

marble. A loop on the upper side. The 

engravings are obliterated. 24X19 mm. PI. 34: 37. 

K. 13341:29. Small square slab of black stone 
with bevelled edges on one side. 
Possibly an unfinished seal. 14X14X4 mm. 

K. 13341:30. Small U-shaped object of black 
pottery. 19X18 mm. 

K. 13341:31. Rectangular bead of white marble 
with a moulding. 14X7X5 mm. PI. 


K. 13341 : 32. Small birdlike figure made of a 
thick shell, probably from a Quadru- 
la. The thickest part is pierced with a longitudinal 
hole. L. 17 mm. PI. 34:39- 

K. 13341 : 33. Small pendant (?) made of shell 
(probably a Quadrula). Consisting 

of a rectangular part, pierced with two small 
holes, and showing two engraved circles on one 
side, and one pointed part. L. 20 mm. PI. 34 = 36. 

K- 1334' : 34- About half of a Quadrula shell with 
a suspension hole through the hinge. 
Diam. about 65 mm. 

K- 13341:35. A worn shell of Strombus floridus. 
L. 15 mm. PI. 34:58. 

K. 13341 : 36. Pierced shell of Columbaria mendi- 
caria. L. 12 mm. PI. 34 : 59. 

K. 13341 : 37-41. Five cowries (Cyprea moneta) 

with suspension hole. L. 15 — 19 

mm. — :37 PI. 34:55. — -V PI- 34:56. 

K. 13341 : 42. Cowrie shell (Cyprea moneta) with 
dorsal part ground off. L. 17 mm. 
PI. 34:57. 

K. 13341:43. Half of a cowrie shell (Cyprea 
moneta) with dorsal part ground 
off. L. 27 mm. 

K. 13341 : 44-48. Five beads made of a Quadrula 

shell. Diam. 10—4 mm. PI. 34= 3> 


K. 13341 : 49. Hexagonal bead of white and pink 
opal, tapering towards the ends. L. 

18 mm. Th. 11 mm. PI. 34:43- 

K. 13341 : 50. Cylindrical bead of light-green 
stone, recalling jade. L. 17 mm. 
Diam. 9 mm. PI. 34 = 4>- 

K. 13341:51. Barrel-shaped bead of white, striat- 
ed agate. L. 17 mm. Diam. 13 mm. 

PI. 34M6. 

K. 13341 : 52. Octagonal bead of white, striated 
agate. L. 14 mm. Diam. 9 mm. PI. 

K. 1 3341: 53- Drop-shaped pendant of white agate. 
Suspension hole through the thinner 
end. 21X12X7 mm. PI. 34:50- 

K. 13341 : 54. Pendant made of a small pointed 
stone, white jade? L. 19 mm. PI. 


K. 13341 : 55. Drop-shaped pendant made of a 
pointed piece of white jade. L. 15 
mm. PI. 34=49- 

K. 13341 : 56. More or less drop-shaped pendant 
of white jade. L. 17 mm. PI. 34: 48. 

K. 13341 : 57. More or less drop-shaped pendant of 
light-green jade. The suspension 
hole is V-shaped. 26X17 mm. PI. 34 = 47- 

K. 13341:58. Oblong pendant of a light-green 
stone resembling jade. The middle 
part is thicker than the ends. Suspension hole at 
the thinner end. The lower end has two notches. 
30X1 1X9 mm. PI. 34:44- 


K. I334I : 59- Small pyramidal pendant of pot- 
stone. 16X7X6 mm. PI. 33:41. 

K. 13341 : 60. Small jade stone, light-green and 

brownish-red. At the thinnest end a 
V-shaped hole. Pendant. L. 19 mm. PI. 34:60. 

K. 13341:61. Oblong jade stone of a beautiful 
reddish-brown and greenish colour. 
At the thinner end a V-shapcd hole. Pendant. L. 
42 mm. PI. 34:54- 

K. 13341 : 62-63. Two pendants of white jade, 

nearly spherical with a semi- 
circular loop. L. 21 mm. — :62 PI. 34:52. 

K. 13341 : 64. Pendant of light-green jade, the 
same type as — :62— 63, but of in- 
ferior workmanship. L. 14 mm. PI. 34:53. 

K- J 334i '• 65- Spherical bead of translucent chal- 
cedony. Diam. 7 mm. 

K. I334 1 ! 66. Barrel-shaped bead of brown and 
white opal. A hole is drilled from 
both ends, but obliquely, so that they do not meet 
properly. L. 14 mm. Diam. 8 mm. PI. 34:42. 

K. 13341 : 67. Oblong, octagonal bead of carnelian. 
L. 20 mm. PI. 34: 1. 

K. 13341 : 68. Flat, hexagonal bead of carnelian. 
Diam. 14 mm. Th. 6 mm. PI. 34 : 2. 

K. 13341 : 69-72. Four spherical beads of carnelian. 

Diam. 12—7 mm. PI. 34:3 — 6. 

K. 13341 : 7$. Small polygonal bead of carnelian. 
Diam. 7 mm. PI. 34:7. 

K. I334I : 74-76. Three spool-shaped carnelian 

beads. L. 1 1 — 13 mm. PI. 34 : 8 — 10. 

K - *334* '• 77- Spool-shaped, hexagonal bead of 
flamy carnelian. L. 18 mm. PI. 

K - 1334' : 78. Big spherical bead of malachite, one 
side defective. Diam. 21 mm. PL 


K. 13341 : 79- Disc-shaped turquoise bead with 
eccentric hole. Diam. 11 mm. Th. 3 
mm. PI. 33 : 21. 

K. 13341 ! 80-81. Two small pierced pieces of mala- 

K. 13341:82. Rectangular flat, hexagonal bead of 
greenish-blue glass. L. 13 mm. PI. 
33 : 20. • 

K. 13341:83. Oblong bead of lapis lazuli with 
rounded edges. L. 13 mm. PI. 33:27. 

K. 13341:84. Cylindrical bead of lapis lazuli. L. 
7 mm. PI. 33:26. 

K. 13341 : 85. Small drop-shaped pendant of lapis 
lazuli. A hole has been begun from 
each side at the broad part and perpendicular to 
the suspension hole. L. 11 mm. PI. 33:24. 

K- 13341:86. Spool-shaped bead of lapis lazuli. L. 
14 mm. PI. 33 .-25. 

K. 13341 : 87-89. Three irregular beads of amethyst. 

K. 13341 : 90. Small coral branch, through which 
one hole has been drilled. L. 18 mm. 

K. I334I : 91-97- Seven small coral beads. 

K. 13341 : 98. Small coral branch, pink. 

K. 13341 : 99-100. Two round beads, reddish-brown 

material. Diam. 14 mm. — 199 
PI- 33:i5- 

K. 13341:101. Spool-shaped, flattened bead of 
honey-coloured glass. L. 12 mm. 

PL 34:i5. 

K. 13341 : 102-103. Two small beads of gilt glass. 

L. 7 and 5 mm. PI. 34: 16—17. 

K. 13341 : 104. Polygonal bead of dark-blue glass. 
8X9 mm. PI. 34:18. 

K. 13341 : 105. Small irregular bead of green 
glass. PI. 34 : 19. 

K. 13341 : 106-107. Two small double-beads of 

light-green glass. L. 4 mm. PL 

K. 13341 : 108. Double-bead of dark-blue glass. L. 
7 mm. PI. 34:22. 

K. 13341 '• 109-115. Seven small glass beads, green, 

blue and black. Spheroids or bi- 
conical. PI. 34:23—29. 

K. 13341:116. Fragm. of small tube of green 
glass. Diam. 4 mm. PI. 34:30. 

K. 13341:117. Small thin bead of green glass. 
Diam. 7 mm. PI. 33 : 34. 

K. 13341:118. Small irregular bead of brown 
paste (?) with six ridges. Diam. 7 
mm. PI. 33:35. 

K. 13341:1 19-120. Two spherical beads of white 

glass. Diam. 6 and 9 mm. PI. 
33 ' 36—37- 

K. 13341:121. Nearly spherical bead of green 
glass. Diam. 11 mm. PI. 33:38. 

K. 13341 : 122. Bead of cobalt-blue paste(?). Diam. 
9 mm. PI. 33:39- 

K. 13341 : 123- Nearly spherical bead of blue-green 
glass. Diam. 12 mm. PI. 33:40. 


K. 13341 : 124. Spool-shaped bead of streaked 
glass, white, dark-violet and black. 
L. 23 mm. Diam. 9 mm. PI. 33 : 28. 

K. 13341 : 125. Small double-bead of brown glass 
with white veins. L. 6 mm. PI. 
33 =33- 

K. 13341 : 126-129. Four small beads of black glass 

with white veins. Diam. 5 — 7 
mm. PI. 33:29—32. 

K. 13341 : 130. Eye-bead, nearly spherical, with 
six "eyes" consisting of a yellow 
centre bordered by a red and a white line. Diam. 
11 mm. PI. 3$: 16. 

K. 13341:131. Fragm. of barrel-shaped bead of 
blue glass with yellow veins in the 
surface layer. 

K. 13341 : 132. Fragm. of mosaic glass bead, green 
(in two shades) inset with red 
ovals having white centres. PI. 33:18. 

K. 13341 : 133. Fragm. of flat bead or pendant of 
black glass with inset of white, 
yellow, red and blue spots. PI. 33 : 19. 

K. 13341 : 134-135- Two small hollow bronze beads. 

Diam. 6 and 8 mm. 

K. 13341 : 136. Two small fragmentary beads, one 
of turquoise, one of greenish glass. 

Objects collected on the Tati' surfaces. 

K. 13342: 1-12. Twelve sherds of large earthen- 
ware vessels, with designs of 
garlands and straight bands incised with a dentat- 
cd instrument. The ware is rather coarse, reddish, 
brown or dark grey. — : 12 PI. 37:2. 

K. 13342:13. Sherd, probably of the same 

vessel as — : 12. Besides the above- 
mentioned pattern an incised figure recalling a 
Tibetan character. PI. 37:3. 

K. 13342:14. Small sherd of an earthenware 

vessel with an incised figure 
partly recalling Tibetan writing. PI. 37: 1. 

K. 13342: 15-24. Ten sherds from earthenware 

vessels, more or less decorated 
with incised lines or impressed circles. The ware 
is light yellow, red, brown or grey. Most of the 
fragments are from large vessels. 

K. 13342:25. Two joined sherds from a large 

earthenware vessel. The outside is 
grey, the inside brownish. Covered with irregular 
zig-zag impressions recalling basket-work. PI. 


K. 13342:26. Fragm. from the rim of an earth- 
enware pot. Brown ware with in- 
termixed coarse-grained sand. Decorated with a 
wavy line both on the inside of the wide mouth 
and on the shoulder. 

K. 13342:27. Small fragm. from the rim of an 

earthenware vase. Dark grey, 
fine-grained ware, decorated with wavy lines. 

K. 13342:28. Small fragm. from the rim of an 

earthenware vessel of reddish 
brown ware. Immediately below the rim a raised 
band with vertical grooves. Prehistoric ? 

K. 13342:29. Fragm. from the rim of a small 

earthenware ewer with a marked 
lip. Thin, red ware. 

K. 13342:30-31. Two fragm. from the rims of two 

large vessels. Reddish and brown 

K. 13342:32. Sherd from a large earthenware 

vessel of brown to grey ware in- 
termixed with sand. A horizontal lug. Decorated 
with garlands and straight bands incised with a 
dentated instrument. 

K. 13342:33. Fragm. from the rim of a large 

earthenware vessel. Below the rim 
a stout horizontal lug. Thick, reddish-brown ware. 

K. 13342: 34-35. Two fragm. from the rims of two 

smaller earthenware jugs with a 
handle at the rim. Red ware. — :34 is similar in 
shape and ware to K. 13344. (PI- 35= >)• 

K. 13342:36. Broad handle from a larger earth- 
enware jug of dark-grey to red 
ware intermixed with sand. 

K. 13342: 37-41. Five loop handles from fairly 

large earthenware vessels. Reddish 
or grey, sandy ware. 

K. 13342:42. 

Handle of an earthenware pot; has 
been attached horizontally. Brown- 
ish ware. PI. 37:4. 

K. 13342:43. Small fragm. of an earthenware 

vessel with a fragmentary handle. 

K. 13342 :44a-k. Sherds from a big earthenware 

vessel of rather thin, dark-grey 
ware (after washing some of the sherds have 
acquired a yellowish colour on the outside). Round 
the shoulder runs an applied border with impres- 
sions forming a zig-zag pattern. Below this there 
have been groups of hatched triangles with 
the points downwards, and above there has 
been a more freely executed (floral ?) pattern. 

PI- 36:5. 


K. 13342:45-50. Six sherds from large earthenware 


K. 13342:51. Sherd from the thick bottom of a 

pointed earthenware vessel (or 
tripod). Dark-grey, hard ware. 

K. 13342:52-53. Two small sherds of thin-wallcd 

earthenware vessels. Red and 
reddish-brown ware, possibly prehistoric. 

K. 13342:54. Fragm. of an earthenware disc 

with two rows of round impres- 
sions along the edge. PI. 37 : 9. 

K. 13342: 55-58. Two complete and two fragment- 
ary spindle whorls or sinkers made 
of sherds of earthenware vessels. Diam. 48-28 mm. 

K. 13342:59. Small fragm. of earthenware 

vessel with rounded outline. 

K. 13342 : 60-63. Four pebbles of greenstone and 

sandstone with oval section. May 
have been used as grindstones and pestles. 

K. 13342:64. Flat, oval pebble of sandstone, 

probably used for smoothing. 
Fragm. of a whetstone of slate. 

K. 13342:65. 
K. 13342 : 66. 

K. 13342: 67. 

K. 13342:68. 

K. 13342:69. 

Small fragm. of a small core of 
brown flint. 

Seven flint chips, partly used for 
striking fire. 

A piece of slag and two iron 

Fragm. of a glass bowl, trans- 
lucent and uncoloured. 

K. 13342: 70-71. Two fragm. of probably circular, 

somewhat conical small glasses 
from vessels of unknown shape. Pale yellow and 
green glass. 

K. 13342: 72. Ten small fragm. of glass vessels. 

Pale green or uncoloured. 

K. 13342:73. A few small fragm. of bronze, 

sheet and refuse from casting. 

Grave 1. 

K. 13343^- Earthenware jug with a stout 

handle running from rim to 
shoulder. On the shoulder an incised zig-zag line 
and below this a wavy line. Nearly black ware. H. 
24.5 cm. Diam. of rim 13.5 cm., at the widest part 
20 cm., the flat bottom 13.2 cm. PL 35:4. 

K. 13343 : 2- 5- Four rectangular bronze pieces 

with a rivet hole at each end, the 
rivets partly preserved. Probably fittings for some 

wooden case or suchlike ; they have very likely 
been joined in the manner shown in Fig. 45. 
55X15 mm. 55X18 mm. 56X17 mm. and 53X13 
mm. L. of best preserved rivet 21 mm. 

Grave 4. 

K. 13344- Earthenware jug, restored out of 

several fragm.; one part spoiled by 
weathering. Of the same type as K. 13343:1 but 
with less accentuated profile. Light reddish ware 
intermixed with coarse-grained sand. H. 21 cm. 
Diam. of rim 9.8 cm. Widest part about 15.5 cm. 
Diam. of the flat bottom about 9.5 cm. PI. 35: 1. 

Grave 6. 

K. 13345:1. The main part of a weathered 
earthenware bowl with low, slight- 
ly concave wall and rounded bottom. The surface 
of the ware is blue-black, the fracture is brick red. 
Diam. about 17 cm. H. 7 — 8 cm. The same type as 
K. 13337—39- Fig. 47- 

K. 13345:2. The main part of a wooden bucket 
made of a hollowcd-out trunk, 
probably poplar. Round the lower edge a row of 
holes for fastening the bottom, which might have 
been of leather. The remaining attachment for the 
handle projects obliquely above the rim, following 
the grain of the wood. Below the attachment is a 
primitive, engraved animal figure, probably deer. 
Fig. 48. II. 15 cm. Diam. 13 — 16 cm. Th. of wall 
I cm. PI. 32:2. 

K. 13345:3- Thirteen teeth of a wooden comb. 
The two outer teeth are stouter 
than the rest, and have five deep notches on their 
upper part (to receive strings for tying the teeth 
together?) The other teeth have apparently been 
inserted in some perishable material. L. 112 and 
95— <>3 mm. Fig. 49. 

K. 13345:4. Part of firc-drill(?). A wooden 
whorl with a broken-off peg 
through the central hole. The preserved end of 
the peg is charred. Diam. of whorl 48 mm. Th. 15 
mm. PI. 32 : 3. 

K. 13345:5- Two small pieces of thick, plaited, 
woollen braid, blue-green. W. 3.5 
cm. PL 32: 10. 

K. 13345: 6. Two parts of a wooden peg with 
square section. From one side a row 
of fine holes has been drilled, the other sides are 
decorated with carved V-shaped lines. 130X10X9 



When travelling from Charchan to Charkhliq, in August 1928, I stopped at the 
Kohna-shahr of Vash-shahri for one day. This ruined site is of the same 'Tati' 
character as the Charchan Kohna-shahr, but it presents quite a different aspect as 
the ground is covered, to a very large extent, with huge, fantastic tamarisk mounds, 
PI. XX a. These accumulations, which reach a height of 6 — 7 m., have in some 
places preserved small remains of brick structures. The ground is very sandy, and 
on the surface is exposed debris of various nature from the time of the occupation 
of the site. 

It has been identified with Hsin-ch'eng of the T'ang Annals, a place which was 
also called Nu-chih and is said to have been founded by K'ang Yen-tien, who was 
a Sogdian chief in the period 627 — 649. It is situated about 9.5 km. to the west of 
the present village of Vash-shahri. I never got an opportunity to determine the ex- 
tent of the 'tati' debris, only that there were two separated 'tatis', which I called I 
and II, the former being situated about 3.5 km. to the NW of the latter. According 
to Stein, the extent of the 'tati' surface is 1 x 1/2 mile. 


The coins found by Stein give a clue to the duration of the settlements here. 
He found three K'ai-yiian coins (618 — 627) an illegible T'ang coin and five Sung 
coins ranging between 1023 and 1107. I myself recovered a fragment which might 
be from a late Wu-ch'u coin, five indeterminable fragments of Sung or Yuan coins 
and one complete Ming dynasty coin; a T'ien-yuan-chung-pao which was issued 
between 1378 and 1388. It is likely that this early Ming coin was dropped here after 
the abandoning of the site. 

The other metal objects are hardly worth mentioning; they consist of trifling 
fragments of bronze fittings and the like. 1 A small pendant is of lead, PI. 38: 16. 

There are some beads of glass and opal, PI. 38: 6 — 15, a triangular pendant of 
white agate, PI. 38: 17, resembling those from Charchan, a ring of a Quadritla 
shell, PI. 38: 3, and a diminutive bird figure of glass or frit with a vertical hole for 
a string, PI. 38:4. The latter object might be compared with the small bird figures 
from Khotan (Montell 1938, PL VI: 10 — 11) though the latter are of metal. 

Sherds of glass vessels of poor quality, greenish and only semi-translucent, are 
probably of local make from the Tarim Basin. 

a Hedin purchased an old copper pitcher when passing through the ruined site of Vash-shahri. It is depicted in 
Hedin 1898, II p. 223. In the Ethnographical Museum in Stockholm it bears the number 03.11.88. Height 
14 cm., widest diam. 107 cm. The body is nearly globular with a well-shaped neck with a plain moulding round the 
middle. A strong handle with an indistinct pattern of V-shapcd grooves runs from the rim to the widest part of 
Ihc body. There is a stout spout with eight-sided section ; its tip is damaged, a piece of the rim is broken away and 
there is also a small hole in the bottom. The surface has a dark brownish, uneven colour. The vessel has been 
used in modern times, possibly as a tea-pot. To give any absolute date for the manufacture of this rather hand- 
some vessel is not so easy, but it may possibly be placed within the last five centuries of the first millenium A. D. 
Its origin is non-Chinese. 



V f 

The few sherds of glazed wares, on the other hand, are certainly importations 
from China, and more precisely from Honan. There are pieces from dark greenish- 
blue Chun bowls and from Celadon and Ying-ch'ing wares ranging in colours 
from light greenish brown, light bluish-green to whitish green. A small sherd with 
green glaze must be labelled as T'ang ware. The others can safely be attributed to 
either the Sung or the Yuan dynasty. Stein's collection contains about the same 
kind of wares. 

The coarse, unglazed pottery is very similar to that from Charchan. Only sherds 
were found, no complete vessels. Of a certain interest are the potsherds bearing a 
Tibetan character carelessly incised with some coarse tool, PL 36:0; — 10, In a way 
they form a part of the decoration, which otherwise consists of incised bands made 
with a dentated instrument. These bands are in the shape of arcs or garlands, as 
well as horizontal ribbons, PI. 36: 1. They apparently originate from the time when 
the Tibetans ruled the Tarim Basin, as do the similar Charchan sherds. 

Other potsherds have ornaments slightly resembling Tibetan characters, but as 
all are fragmentary we cannot be absolutely sure as to what is meant, PL 36: 2 and 6. 

The potsherd PL 37: 6 is unique. It is made of a whitish clay and has a moulded 
ornamentation in high relief. Except in the colour of the ware it may be paralleled 
with the Khotan terra-cotta vessels, but these usually have their ornaments applied 
on the plain wall. 

PL 36:8 is from the shoulder of a largish jar of coarse earthenware, decorated 
with horizontal wave-lines incised with a dentated tool. A raised oval, of no partic- 
ular use, somewhat recalls a cowrie. 

Impressed circles occur on the rim and the neck of PL 36: 3, from a large jar. 
Similar ornaments are seen on PL 36: 4. PL 37: 5 has an incised wave-pattern. 

Most of the handles are loop-shaped, and some of them have impressed ornaments. 
There are also lugs. 

A lot of spindle whorls are made of potsherds; they denote that spinning formed 
an important part of the household activities here. 

A small fragmentary tile, PL 32: 8, is hard to reconstruct. I have sometimes wond- 
ered if it could have been used as a support for the small conical smelting pots of 
which there is a specimen in my collection (K. 13346: 112) only 45 mm. high. From 
the Sung and Yuan ruins at Edsen-gol in Mongolia I collected several smelting pots 
of this diminutive size. The occurrence of refuse from bronze smelting is further 
evidence of local bronze casting. 

A fragmentary mace-head of stone, PL 37:10, has two parallels amongst the 
| Lop-nor objects, as already pointed out. All three seem to have been intended as 

mace-heads and not weights or the like. 

Three wooden combs call for some attention. They are all double-teethed. PL 
38:20 and 22 are very similar and have concave sides, whereas PL 38: 19 has 
convex sides. It is rather likely that they originate from destroyed tombs. Stein 


also found a wooden comb with two rows of teeth here (Stein 1921, V. S. 0041). 
It is interesting to note that the double-teethed comb shows about the same shape 
already at its earliest appearance. The single-teethed comb, on the other hand, attains 
many varying shapes. A double-teethed comb from Mohenjo-daro, for instance, of 
the third century B. C, shows close affinities with our PI. 38: 20 (Mackay, PI. 
K, I). 

The wooden peg PI. 38: 21, pointed at both ends, may be a spool for yarn. It re- 
calls a specimen from Qara-khoja (Le Coq 1913, PI. 64 r). 

The Vash-shahri Kohna-shahr was apparently abandoned at a period not far re- 
moved from the twelfth century. The river at the time of the occupation must have 
flowed quite close to the old site, but whether the abandonment was due to the 
change in the course of the river or to some other cause is impossible to determine. 


Kohna-shahr. Tati II around camp 
23/8 1928. 

K- 13346: 1. Chinese coin, T'ien-yiian-chung-pao 
0378 — 1388)- Diam. 26 mm. 

K. 13346:2. Fragm. of Chinese coin with broad 
edge. A "Chih" at the top. Possibly 

a Chih-tao-yiian-pao (995 — 998), as the character 

is in "grass writing". 

K. 13346:3. Fragm. of Chinese coin with one 
and a half illegible characters. 

K- 13346:4. Fragm. of Chinese coin with part 
of one of the two characters. 
Marked border. Probably a late Wu-ch'u. 

K. 13346:5. Fragm. of Chinese coin, the lowest 
character is "Ta". 

K. 13346:6-7. Fragm. of two Chinese coins. 

K. 13346:8. Fragm. of small bronze buckle, 

Fragm. of small bronze object with 
a hole through the end. 

Bronze ring with slanting sides. 
Diam. 22 mm. 

K. 13346: 9. 
K. 13346:10. 

K. 13346: n-15. Five small bronze fragm., fittings 

and suchlike. 

K. 13346:16. 

K. 13346: 17. 
K. 13346: 18. 

Seven small bronze fragm., wire, 
balls and beads. 

Various small bronze fragm. and 

refuse from casting. 

Flat lead pendant, probably once 
rectangular. Decorated with in- 
distinct lines. 18X15 mm. PI. 38:16. 

K. 13346: 19. Small iron fragm. of a knife or the 


K. 13346:20. Small bird figure of paste, light 
greenish blue and dark blue. Pierc- 
ed with a vertical hole. L. 10 mm. PI. 38:4. 

K. 13346:21. White glass bead, spheroid. Diam. 
9 mm. PI. 38: 7. 

K. 13346:22-25. Four small beads of blue glass. 

Diam. 7 — 2 mm. PI. 38:8 — 11. 

Small bead of nearly black glass. 
Diam. 5 mm. PI. 38:12. 

Fragm. of honey-coloured glass 
bead. Cf. K. 13341 : 101. PI. 38:13. 

Spheroid bead of flamy opal. Diam. 
8 mm. PI. 38:14. 

Cylindrical opal bead. L. 12 mm. 
PI. 38:15- 

A small glass ball and two fragm. 
of light-blue glass beads. 

Main part of a flat ring of a thick 
shell, probably a Quadrula. Diam. 
26 mm. PI. 38 : 3. 

K. 13346: 32-34. Three fragm. of shells. 

K. 13346:35. Wooden comb with two rows of 
teeth, coarse and fine, at opposite 
ends. The sides are convex. L. 77 mm. W. at ends 
42 mm., at middle 71 mm. PI. 38: 19. 

K. 13346:36. Wooden comb with two rows of 

teeth, coarse and fine, at opposite 

ends, both a little damaged. The side parts are 

concave. Both sides of the middle part have two 

K. 13346:26. 
K. 13346:27. 
K. 13346:28. 
K. 13346:29. 

K. 13346: 30- 
K- 13346: If. 



"eyes" consisting of concentric circles, and four 
small circles round them. L. 87 mm. W. at ends 
77 mm., at middle 68 mm. Th. 7 mm. PI. 38:20. 

K. 13346:37. Wooden comb of the same type as 
the previous one, but the middle 
part decorated with only one "eye" surrounded by 
four small circles. L. 90 mm. W. at ends 84 mm., 
at middle 58 mm. Th. 10 mm. PI. 38:22. 

K. 13346:38. Wooden peg, pointed at both ends 
and with a moulding near the 
middle. L. 118 mm. Diam. 8 mm. PI. 38:21. 

K. 13346:39. Various greenish glass fragments, 
semi- translucent and of inferior 

K. 13346: 40. Fragm. from lower part of a Chun- 
bowl. The thick bluc-grcen glaze 
reached down to the foot-ring. Dark grey ware. 

K. 13346:41. Small fragm. from rim of a Chun- 
bowl with light green-blue glaze 
and brownish rim. 

K. 13346: 42-43. Two small fragm. of olive green 

Celadon ware. 

K. 13346:44. Fragm. of light green Celadon cup 
with wavy outer surface. 

K. 13346:45. Fragm. from the bottom of a Ying- 
ch'ing cup. Pale green glaze. On 
the inside is a design of curved lines scratched 
in the white ware before glazing. The bottom is 
flat, the outside is partly glazed, the foot-ring is 
low and rather sharp-edged. 

K. 13346:46. Small sherd from a Ying-ch'ing 
cup or saucer. Pale green glaze. 

K. 13346:47. Small sherd of thin stone ware, 
brownish-green glaze on the out- 

K. 13346:48. 
K. 13346: 49- 

Small sherd of T'ang ware, green 
glaze on both sides. 

Sherd of an earthenware vessel of 
almost white ware and with a cast 
relief design (a ground-pattern of raised rings, 
floral design, a fish ? etc). PI. 37:6. 

K. 13346: 50-51. Two sherds of earthenware ves- 
sels with a raised band of oblique 
impressions. Coarse red ware. 

K. 13346: 52-53. Two sherds of earthenware vessels 

with impressions made with a peg 
wound with string. Red ware. 

K- '334^ =54- Small sherd from an earthenware 
vessel with small round im- 
pressions. Coarse brownish ware. 

K. 13346:55. Fragm. from rim of an earthen- 
ware jug with high neck and a row 
of impressed circles. Coarse red ware. PI. 36:4. 

K. 13346:56. Fragm. from rim of a large earth- 
enware jar. Below the short, wide 
neck and on top of the rim a row of impressed 
circles. Coarse red ware, 12 mm. thick. PI. 36 : 3. 

K. 13346:57. Sherd from the shoulder of a big 
earthenware jar. Two rows of in- 
cised garlands made with a dentated instrument, 
between horizontal lines; a vertically applied 
raised oval with one longitudinal and five trans- 
versal grooves (depicting a cowrie ?). Coarse red 
ware, the outer surface yellowish. PI. 36:8. 

K. 13346: 58-62. Five sherds from large earthen- 
ware vessels; thick, coarse, brick- 
red and grey ware, decorated with carelessly in- 
cised garlands and bands consisting of several 
parallel lines. — =58 PI. 36:1. 

K. 13346:63. Sherd from rim of a large earthen- 
ware jar, decorated with arcs in- 
cised with a dentated instrument. Coarse, thick, 
red ware. 

K. 13346: 64-65. Two sherds from large earthen- 
ware vessels, decorated with 
straight bands and garlands or arcs incised with a 
dentated instrument, and a figure recalling a 
Tibetan character. Coarse, brick-red ware. PI. 
36 : 9 — 10. 

K. 13346:66. Sherd from shoulder of a large 
earthenware jar with an irregular, 
incised figure. Coarse, reddish-brown ware 16 mm. 
thick. PI. 36:6. 

1^.13346:67. Sherd of earthenware vessel with 
an irregular, incised figure. Coarse, 
brick-red ware. PI. 36 : 2. 

K. 13346:68. Sherd from earthenware vessel 
with traces of an incised, irregular 
figure. Light grey ware. 

K. 13346 : 69-74. Six sherds from large earthen- 
ware vessels with roughly incised 
lines, straight or wavy. Coarse ware, brick-red or 

K- 13346:75. Large sherd from a bulky earthen- 
ware jar with a stout handle. Half 
obliterated ornaments of straight lines and arcs 
incised with a dentated instrument. Coarse, brick- 
red ware, less than 1 cm. thick. 

K. 13346 : 76-78. Three loop-handles of earthenware 

vessels. — :y6 has four impressed 
circles divided into quarters, — : 78 has one similar 
ornament and a boss. Rather coarse, brick-red or 
reddish-brown ware. 


K. 13346:79. Sherd from small earthenware jug 
with a handle emerging from the 
rim. Light-grey, thin ware. 

K. 13346:80. Sherd from the rim of a wide 
earthenware jar without a neck. 3 
cm. below the rim a horizontal lug. Coarse, red 
to brownish-red ware. 

K. 13346:81. 

Sherd from the rim of a small jar 
of thin, reddish brown and red 

K. 13346: 82. 
K. 13346:83. 

K. 13346 : 84. 

Fragm. of small, flat earthenware 
bowl, lamp ? reddish ware. 

Sherd of large earthenware vessel 
with two holes after being repaired. 
Rather coarse, grey ware. 

Small sherd of thin-walled earthen- 
ware vessel, light-grey. 

K. 13346:85-110. Twenty-six spindle whorls of 

potsherds; seven complete, seven 
with unfinished hole, two without hole and 
ten fragmentary. Brick-red, brown and greyish 
wares. Diam. 50 — 23 mm. 

K. 13346:111. Fragm. of a moulded, hollow 
earthenware object. 43X50 mm. PI. 

K- 13346: 112. Fragm. of a pointed melting-pot of 
grey ware, the inside has dark- 
brown glaze, the outside red glaze. H. has been 
about 4.5 cm. 

K. 13346:113 Nearly half of a mace-head of 
light-grey granite. Diam. 82 mm. 
Present thickness 35 mm. PI. 37:10. 

K. 13346: 114. Fragm. of a whetstone of brownish 
slate with suspension hole. Br. 4 

K. 13346:115. Fragm. of small, pierced disc of 
white stone. Diam. 19 mm. 

K. 13346:116. Thin pebble with unfinished sus- 
pension hole. 

K. 13346: 117-118. Two fragm. of light-green, 

partly polished jade. 

K. 13346: 119. Ten small flint pieces, probably for 
striking fire. 

Tati I about 3.5 km. NW. of Tati II. 

K. 13347:1. 
K. 13347:2. 

K- 13347: 3- 
K. 13347: 4- 

Fragm. of bronze rod, from the 
handle of a spoon or the like. 

Various small bronze fragm. 

Spherical carnelian bead. Diam. 7 
mm. PI. 38 : 6. 

Triangular, wedge-shaped pendant 
of white, semi-translucent, striated 
agate. 31X25 mm. PI. 38:17- 

K. 13347:5-8. Four small sherds from earthen- 
ware vessels with incised, wavy 
lines. Grey, thin ware. — :6 PI. 37:5. 

K. 13347:9-12. Four small sherds of earthenware 
vessels with engraved, straight or 
garland-shaped lines, partly a lattice-pattern. Dark- 
brown and greyish ware, 

K. 13347: 13. Loop-shaped handle of an earthen- 
ware vessel. 

K. 13347:14. Fragm. from the flat bottom of a 

large earthenware pot with large 

steam-holes. Dark-grey ware, brownish-red within. 

K. 13347: 15. Rounded sherd of red earthenware. 

3. MIRAN. 

As in the case of Charchan's Kohna-shahr, Prjevalsky was the first European 
in modern times to learn about the Kohna-shahr of Miran. But it seems as if he 
never visited the place. Huntington is the first to mention the presence of Buddh- 
istic ruins here (Huntington p. 243). Stein was the first archaeologist to examine 
these highly interesting remains. From the imposing mud-fortress he excavated many 
Tibetan records on wood, dating from the eighth and ninth centuries, and from the 
surrounding temples and stupas marvellous fresco paintings of an Indian character 
were recovered and saved from destruction; they date from the third to the fifth 
centuries A. D. 



In Chinese historical records there prevails a certain confusion as to the old 
names of Miran. Stein and Giles place Yii-ni at Miran. According to the Former 
Han annals Yii-ni was the capital of Shan-shan (i. e. Lou-Ian). I-hsiin, which Li 
Tao-yuan gives as the capital, is identified with Charkhliq. From a Tang itinerary 
which Pelliot has made available in translation it is evident that I-hsiin in Tang 
time was equal to Miran. Yii-ni had already before this been identified with Charkh- 
liq by Grenard. The records are thus far from precise as to the places Yii-ni and 
I-hsiin. And the identifications of e. g. Stein and Herrmann stand in contradic- 
tion to each other. As Charkhliq and Miran are situated only 80 km. from each other 
the confusion is understandable. 

Present day Miran is just a small village situated some kilometres to the west of 
the ruins, on the left side of the brook Jaghan-sai, which once watered the Kohna- 
shahr as can be seen from old canals. 

In our days Charkhliq is by far the most prominent of the two places and may 
really be called a town, especially as it is the administrative centre of the modern 
Lop region. Its superiority in size is of quite modern date. According to local 
opinion the water-supply available in the Charkhliq river is about the same as that 
in the Miran stream, though certain ground conditions are more favourable at 
Charkhliq than at Miran. In my opinion the resources of Charkhliq are by far super- 
ior to those of Miran. As conditions have hardly changed during the last 2,000 years 
it seems plausible to assign greater importance to Charkhliq than to Miran also in 
the days of Lou-Ian, and thus make Charkhliq the site of the capital. 

One might tentatively reconcile the different views as to the situation of Yii-ni and 
I-hsiin by supposing that they both fall inside the Charkhliq oasis. As Yu-ni is called 
The old eastern town' by Li Tao-yuan, it may have been the eastern part of the 
oasis, and I-hsiin the western part. It seems maybe far-fetched to have two names for 
one and the same oasis but one of them may render a name in another language. 
There are many examples of this in modern Sinkiang. The present provincial capital, 
for instance, has no less than four designations: Urumchi, Ti-hua, Hung-miao-tze 
and Sinkiang-ch'eng, three of which are Chinese. 

When Wei-t'u-ch'i, a son of a Lou-Ian king, after a long residence in China re- 
turned to his native country of Lou-Ian to ascend the throne, he is said to have re- 
quested the Emperor to plant a military colony in the city of I-hsiin, where the land 
was rich and fertile, to collect the grains and to heighten the prestige of the king. 
In reality it seems more plausible that the Chinese themselves dispatched this mili- 
tary force to keep an eye on the new ruler of Lou-Ian. However, the king would 
certainly have had these soldiers much closer at hand in the oasis in which he him- 
self resided that 80 km. away from it. This circumstance points to the proximity of 
Yu-ni and I-hsiin. 

Giles is also on the same path of thought but he explains that the capital was re- 
moved from Miran (Yii-ni) to Charkhliq (I-hsiin) when the new king returned. 



a. The fortress in the Sogct-lmlaa valley as seen irom EXE, 

b. Interior of "tasli*oi M on mountain-side near Shimli, 

PI. XX. 

a. My camp among the huge tamarisk cones in the Kohna-shahr at Vash-shahri. 

S V 5. * v 

■ ■■' . ■ 


1). The burial site at Mi ran, 

' ' 

There remain discrepancies among the sources even with these explanations, and 
the question of Yu-ni and I-hsiin can not be regarded as definitely solved. 

There is very little doubt, however, that I-hsiin of the T'ang annals is identical 
with Miran. The name was at that time applied to Miran instead of a part of the 
Charkhliq oasis, which then had the name Shih-ch'eng. 

Other T'ang names of Miran is Ch'i-t'un-ch'eng (City of seven military colonies) 
or simply T'un-ch'eng. On the Tibetan records found by Stein the place is called 
Nob-chun or Little Nob. 

As I believe in the identification of Yu-ni with Charkhliq, and also want tentative- 
ly to locate I-hsiin there, I rob Miran of its position as the one time capital of Shan- 

In September 1928 I paid a short visit to Miran in order to get an ocular impress- 
ion of the ruins already excavated by Stein. Unfortunately I did not take his pub- 
lications with me on the 1928 expedition. The traces of his excavations were still 
easily seen. The very small rooms in the fortress, which served the Tibetan garri- 
son as quarters, had been cleared from refuse by Stein. Some drift sand had accum- 
ulated on the floors, but not to any great extent, considering the period of fourteen 
years that had elapsed. 

Tokhta Akhun of Miran, formerly residing at Abdal, 1 and the faithful servant 
both of Hedin and Stein, accompanied me, and he presented me with a bead of gilt 
glass, PI. 38: 5, and a small wooden slip with Tibetan writings, PI. 38: 2. These ob- 
jects he had found in the fortress of Miran after Stein's departure. This small Ti- 
betan record is unfortunately fragmentary and the reading of it is therefore difficult. 
I am indebted to Mr. W. A. Unkrig for the following suggestions. It begins with a 
pir-ka i. e. "trial stroke". The two first words are possibly bso mgon (the 
guardian of the resting place), then follows a vertical stroke and probably a gya do 
(breast plate or shield) and a pa or mat. The final signs can not be read. This frag- 
mentary reading gives no proper sense. 

From the ground around the fortress we picked up some pottery fragments 
among which a sherd of a small vessel with part of a Tibetan inscription is of some 
interest, PI. 37:7. Its fragmentary condition does not allow of any definite inter- 
pretation. It also starts with a pir-ka. The first letter is a ca or tsa; the three follow- 
ing characters are too fragmentary to be read. The fifth is certainly a ka, and the 
last one a ro. For this reading I am also indebted to the kind efforts of Mr. W. A. 

When Tokhta Akhun learned of my intention not to undertake any further 
excavations in the ruins, as this would scarcely have been worth while on ground so 
thoroughly examined by Stein, he told me about a burial place a little to the north. 

1 As early as 1914 the Abdal people had moved to Miran, leaving their semi-nomadic settlement for more 
permanent ones, as attested by Stein. 





Fig. 50. Mi ran. Grave I, Plan and section. 

Fig. 51. Mi ran, Grave 2. Plan and section. 

It was found to be situated amongst high tamarisk cones 2.5 km. NNE of the ruin- 
ed fortress, and immediately to the west of a ruined watch-tower. According to my 
cyclometer measurement this tower should be situated between Stein's ruins XII 
and XIV, nearly 800 m. WSW of XII (Cf. PI. 29 in Stein 1921). The graves 
showed no marks above the ground, and were located by striking the flat sides of 
the spades against the ground; where it sounded hollow we dug, PI. XX b. Here 
follows a description of the four graves discovered. 

Grave 1. 

0.7 m. below the surface we came across a "coffin" consisting only of half a 
hollowed-out poplar trunk, showing coarse marks of the carpenter's axe. It covered 
a well preserved skeleton resting on its back, Fig. 50. Near the left ear there was 
a plain bronze ring, PL 38: 1. 0.4 m. below the ground, and above the middle of the 
coffin, we found a bunch of coarse, dark-brown hair, and a half wooden comb of a 
type common in the Han dynasty in China, PI. 38: 18. 



Grave 2. 

The skeleton in this grave was also well preserved, but was lying in a slanting 
position with the head 0.8 m. higher than the feet. There was no coffin, only a 
horizontal log and an obliquely placed board Fig. 51. The only things found were some 
trifling fragments of red, green and yellow silk fabrics lying around the chin, on 
the upper part of the chest and on the upper parts of the arms. Everything indicates 
that this grave was plundered long ago. 





Fig. 52. Mi ran, Grave 3. Plan and section. 

Grave 3. 

The coffin in this grave, lying only 0.35 m. under the ground, was most curious, 
consisting of a hollow trunk that totally enveloped the skeleton. The upper part of 
the skeleton was disturbed, as if the deceased had been forcibly turned round in the 
coffin in such a way that the spinal column had been broken, and the cranium dis- 
placed. The trunk was open at both ends, and contained no funeral deposits. Fig. 52. 

A similar coffin from Qum-darya (cf. p. 55) had both ends closed with wooden 

Grave 4 

was of the same construction as Grave 1, the bones were displaced and the cranium 
broken. It contained nothing else and was apparently plundered. 

The heads of the skeletons were placed in the following directions: N 25 °E, 
S 6o°W, N 4 o°E, S 45°W. 

From Grave 1 the whole skeleton was taken, and from Grave 2 and 3 the crani- 
ums. They have been handed over to Prof. G. Backman for anthropometric exa- 

Unfortunately the objects found in Graves 1 and 2 are too poor to allow of any 
definite chronological determination, but the comb PI. 38: 18 is of the common Han 
type used in Lou-Ian, and the silk fragments, too, might very well be of that age. 
It is therefore likely, though far from proved, that these graves belonged to the 
people inhabiting Miran in the Lou-Ian time. The older Miran ruins date, as shown 
by Stein, from the third and fourth centuries A. D., but there are also two temples 
from the fifth century or a somewhat later date. The fortress was occupied during 


the eighth and the ninth centuries by Tibetans. It is hardly probable, however, that 
these graves have anything to do with the Tibetans. 


K. 13349:1. 

K. 13349:2. 

Small spheroid bead of gilt glass. 
Diam. 7 mm. PI. 38: 5. 

Small bronze f ragm., probably from 
a vessel. 

K. 13349:3* Fragm. of small wooden slip (label) 
with nearly effaced Tibetan char- 
acters written with ink on one side. L. 85 mm. 
Br. 10 mm. (has originally been broader, and has 
had a suspension hole). PI. 38:2. 

K. I3349:4- Bottom of wooden bowl, lathe- 

K. 13349:5. Sherd from the neck of a red, 
earthenware jar with a row of im- 
pressed dots, and, below that, part of a line of 
incised Tibetan characters. PI. 37 :y. 

K. 13349: 6. Sherd of a large earthenware vessel 
decorated with a straight line and 
across it a garland incised with a three-toothed 
instrument. Coarse, red ware. PI. 37 : 8. 

K. 13349 : 7"8- Two sherds from earthenware jars 
with a handle emerging from the 
rim. Red and brownish ware. 

K- I 3349 : 9- Sherd from the rim of a wide, 
rather big earthenware pot. Brown- 
ish ware. 

K. 13349: io-n.Two fragm. of small earthenware 

cups (lamps ?), light-red and 
yellow ware. 

K- 13349:12. Small fragm. of light-grey stone- 

K. 13349: 13-16. Two complete and two fragment- 
ary spindle whorls of potsherds. 

K. 13349: 17- Small rounded potsherd, unfinished 
spindle whorl. 

K. 13349:18. Fragm. of a spindle whorl of 
sandstone. Diam. 37 mm. 

K. I3349 : x 9- Unfinished spindle whorl made of 
a round pebble. 

K. 13349:20-22. Three chips of flintlike stone. 

Grave 1. 

K. 13350:1. 
K. 13350:2. 

K- 13350:3. 

Bundle of dark-brown human hair. 

About half of a wooden comb with 
coarse teeth and parabolic back. L. 
85 mm. Th. 17 mm. PI. 38: 18. 

Ear-ring of plain bronze wire. 
Diam. 23 — 26 mm. PI. 38: 1. 

Grave 2. 

K. 13351. Small fragments of silk fabrics, red, 
greenish and yellow, in plain weave. 


The three ancient sites discussed in Part IV, Charchan, Vash-shahri and Miran, 
are situated on the old highway which is called The Southern Road. It skirts all the 
oases on the southern border of the sand desert that covers the larger part of the 
Tarim Basin, and connects China and the West. Its first beginning lies hidden in 
obscurity. From the Chinese records we know of its existence in the early Han dy- 
nasty, and it became a significant channel along which the Chinese exported their 
precious silk and such other articles as were desired in the West. Just as was the 
case with The Northern Road, this Southern Road remained in use after the aban- 
doning of The Road of the Centre and its importance must then have increased con- 
siderably. The attacks of the Huns were a more or less constant menace to the 


northern branches of the Silk Road, but the Road of the South was hardly reached 
by these busy nomad hordes of the North. When also this southern road was made 
untrafficable to peaceful merchant caravans, the interruption was caused by the 
hostile and bellicose Tibetans, who advanced from their lofty mountain regions in 
the south. In 670 A. D. they made their first mighty expansion northwards, con- 
quering the whole of the Tarim Basin. Driven back once they returned in 766, when 
also Kansu was conquered. They erected strongholds near to, or on, the Road of 
the South (e. g. Miran, Mazar-tagh), and the east-westerly traffic on the old trade 
routes was cut off. When the Tibetan power was definitely broken by the Uigurs 
soon after the middle of the ninth century, trade developed anew; and even among 
the scanty finds from Vash-shahri this turn of events is reflected in the occurrence 
of glazed wares, which must have been imported from Honan in Central China. 
Here travelled Marco Polo in the thirteenth century, and it was in use along 
its whole extent from Kashgar to Tun-huang long after the time when the 
famous Venetian put his marvellous itinerary on record. It is really only one minor 
part of this road that has come into disuse in our own days: the stretch between Mi- 
ran and Tun-huang. Though even this part is used by camel caravans in rare in- 
stances nowadays; that it does not see any heavy traffic is mostly due to the 
political conditions. 

If the progress of modern civilization ever continues along the same lines as 
hitherto, and the Turkistan roads should be turned into motor highways, this Road 
of the South will hardly be considered, as there is too much drift sand along it. And 
the drift sand is the most troublesome obstacle to motor traffic. It thus seems as if 
this road had served its purpose as a channel for great transit trade. It will prob- 
ably remain what it now is, a local road of very relative importance. 




By Prof. Dr. STEN KONOW, Oslo. 

The small silk-strip 34: 65, which is 26.5 cm. long, bears, in the right hand cor- 
ner, a short inscription, 5.75 cm. long and consisting of ten signs. They have 
been written with ink, and in the case of the first letter the ink has run out 
into the silk so that the head has become indistinct. There cannot, however, be any 
doubt about the reading. The preservation of the legend is remarkably good. 

The alphabet is Indian Kharosthi, which we know from numerous documents 
found at the ancient sites along the southern route through Chinese Turkistan. 
where it seams to have been in current use during the first centuries of our era, so 
far as we can judge at present down to the latter half of the third century A.D. La- 
ter on it was replaced by the other ancient Indian alphabet, the Brahml, which had 
been introduced into the northern oases in the second century A. D., and of which 
there are also traces in the south even in the Kharosthi period. 

We have not sufficient materials for judging, with certainty, about the gradual 
changes of individual characters during the period when this alphabet was in cur- 
rent use in the southern oases. Most of the documents have only been published in 
transliteration, and the table of letters prepared by the late Professor Rapson 1 is 
useless for chronological purposes. We must therefore turn to dated Indian Kharos- 
thi records in order to arrive at an approximate dating. 

It has long been recognized that the closest parallel to the Central Asian Kharos- 
thi is to be found in an inscription found at Wardak, about thirty miles to the west 
of Kabul, and now preserved in the British Museum. 2 

With regard to our record the similarity is very striking. We may compare the 
rounded top of the letter ca, which is angular in most Central Asian records; the 
straight top and the two long legs of ya, while the right hand leg in Central Asia is 
usually shorter than the other one; the modified form of sa, which it has become 
usual to transliterate sa, and which, in India, is met with for the first time in the 
Wardak inscription, and, above all, the form of the cerebral ta. In Central Asian re- 

1 Kharosthi Inscriptions discovered by Sir Aurcl Stein in Chinese Turkestan. Transcribed and edited by A. 
M. Boyer, E. J. Rapson, E. Senart and P. S. Noble. Oxford 1920— 1929. Plate XIV. 

2 The last edition in Kharos^hT Inscriptions with the exception of those of Asoka. Corpus Inscriptionum 
Indicarum. Vol. II. Part I. Calcutta 1929, pp. 165 ff. 


cords it usually consists of a slightly rounded top-stroke, with a vertical slanting- 
forwards and continued by a bottom stroke towards the right, in a convex curve. In 
our record the top is essentially the same, but it is continued at the left extremity in 
a continuous curve, opening backwards. 

In Indian inscriptions the letter is rather infrequent, and the shape is quite dif- 
ferent. In the Wardak epigraph, however, it is found, in the same form as in our 
legend, in the word patiasae, Sanskrit pratyanisaya 'for the sharing*, though it has 
not hitherto been recognized, having been transliterated as d. From the view-point 
of Indian Kharosthi the Lou-Ian silk inscription is therefore of importance as show- 
ing us a hitherto unknown form of the letter. 

Now the distance between Wardak and the find-place of the silk strip is no doubt 
considerable, and it might be considered rash to draw any chronological inferences 
from the similarity of the script used in these different places. But there are several 
indications to show that the intercourse was not inconsiderable, and in the case of 
the Wardak record these indications even extend to the occurrence of the personal 
name Marega y which we only know from Central Asia. I therefore think that we are 
quite justified in assuming that our silk legend belongs to about the same time as 
the Wardak inscription. 

The latter is dated on the 15th Artemisios of the year 51. There is a general con- 
sensus of opinion to the effect that the era is the same which we know from many 
Indian records and which starts from the inauguration of the famous king Kaniska. 

But there is no unanimity about the initial point of this reckoning. Most scholars 
apparently hold that we have to do with the well-known Indian Saka era beginning 
in 78/9 A. D. and that the Wardak inscription accordingly goes back to about 130 
A. D. It would lead us too far astray to repeat the arguments which, in my opinion, 
make it impossible to identify the Kaniska reckoning with the Saka era. I am still 
convinced that we must assume an epoch for the former in A. D. 128/9, and that 
the Wardak inscription is dated on April 25, A. D. 179. Our silk strip would 
accordingly seem to have to be ascribed to the last decades of the second century 
A. D. And such a dating seems to agree with what we know from other sources. 

In his Serindia, Oxford 1921, pp. 373 f., Sir Aurel Stein describes a bale of silk 
found at Lou-Ian. Its width is 18 3/4 inches. At one of the ruined watch-stations of 
the ancient Chinese limes west of Tun-huang he subsequently found two strips of 
undyqd silk, and one of them bears a Chinese inscription which Chavannes trans- 
lated 'a roll of silk from K'ang-f u in the Jen-ch'eng kingdom ; width 2 feet 2 inches ; 
length 40 feet; weight 25 ounces ; value 618 pieces of money'. Sir Aurel adds : "The 
mention of the kingdom of Jen-ch'eng, which was established in A. D. 84 in the 
province of Shan-tung, still one of the chief silkproducing regions in China, proves 
the silk to date from the end of the first or the beginning of the second century 

The find of two wooden measures enabled Sir Aurel to accurately determine 


the value of the old Chinese foot. It was divided into ten inches, each 9/10", or 
22.9 mm., and was accordingly 9 inches or 22.9 cm. long. The width of this silk 
roll was accordingly 19.83 inches or 50.38 cm., and the length 36 inches or 9.16 m. 

These old measures seem to have remained in use for silk rolls down into the time 
of the Chin dynasty. Our silk strip is therefore evidently incomplete, only a little 
more than half the original width. 

A welcome corroboration is furnished by another find described by Sir Aurel pp. 
701 f f . It consists of two strips of silk, and one of them shows a width of about 19 J/' 
inches or close on 50 cm. It is, moreover, of importance because it bears an inscrip- • 
tion in Brahml letters of the first, or more probably of the second century A. D. Sir 
Aurel has followed M. Boyer in reading it as aistasya pata gisti saparisa, which he 
explains as meaning *a piece of cloth of aista, 46 gisti', taking aista "to designate the 
particular quality of material of the silk contained in the roll", or as "intended to 
designate the purchaser or something of the sort", and gisti to correspond to Pan- 
jabl gitth 'span', 46 designating the length of the cloth. 

In his important paper Textilicn im alten Turkistan 5 Professor Luders has shown 
that the word pata, Sanskrit patta, which repeatedly occurs in the Central Asian 
KharosthI documents, means *silk roll', and,, on p. 37, he corrects M. Boyer's reading 
saparisa to caparisa 'forty', i.e. we again have the same length of the roll as in the 
Chinese inscription. 

The reading of the legend can, however, be further improved. I am confident that 
we must read srirastrasa pata dhisti caparisa 'silkroll of Srirastra, forty dhisti'. 
Whether Srirastra is the name of the country of origin, as seems to be likely, or of 
the owner of the roll, is of comparatively small importance. It is of greater interest 
that we get a well-known word instead of the hypothetical gisti. Dhisti is undoubt- 
edly = disti y for which we regularly have dithi in the KharosthI records from I 
Eastern Turkistan, a designation of a measure, which evidently corresponded to the I 
Chinese foot. The initial dh instead of d points to a spirantic pronunciation, which I 
was evidently due to Iranian influence.* I 

The silk inscriptions mentioned above show what we ought to expect in our strip. I 

And this expectation is fully borne out by an examination of the inscription itself. I 

The first letter is, as already remarked, a little blurred, but perfectly legible: sim, I 

The second is clearly dha, with the stroke indicating length below, so that the read- 
ing dha is justified. There is, however, an upward bend of the bottom, and if it had 
been continued a little farther and backwards, we should have to read dhu. and 
then, according to the Central Asian practice, combine this with the lengthstroke • 

and read dhu. If we bear in mind the frequent coupling of more than one vowel- 
sign which we know from Central Asian Brahmi records, it is, however, tempting 

3 Abhandlungen der prcussischen Akademie dcr Wisscnschaften, Jahrgang 1936. Phil.-Hist. Klasse. Nr. 3. 

pp. 24 ff- 

4 Cf. Acta Orientalia xiv, pp. 235 ff. 


to read dkua t but I have never come across any such coupling in KharosthI, and it is 
safer to read dha. Then comes ca with the length-stroke, i. e. cd, and further rtya$a. 

The first word is consequently Sitndhacariyasa^ the genitive of Simdhacariya^ which 
can safely be considered as equivalent to Sanskrit Sindhvacarya 'the Sindhu 
teacher'. It is clearly the name of a man, and evidently denotes the person 
to whom the roll belonged. 

The name is of some interest, because we know from Professor Luders 5 that tra- 
ditional tales connected with Western India and especially with Sindh were localized 
in Eastern Turkistan. Thus the Sindh town Roruka seems to have been identified 
with Lou-Ian. It seems as if colonists from Western India, including Sindh, had sett- 
led down in Eastern Turkistan at an early date. Our legend may be taken to indicate 
that this settlement was not later than the second century A. D. 

After the name comes an absolutely unmistakable pa. With the ensuing /a, 
which I have already mentioned, we accordingly get pa/a 'silk roll*. 

Then follow two signs, which are clearly identical, though the last one is a little 
indistinct, and which must be the numeral symbol for twenty. As usual in KharosthI 
records a repeated 20, 20 20, means forty. We thus have the same number, clearly 
indicating the length of the roll, as in the Chinese and the Brahml legends. And we 
must translate: 'Sindhuacarya's roll, forty (feet long)'. There was evidently a stan- 
dard length, and also a standard width, of these ancient silk rolls. 

5 Sitzungsberichte der Prcussischen Akadcmie der Wissenschaften 1930, pp. 7 ff ; cf. my remarks Acta Ori- 
entalia xii, pp. 136 ff. 





(Engineer of the State Railway Administration). 


The withered wood fragment has a thickness of about 8 mm. To judge from the 
curvature of the piece it must formerly have been part of a wide and round vessel. 
It is evident, too, that both inside and outside have been covered with a good lac- 
quer, 1 containing a red mineral pigment. 

Owing to the withered state of the wood it was easy to scrape off the lacquer. The 
flake powder gained in this way was boiled with strong hydrochloric acid until full 
solution was obtained. Then sulphuretted hydrogen was passed into the diluted solu- 
tion. As no precipitate was formed, no lead or other heavy metals can be present. 
Ammonium sulphide precipitated greenish black iron sulphide, and all other indicat- 
ing reactions proved that iron is the dominating substance, and that it occurs in the 

form of oxide. 

It may therefore be assumed that the red pigment used was a calcined ochre. 


Agglomerates of rounded light red-brownish grains. 

The appearance as well as the structure and properties of the grains coincide with 
those of the grains in the sample No. 5. F: 1. 

Thus it is to be assumed that also here the material in the basket is millet — in 
this case merely a little cleaner and more carefully manipulated. 


Big lumps of mixed grains of sand (diam. 0.02—2 mm.) of almost all colours, 
and a large proportion of grains of some brownish organic matter (1 — 2 mm.), 
together with some few seeds in light-brown and dark-brown glossy hulls (2— 2j4 

1 To avoid any misunderstanding it should be mentioned that this 'lacquer' has nothing whatsoever in common 
with the Chinese lacquer otherwise referred to in this monograph. F. B. 



mm.). The seeds are surprisingly well preserved, both within and on the outside. 
The bare grains have agglomerated in heaps. Nevertheless they are easily distin- 
guishable as soon as the mass is softened in hot water. Here and there, however, the 
grains have formed such a solid mass as to be no more separable. 

It is evident that the seed corns have grown on the Asiatic grass, Panicam milia- 
ceitm (sanguineum) or millet. Hence it is to be assumed that the contents of the 
basket were once millet grits with some corns still left unground. If the substance 
in the basket may thus be considered to have been millet-porridge it is of some in- 
terest to add that it also contains salt, sodium chloride, but traces only of soluble 


This sample, already washed, consists of two specimens of wool — one of them, 
dyed in a somewhat reddish, nice brown rather dark hue, is spun and twisted to 
form a two-strand twine, each strand containing about 180 filaments; the other one 
is spun and twined to a much looser and very bulky yarn of uncertain light brown- 
yellow colour. 

The wool hairs have a thickness of 13—27 n, and concerning the dark dyed 
hairs even a little more, or up to a trifle above 30 //. Furthermore, as a matter of 
fact, we not infrequently found hairs in the mass with a length of more than 50 
mm. All these hairs have a well preserved wavy structure and scaly surface, show- 
ing the characteristic serration of sheep wool fibres. There is no resemblance to 
the wool hairs of the camel. But it must be remembered that such a thin and really 
fine fleece is produced only by extremely good or improved sheep races. It is there- 
fore a question as to whether this fleece has been shorn from the home sheep or 
imported — perhaps (this is in any case not quite impossible) with returning silk 
caravans from Bactria, where in those times very good fleece was procurable. 
Compare also "Sheep wool from the Kucha district"! 

Yet the case is here still more complicated. Together with the fine fleece there 
are quite a number of pieces of thick hairs, 90—130 ^ many of which are crushed 
and spread out in one plane to something about treble the breadth. Some of them 
show a rather rapid transition to the thin form and appearance of the fleece hairs. 
These big hairs are mostly broken into pieces, in this condition resembling 
fragments of overhairs from an antelope's pelt. If they did belong to this 
animal, the fine fleece would perhaps be hairs from the fur, i. e. the underwool of 
a common antelope. As in Sweden it proved impossible to find an antelope skin with 
underwool(!) I applied to the British Museum and got from there top hairs and 
underhairs of two antelope skins (Gasella gutturosa and Gazella Prjevalskii). I was 
thus enabled to establish the unmistakable and obvious difference between the fleece 
in question and the antelope fur, and I was also able to show that the underhairs 


of the two antelopes are considerably coarser than the fleece of all common deer 

animals (family Cervidae). It was also established that the big hairs of the sample 

are so-called "kemps" or "dead hairs" from sheep. But the presence of the "kemps" 

tells us that the wool must have been taken from an adult sheep and can not belong 

to the first and finest clip of the "lambs' wool" from animals of eight or ten months 

Hence it is here assumed that the wool had been imported. 



The powder is in no wise fatty, but it can not be mixed with water — it does not 
get wet. On the other hand, it takes ether very readily, but nothing is extracted by 
this solvent. In reality there is no organic substance in the powder. If heated, the 
mass blackens only for a moment, giving off a distinct smell of burnt leather, then 
it assumes a very characteristic brown-yellow colour, as does the common painting- 
colour, white lead. Following this indication it was easy to show that the powder 
could be dissolved in nitric acid, with the exception of a considerable part of it 
which proved to be sand (probably from the desert), and another part which could 
be dissolved in strong hydrochloric acid and which proved to be antimonious 
oxide. Sulphur is not present. 

When the lead nitrate was formed, carbon dioxide was set free. Then the nitrate 
compound was precipitated by sulphuric acid and determined as lead sulphate in 
the ordinary way. The powder possesses a high degree of dispersion and adheres 
strongly to rough surfaces. As the use of white lead as toilet powder was common 
in the civilised world as early as the 4th century B. C. we are justified in assuming 
that the find may have been once used for such a purpose. 

Concerning the wool round the small powder-bag it may be added that among the 
hairs of the ordinary sheep wool I was surprised to find some bigger hairs showing 
a striking resemblance to the hairs of a gazelle, Gasella gtitturosa of Kansu. 


The fragment shows a simple wickerwork, i. e. a weaving in which the warp is 
rigid and the weft flexible. 

The rigid warp here consists of pretty round (diam. 1.5 — 1.8 mm.) and straight 
strands of a dicotyledonous stem. All small twigs have been carefully removed, but 
in some places the bark is not peeled off altogether. 

The flexible weft forms a plain weaving over single warps. The surface is 
smooth. Near the upper rim three triplets of neighbouring weft-strands are drawn 



I » 

over a couple of warps instead of a single one, thus composing a band of three- 
strand twined work. There is a similar band round the bottom. On the inside of the 
basket this texture looks like a plain twined weaving. 

There is still a third component of the basketwork. It is a minute round string 
(diam. 0.2 mm.) of a dicotyledonous root, almost certainly from an Artemisia plant. 
This little strand is not used everywhere, but only occasionally, especially for the 
strengthening here and there of the three-strand twined work. It may be added that 
this extra little strand has in any case not slipped out of a main weft one, but has 
been handled fully individually by the basket-weaver. Sometimes it has been 
wrapped on a warp strand, and there is no other wrapping anywhere in the weav- 
ing (-fragment). 

It was difficult to find out w-hat material the old basket-maker had used in her 
weft-strands. It was possible, finally, to establish that a good part of the material 
best corresponds to the "tsaghan deris" or "white grass" of the Mongols or Lasia- 
grostis splendens of the Botanical Museum. The stems of this grass have been split 
to form two or more strings to be used together with dicotyledonous root strings 
for weft strands — also in the three-strand twine. Indeed, as a matter of fact, the 
clever basket-weaver has used both of these heterogeneous materials together in every 
one of the weft strands. A whole series of cuts through the outsides of neighbouring 
weft strands have been made, and one is surprised to see (through the microscope) 
how grass and dicot. fibres alternate in a highly irregular manner. As a matter of 
fact a gleaming and glossy grass surface may be seen in many parts of the plain 
weaving, and dull root surfaces in the three-strand weaving. The wall has a net- 
pattern made of glossy grass applied on top of the main weft element and showing 
a marked contrast in colour to this. The result is thus a proof of the simple but good 
basketry of the primitive Lou-Ian people. 

In these microscopic examinations Professor G. Edman of the Pharmaceutic In- 
stitution has given me splendid assistance and sacrificed much time, for which I 
give him my sincerest thanks. 


The principal matter is a non-granular, most shapeless mass of a light brown-grey 

If a small quantity of the substance is heated in a test tube in a Bunsen flame it 
gives off water, brownish tar, and an intense smell of burnt milk. What remains 
is a structureless black carbon. 

The presence of lactic acid in the mass has been proved by the common iodoform 
reaction and the special Uffelmann test (carbolic acid with dissolved ferric chlor- 


ide), and furthermore with an alcoholic solution of guajacol in the presence of 
strong sulphuric acid. The mass also contains some lime (Ca). 

It may therefore be assumed that the substance in question was once sour milk. 


This wool sample is of course not an archaeological specimen. Taken from a 
sheepskin in the market at Kucha, it is a simple product of to-day, to be compared 
to the wools of the grave finds. From this point of view, however, the sample is in- 

The wool is pretty to look at : clean, dazzlingly white and good-sized. Moreover, 
it has an agreeable softness of handle. Is it then a more "cultivated" wool of a higher 
count than the two thousand years older wool from the graves? The microscopic 
examination does not answer in the affirmative. On the contrary, it shows that the 
hairs are coarser, with a thickness between 20 and 55 p, that most of the hairs 
have a medullary core or pith like a white string, occupying half the breadth of the 
hair, and that the external scales (flattened horny cells) have a very irregular and 
split appearance. Most of the wool in the sample consists of overhairs taken from a 
sheep belonging to a good but none the less plain breed — producing a wool consider- 
ably inferior to the fine and dense wool used in the loin-cloth No. 5 : *4& 





AH = 




Burl. Mag. = 





Pal. Sin. = 


TP = 


Archaeologia Hungarica. 

Bulletin de l'£cole Francaise d'Extremc-Orient. 

Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities (Ostasiatiska Samlingarna). 

Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies (University of London). 

The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. 

Eurasia Septentrionalis Antiqua. 

Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Journal de la Societe Finno-Ougrienne. 

Ostasiatische Zeitschrift. 

Palaeontologia Sinica. 

Revue des Arts Asiatiques. 

T'oung pao, ou Archives concernant l'Histoire, les Langues, la Geographic et 

l'Ethnographie de 1'Asie Orientale. 
Wiener Beitrage zur Kunst- und Kulturgeschichte Asiens. 




■ . 

v i 

Alfoldi, A. 

Funde aus der Hunnenzcit. (AH 9) 
Budapest 1932. 


Chosen Kobijitsu Taikwan. Vol. 3. 

Chosen Gov. Gen. Museum, Seul. 

Andersson, J. G. 

1923. The cave-deposit at Sha-kuo-t'un in 

Fengtien. (Pal. Sin. D. I:i). Peking 

1925. Preliminary report on archaeological 

research in Kansu. (Memoirs A: 5 

Geol. Survey of China). Peking 

1932. Hunting magic in the animal style. 
(BMFEA 4). Stockholm 1932. 

1934. Children of the yellow earth. Lon- 
don 1934. 

Andrews, F. H. 

1920. Ancient Chinese figured silks. (Burl. 
Mag. July-Sept, 1920). London 1920. 

1935. Descriptive catalogue of antiquities 
recovered by Sir Aurel Stein during 
his expeditions in Central Asia, Kan- 
su and E. Iran. Delhi 1935. 



Appelgren-Kivalo, Hj. 

Alt-altaische Kunstdenkmaler. Hel- 

singfors 1931. 
Arne, T. J. 

1914. La Suede et l'Orient. Upsala 1914. 

Painted stone age pottery from the 

province of Honan, China. (Pal. Sin. 

D. T : 2). Peking 1925. 
Die Funde von Luan P'ing und Hsuan 

Hua. (BMFEA 5). Stockholm 1933. 
Ashton, L. & Gray, B. 

Chinese art. London 1935. 
Bachhofer, L. 

1935. Der Zug nach dem Osten. Einige Be- 
merkungen zur prahist. Keramik Chi- 
nas. (Sinica Sonderheft 1935). Frank- 
furt a. M. 1935. 

Zur Fruhgeschichte Chinas. (Die 
Welt als Geschichte III: 4). Stutt- 
gart 1937. 

Benveniste, E. 

Notes Sogdiennes. (BSOS 9). Lon- 
don 1938. 

Bergman, F. 

1935 a. Nagot om Mongol iet i forntid och 
nutid. (Ymer). Stockholm 1935. 




1935 b. Newly discovered graves in the Lop- 
nor desert. (Hyllningsskr. tillagn. 
Sven Hedin). Stockholm 1935. 
1935 c. Lou-Ian wood-carvings and small 
finds discovered by Sven Hedin. 
(BMFEA 7). Stockholm 1935. 


Ausstellung chin. Kunst veranstaltet 
von d. Ges. fur Ostasiat. Kunst und 
d. Preuss. Ak. d. Kunste. Berlin 1929. 

Bishop, C. W. 

The neolithic age in N. China. (Anti- 
quity 7). Gloucester 1933. 

Brown, F. E. 

A recently discovered compound bow. 
(Annales de l'lnst. Kondakov 9). 
Praha 1937. 

Bylin-Althin, M. 

Keramische Funde von den Tepe's 
der Tiirkmenen steppe. (Svenska Ori- 
entsallsk. Arsbok). Stockholm 1937. 

Carter, T. F. 

The invention of printing in China 
and its spread westward. New York 

Chavannes, E. 

1905. Les pays d'occident d'apres le Wei 
Ho. (TP 6). Leide 1905. 

1906. Trois gcneraux Chinois de la dynastie 
des Han oricntaux. — Chap, yy du 
Heou Han chou. (TP 7). Leide 1906. 

1907. Les pays d'occident d'apres le Heou 
Han chou. (TP 8). Leide 1907. 

1913. Les documents chinois decouverts par 
Aurel Stein dans les sables du Tur- 
kestan Oriental. Oxford 1913. 
Chen, Parker C. 

Lop nor and Lop desert. (Journ. 
Geogr. Soc. of China 3). Nanking 

CuiLDE, V. G. 

1926. The Aryans. London 1926. 

1928. The most ancient East. London 1928. 

Clauson, G. L. M. 

The geographical names in the Stacl- 
Holstein scroll. (Journ. Roy. Asiatic 
Soc. 1931). London 1931. 

Comp. rend, des exp. pour l'exploration du nord 
de la Mongolie rattachees a I'exp. de 
Mongolo-Tibetaine de Kozlov. Lenin- 
grad 1925. 


Die chinesischen Handschriften- und 
sonstigen Kleinfunde Sven Hedins 
in Lou-Ian. Stockholm 1920. 

Creel, H. G. 

Studies in early Chinese culture. Lon- 
don 1938. 

Francke, A. H. 

Tibetische Hochzeitslieder. Darmstadt 

•Frankfort, H. 

Studies in early pottery of the Near 
East. London 1927. 

Giles, L. 

A Chinese geographical text of the 
ninth century. (BSOS 6). London 

1 930— 32. 
Grano, J. G. 

1909. Archaologischer Beobachtungen von 
meinen Reisen in d. nordl. Grenzege- 
genden Chinas 1906 — 07 (JSFO 26). 
Helsingfors 1909. 

1910. Uber die geogr. Verbreitung und die 
Formen der Altertumer in der Nord- 
westmongolei. (JSFO 28). Helsing- 
fors 1 910. 

1912. Arch. Beobachtungen von meiner 
Reise in Siidsibirien und der Nord- 
westmongolei 1909. (JSFO 28). Hel- 
singfors 1912. 
Grenard, F. 

Dutreuil de Rhins. Mission scienti- 
fique dans la haute Asie, 1890 — 1895. 
Paris 1897—8. 

de Groot, J. J. M. 

Die Hunnen der vorchristl. Zeit. Ber- 
lin und Leipzig 1921. 

Grunwedel, A. 

Altbuddhistische Kultstatten in Chi- 
nesisch-Turkistan. Berlin 1912. 

Hamada, K. and Umehara, J. 

A royal tomb "Kinkan-tsuka" or The 
gold crown tomb at Keishu and its 
treasures. (Spec, report of the Service 
of Antiquities, 3. Gov. Gen. of Cho- 
sen). Keijo. 1924. 

Hamada, K. 

The tomb of painted basket of Lo- 
lang. Keijo 1934. 

Hampel, J. 

Alterthumer des friihen Mittelalters 
in Ungarn. Braunschweig 1905. 

Harada, Y. 

Lo-lang. A report on the excavation 
of Wang Hsu's tomb ... in Korea. 
Tokyo 1930. 

Hedin, S. 

1898. En fard genom Asien 1893 — 97. 

Stockholm 1898. 
1903. Asien. Tusen mil pa okanda vagar. 
Stockholm 1903. 




1905. Scientific results of a journey in Cen- 
tral Asia 1899 — 1 901. Vol. 2. Stock- 
holm 1905. 

1936. Sidenvagen. Stockholm 1936. 

1937. Den vandrande sjon. Stockholm 1937. 

Herrmann, A. 

1910. Die alten Seidenstrassen zwischen 
China und Syrien. Berlin 1910. 

1922. Die Westlander in der chinesischen 
Kartographie (In Sven Hedin's Sou- 
thern Tibet VIII: 2). Stockholm 

193 1. Lou-Ian. China, Indien und Rom im 
Lichte der Ausgrabungen am Lobnor. 
Leipzig 1931. 

1935. Historical and commercial atlas of 
China. Cambridge Mass. 1935. 

1938. Das Land der Seide und Tibet im 
Lichte der Antike. Leipzig 1938. 

Hoernle, R. 

1899. A collection of antiquities from Cen- 
tral Asia. (JASB Extra-Nr. 1). Cal- 
cutta 1899. 
1902. A report on the British collection of 
antiquities from Central Asia. (JASB 
70, I 1901). Calcutta 1902. 

Horvath, T. 

Die avarischen Graberfelder von 
tjllo und Kiskoros. (AH 19). Buda- 
pest 1935- 

Huanc Wen-pi. 

1930. Travels and discoveries in Mongo- 
lia and Sinkiang. (Journ. Sinol. Stud., 
Kuo-hsueh-chi-k'an 11:3). Peiping 

1933. Kao-ch'ang-t'ao-chi. Peiping 1933. 

1935. Two pieces of wooden manuscripts of 
the Hanh dynasty discovered from 
Lop Nor. (Journ. Sinol. Stud. Kuo- 
hsueh-chi-k'an V:2). Peiping 1935. 

Hudson, G. F. 

Europe & China. London 1931. 
Huntington, E. 

The pulse of Asia. Boston and New 
York 1907. 
Horner, N. G. 

1931. Upptackten av nya Lop-nor. (Ymer). 
Stockholm 1931. 

J 933- Geomorphologic processes in conti- 
nental basins of Central Asia. (Rep. 
XVI Int. Geol. Congr. Washington 
1933)- Washington 1936. 

1936. Resa till Lop. Stockholm 1936. 
Horner, N. G. and Chen, Parker C. 

^S- Alternating lakes. (Hyllningsskr. till- 
agnad Sven Hedin). Stockholm 1935. 

Inner Mongolia and the region of the Great 
Wall (Archaeologia Orientalis. B. Se- 
ries. Vol. I) Tokyo and Kyoto 1935. 

Jackson, J. W. 

Shells as evidence of the migrations 
of early culture. Manchester 1917. 

Janse, O. 

1935. L'Empire des Steppes et les relations 
entre FEurope et l'Extreme-Orient 
dans l'Antiquitc. (RAA IX). Paris 

1936. Briques et objects ceramiques fune- 
raires de l'epoque des Han. Paris 


The Yakut. (Anthrop. Papers, Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. 33:11). New York 

Kari.beck, O. 

Catalogue of the collection of Chinese 

and Korean bronzes at Hallwyl 

House, Stockholm. Stockholm 1938. 

Karlgren, B. 

Kina. (Varldshistoria utgiven av Tun- 
berg och Bring, 15). Stockholm 1928. 

Katori, Hozuma. 

Shina no kinko [Metal Works of Chi- 
na]. Tokyo 1934. 

Klein, D. 

Die fruhen Seidengewebe auf der Chi- 
na-Ausstellung in London. (OZ 22). 
Berlin und Leipzig 1936. 

Konow, S. 

1912. 0rken og Oase. Det inderste Asicn 
i nutid og fortid. Kristiania 1912. 

1929. Kharosthi inscriptions with the excep- 
tion of those of Asoka. (Corp. In- 
script. Indie. II: 1). Calcutta 1929. 

1934. Roruka and Chinese Turkestan. (Acta 
Orient. XII). Lugduni Batavorum 


1928. Die altesten Beziehungen zwischen 
Europa und Ostasien. (Deutsche 
Forsch. a. d. Arb. d. Notgem. d. 
deutsch. Wiss. H. 5). Berlin 1928. 

1930. Chinesische Kunst. Berlin 1930. 
Latynin, B. A. 

Work in the region of the projected 
hydroelectric station on the Naryn ri- 
ver, Ferghana (in Russian). (Izves- 
tiia GAIMK no). Moskwa-Lenin- 
grad 1935. 
Lattimore, O. 

1928. Caravan routes of Inner Asia. (Geo- 
graphical Journ. 72:6). London 1928. 

1930. High Tartary. Boston 1930. 


Laufer, B. 

1909. Chinese pottery of the Han dynasty. 
Leiden 1909. 

191 1. Chinese grave- sculptures of the Han 
period. Leipzig 191 1. 

1914. Chinese clay figures, I. Prolegomena 
on the history of defensive armor. 
(Field Museum Publication 177). Chi- 
cago 1914- 

1919. Sino-Iranica. (Field Museum Publi- 
cation 201). Chicago 1919. 
Le Coq, A. v. 

1913. Chotscho. Berlin 1913. 

1925. Bilderatlas zur Kunst und Kultur- 
geschichte Mittel-Asiens. Berlin 1925. 

1926, Auf Hellas Spuren in Ostturkistan. 
Leipzig 1926. 

1928. Von Land und Leuten in Osttur- 
kistan. Leipzig 1928. 
Mac kay, E. 

The Indus civilization. London 1935. 
Marosi, A. & Fettich, N. 

Trouvailles Avares de Dunapcntele. 
(AH 18). Budapest 1936. 
Marshall, J. 

Mohenjo-daro and the Indus civiliza- 
tion. London 1931. 
Martin-, F. R. 

1893. L'age du bronze au Musee de Mi- 

noussinsk. Stockholm 1893. 
1897. Sibirica. Stockholm 1897. 
Mason, O. T. 

Aboriginal American basketry: stu- 
dies in a textile art without machi- 
nery. (Ann. Rep. Smithsonian Inst. 
1902). Washington 1904. 
Menghin, O. 

1928. Zur Steinzeit Ostasiens. (Festschr. P. 

W. Schmidt). Wien 1928. 
1931. Weltgeschichte der Steinzeit. Wien 

Merhart, G. v. 

Bronzezeit am Jenissei. Wien 1926. 
Minns, E. H. 

Scythians and Greeks. Cambridge 

Mitra, P. 

Prehistoric India. 2nd Ed. Calcutta 


^35' Sven Hedin's arch. coll. from Kho- 
tan. (BMFEA 7). Stockholm 1935. 

1938. D:o II. (BMFEA 10). Stockholm 
Mori, O. & Naito, H. 

Ying-ch'eng-tzu. Report upon the ex- 
cavation of the Han brick-tomb with 

fresco-paintings ... in S. Manchuria. 
(Arch. Orient 4). Tokyo-Kyoto 1934- 
Manchen-Helfen, O. 

1931. Reise ins asiatische Tuwa. Berlin 

1937. Zur Geschichte d. Lackkunst in Chi- 
na. (WBKKA XI). Wien 1937. 


Der Schamanismus bei den sibirischen 
Volkern. Stuttgart 1925. 
Norden, A. 

Ostergotlands bronsalder, Linkoping 

Korin, E. 

Geology of Western Quruq-tagh. 
(Rep. Sino-Swed. Exp. III:i). Stock- 
holm 1937. 


A basket-maker cave in Kane coun- 
try, Utah. (Indian notes and mono- 
graphs). New York 1922. 

Oba, T. & Kayamoto, K. 

The tomb of Wang Kuang of Lo- 
lang. Keijo 1935. 

Olufsen, O. 

The Emir of Bokhara. Copenhagen 
Pelliot, P. 

Jades archaiques de Chine apparte- 
nant a M. C. T. Loo. Paris et Brux- 
elles 1925. 
Petrie, Flinders. 

Tools and weapons. London 1917. 
Pfister, R. 

Textiles de Palmyre. Paris 1934. 
Prjevalsky, N. M. 

General Prschevalskij's forskningsre- 
sor i Centralasien 1870 — 85 j sam- 
mandrag efter de ryska, tyska och 
franska originalupplagorna av Sven 
Hedin. Stockholm 1891. 
Pumpelly, see Schmidt, H. 

Reallexikon d. Vorgeschichte, herausgegeben 

von Max Ebert. Berlin 1924 — 32. 
Rebel, H. 

China als Ursprungsland der Edel- 
scide. (WBKKA 2). Wien 1927. 
Rostovtzeff, M. 

Inlaid bronzes of the Han dynasty. 
Paris & Brussels 1927. 
Rydii, H. 

1919. Ett forhistoriskt fynd av mannisko- 
har fr. Adelso. (Rig 2). Stockholm 

1929. Symbolism in mortuary ceramics. 
(BMFEA 1). Stockholm 1929. 


Salmony, A. 

Sino-Siberian art in the coll. of C. T. 
Loo. Paris 1933. 

Schmidt, H. 

1908. Archeological excavations in Anau 
and Old Merv. Part II of Explora- 
tions in Turkestan, ed. by R. Pum- 
pelly. Washington 1908. 

1924. Prahistorisches aus Ostasien. (Zeit- 
schr. f. Ethnologie 56). Berlin 1924. 


River changes in the Eastern Tarim 
Basin. (Geogr. Journ. 74). London 

Seligman, C. G. 

1937. The Roman Orient and the Far East. 
(Antiquity n). Gloucester 1937. 

Seligman, C. G. & Beck, H. C. 

1938. Far Eastern glass: some Western ori- 
gins. (BMFEA 10). Stockholm 1938. 

Shimada, S. & Hamada, K. 

Nan-shan-li. Brick-tombs of the Han 
dynasty ... S. Manchuria. (Arch. 
Orient. 3). Tokyo & Kyoto 1933. 

Siren, O. 

A history of early Chinese art. Lon- 
don 1930. 

Smith, R. A. 
191 1. The stone age in Chinese Turkestan. 

(Man XI: 6). London 1911. 
1928. Notes on stone implements from the 
Tarim Basin and Sistan (Appendix 
N to Stein 1928). Oxford 1928. 
Stein, M. A. 

1907. Ancient Khotan. Oxford 1907. 
1 921. Serindia. Oxford 1921. 

1928. Innermost Asia. Oxford 1928. 

1929. An arch, tour in Wazaristan and N. 
Baluchistan. (Mem. Arch. Survey In- 
dia No. 37). Calcutta 1929. 

*93° — 3 2 On the Ephedra, the Hum plant and 
the Soma. (BSOS 6). London 1930 

1931. An arch, tour in Gcdrosia. (Mem. 
Arch. Survey India No. 43). Calcutta 

J 933- On ancient Central-Asian tracks. 
London 1933. 

T 937- Archaeological reconnaissances in 
N.W. India & S. E. Iran. London 

Tallgren, A. M. 

1917. Collection Tovostine. Hclsingfors 

1933. Inner Asiatic and Siberian rock pic- 
tures. (ESA 8). Helsingfors 1933. 

1937 a. "Portable altars". (ESA 11). Helsing- 
fors 1937. 

1937 b. The south Siberian cemetery of Og- 
lakty from the Han period. (ESA 
11). Helsingfors 1937. 

Teilhard de Chardin, P. 

On some neolithic (and possibly pa- 
laeolithic) finds in Mongolia, Sin- 
kiang and west China. (Bull. Geol. 
Soc. China, 12:1). Peiping 1932. 

Teploukhov, S. 

Essai de classification des anciennes 
civilisations metalliques de la region 
de Minoussinsk. (Materialy po ethno- 
grafii 4:2). Leningrad 1929. 

Toll, N. P. 

1927. Notes sur la soie chinoise dans la Rus- 
sie meridionale. (In Russian). (Se- 
minarium Kondakovianum I). Prague 

*937- The necropolis of Halebie — Zenobia. 
(Annales de lTnstitut Kondakov IX). 
Praha 1937. 

Trever, C. 

Excavations in Northern Mongolia. 
Leningrad 1932. 
Tucci, G. 

On some bronze objects discovered in 
W. Tibet. (Artibus Asiae 5). Leip- 
zig- 1935- 
Umehara, S. 

J 933- Shina-kodo seikwa, Part II Vol. I. 

Osaka 1933. 
1936. Etude des bronzes des royaumes com- 

battants. Kyoto 1936. 

Vessberg, B. 

Un bronze du style Houai decouvert 
k Rome (BMFEA 9). Stockholm 

Werner, J. 

Bogenfragmente aus Carnuntum und 
von d. unt. Wolga. (ESA 7). Helsing- 
fors 1932. 

White, W. C. 

Tombs of old Lo-yang. Shanghai 1934. 

Wilbur, C. M. 

The history of the crossbow illustrat- 
ed from specimens in the U. S. Nat. 
Mus. (Fr. the Smithsonian Rep. 
1936). Washington 1936. 


WlLKE, G. 

1913. Kulturbezichungen zwischen Indien, 
Orient und Europa. (Mannus-Bibl. 
10). Leipzig 1913. 

1923. Die Religion der Indogermanen in ar- 
chaologischer Beleuchtnng. (Mannus- 
BibL 31). Leipzig 1923. 

Yetts, P. 

1926. Discoveries of the Kozlov expedition. 

(Burl. Mag. Vol. 48). London 1926. 
1934. The horse: a factor in early Chinese 

history. (ESA 9). Helsinki 1934. 
Zakharov, A. 

Antiquities of Katanda, Altai. (Journ. 

Roy. Anthr. Inst. 55)). London 1925. 







t - 


(The alphabetic order of the bibliography and the general index is according to Swedish usage, 
thus a and 6 come at the end and not together with a and o.) 




Inv. No. 

Size Page 


Inv. No. 

Size Page 


K. 13334 


17—19, 21 f., 208 


K. 13375 : 


2 /3 

32, 176 

2: 1 

K. 13328: 1 


15. 19 


- K. 13375 : 


2 /3 

32, 176 


K. 13328 : 16 


15, 20 


K. 13410; 


2 /3 

33, 178 


K. 13328: 8 


15. 19 


K. 13368: 


2 /3 

A 1 

33, 175 


K. 13328 : 13 


15, 19 

S = 8 

K. 13386 : 


2 /3 

33, 177 


K. 13329: 1 


16, 20 



2 /3 

A 1 

32, 172 


K. 13329:8 


16, 2r 




31, 172 


K. 13331 : 1 


17. 21 


K. 13369 

2 /3 

33. 35, 156 


K. 13331 : 42 


16, 21 


K. 13368 : 


2 /3 

33. 175 


K- 1333 1 : 40 


1 6, 21 


K. 13360 


33. 174 


K. 13379 : 


2 /a 

33. 176 

3: 1— 12 

K. 13332: 38—49 


27, 29 


K. 13415 

2 /a 

33, 178 


K. 13332 : 50 


27. 30 


2: 1 


33 f-, 60, 


K. 13332: 55—58 


27. 30 


K. 134": 


2 /3 



K. 13332:53 



5 : 18—19 

K. 13368 : 


2 /3 

33. 175 


K. 13332 : 69 

MM ■ 


27, 30 


K. 13367 

2 /3 

33, 175 


K. 13332:68 


27. 30 


K. 13365 

2 /3 

33, 175 

3 : 21—22 

K. 13332: 71—72 

1 MM 


27. 30 


10: 3 

4 /9 

56 f. 


K. 13332:22 



27, 29 



56 f. 


K. 13332 : 34 
K. 13332: 29 


27. 29 
27, 29 




¥ MW 


56 f. 


K. 13332: 103 








K. 13332:70 






85. 97 


28: 18 


32, 172 

7 = 3 

5: 122 


85, 97 


K. 13431 : 2 


33. 180 


5: 121 


85, 97 


K. 134*4 : 6 


33, 178 








32, 172 




85. 97 

4: 10 

K. 13410:4 

Vi 178 






K. 13368: 18 






73, 95 

4: 12 

K. 13418:2 


33. 8c, 179 


5- G:3 


73, 92 




27. 32, 82, 172 








32, 172 


5- E: 3 


72, 80 


K. 13353 : 2 



7: 12 





K. 13353 : 1 

2 / 3 

33, 174 


5- A: 5 

l A 

70, 80, 91 


28: 19 


28, 32, 172 


5. F:2 


73, 80, 92 

4: 18 


K. 13359 : 1 
K. 13405: 1 
K. 13391 : 1 

K. 13328:126 

2 /s 32. 174 
2 /3 178 

Vl 33, 177 

2 /s ". 20 




5- L:S 
5: 128 
5. D:io 



85 U 94 
85 U 97 
72. 85, 92 


K. 13411: 1 

¥ V 

2 /3 

33, 178 

5. E:5 


72, 85, 92 

r * r 

*'»-" w 


5- F:7 


73, 85, 92 


K. 13431:3 

2 /3 



5- L: 4 


85 f.. 94 


K. 13428 

2 /3 

33. 180 


5: 126 






Inv. No. 

Size Page 


Inv. No. 

Size Page 




85. 97 


5. G:2 

Va 84,92 




72, 85 f„ 91 



Va 82, 84, 98 




78, 95. 208 


5. A:6 

Va 7o, 83, 91 






6. B:9 

Vi 1 '2, 116 






K. 13437: 4 

Vi 180, 182 






K. 13440 : 1 

Vi 195. 198 




78, 95 


K. 13436 

Va 149. 180, 182 






K. 13443:7 

Vi 201 I 






K. 13443:4 

Vl 2O0, 202 







Vi 86,94 




75. 96 



Vi 77. 94 

9: 10 



75, 95 



Vi 77, 94 


5- H:2 


74, 77. 93 

15: 10 


Vi 171 


5. A:4 


70, 77. 90 



Vi 171 







Vl 143 

10: 1 



74 U 99 


K. 13443: 6 

V1201 f. 

10: 2 



69, 75. 90 



Vi 77. 94. "0 




74 f-. 99 

15: 16 


Vi 77. 94 


5: 161 


74 f-, 99 



Vi 143 




75. 08 



Vi 143 


5- J:x 


74. 93 



Vi 143 




74. 99 

16: 1 

6.A: 2 

2 /a 108, ii2, 114 




75. 96 


6. A: 12 

Vs 108. 115 




75, 99 



2 /s 112, Il6 

11: X 





6. A : 10 

*/a no, 114 




137. 139 


6. A: 1 

2/3 107, 113 


5- A: 3 


69. 75. 90 


6. A: 13—14 

2/ 3 1 10, 115 


5. K:i 

2 A» 

74. 93 


6. A: 11 

2 /» III, II4 

" = 5 


2 /9 

74» 93 


6. A : 16 

Va »o, 115 

xi : 6 

5. D:i2 


72, 86, 92 


6. A: 2 

2/3 I08, 114 



2 /9 

74 *.. 98 

17 : 1—2 

6, A: 18—19 

2/3 no, 115 

12: 1 





6. A: 15 

Vi "o, 115 


5. 1.3 

2 /3 

74. 93 


6. A: 17 

2 / 3 no, 115 




35. 82, 04 


6. A: 20 

2 /8 no, X15 




35. 82, 04 


7. A: 6 about Va 103, 106 



2 /3 

35. 82, 94 



2/3 112, 115 


5 = 3 


35. 82, 94 



Vi 100, 102 

12: 7 

5 = 43 

2 / 3 

86, 94 f- 



Va 100 f. 



2 /3 




Va 100 f. 



2 /3 

82, 94 



Vi IOO, 102 

12: 10 


2 /3 




Vi '57. 159 

12: 11 


2 /3 




Va 100, 102 

12: 12 


2 /3 




Va I oo, 102 

12: 13 



82, 97 

IS: 10 


Va 122, 129 

12: 14 

5- G:9 

2 /3 



6. B:n 

Va 112, 116 

12: 15 



84. 94 

19 : 1 — 2 


1/4 120, 129 

12: 16 


2 /3 




Va iso, 129 




82—84. 97 


34: 10 

Vs n8, 129 




82, 98 



Va "8, 129 






34 = 8 

Vs II8 - I2 9 


5- B:x 


71. 84, 91 



Va "ft 129 







Va no. 128 


5: 142 


82, 98 

20: 1—2 


Va 124, 129 


5. H: 3 





Va 124, 129 





21 : 1 

21 14 



22: i 






24: 1 

25: 1 

25 : 9—10 
25: 11 




27 : 1—2 





27: 10 

27: 12 

28: 1—2 



Inv. No. 





34 = 2 






34:38 a 









35: 19 











36: 1 




36 : 20—21 




33 = 22 

32: 60—61 


K. 13378 : 34 

Size Page 
Va 124, 129 

1/2 120, 129 
2/3 "9. 128 
Vi ,2 4. 130 

Va 124. 130 
Va 127, 130 

Vs 120, 129 
Va "8, 128 

Va 118, 128 

Vs "9. 129 

Ve 127. 130, 231 ff. 

Va 127, 130 

Ve 125, 130 

Va 125, 130 

Va 126, 131 
Va 126, 131 

Va 126, 133, 135 
2/3 126, 131, 133 

2/3 126, 131, 133 

Ve 125, 133, 135 

Va 141 £ 
Va 125, 130 

Va 132, 135 
about Va 132, 135 

,, Vi 132, 134 

V* 125. 130 
2/3 125, 130 

Va 141 t 
Va 140 
Va 141 f- 
2/3 104, 106 
2/3 103, 106 
Ve 140 
Va 157 £ 

Va 136, 139 
Va 136, 138 
Va 75, 136. 138 
V15136, 139 
Ve 137. 139 
Ve 137, 139 

V« Mi f- 

Va 137, 139 
Vi mi f- 
Va 134 *-, 181 
Va 137, 139 
Va 137. 139 
Vi i57 f. 
Va 137, 139 
V* "i, "5 
Va 157 f- 

Vi 149. 153. 165 
Vi 152 

Vi 149, 152 





28: 10 


























29: 10 

29: 11 

29: 12 




29: 16 


29: 18 



30: 1 



Inv. No. 
32: 112 

K. 13378: 10 

32: 129 




32: 113— 128 

K. 13378:21 


K. 13378:27 

K. 13378: 26 


K. 13378: 37 







K. 13378 : 43 


32: 106 

K. 13378 : 1 
32: 100 


K. 13378: 42 

K. 13378: 44 
11: 1 

K. 13408:5 

K. 13378: 4 

K. 13378 : 33 

K. 13378 : 45 

K. 13380:5 

K. 13378 : 6 

K. 13378:8 

K. 13400 

K. 13376:1 

K. 13376 : 2 

K. 13377: 1 

K. 13378 : 2 


K. 13386: 8 

K. 1 3361 

K. 13427 

32 : 1 10 

K. 13355 
K. 13426 
K. 13432 
K. 13416 
K. 13430: 1 
K. 13434:2 

Size Page 

Vi 150, 154 
Vi 149, 152 

Vi 154 
Vi 149. 154 
Vi 153 


Vi 150, 153 
Vi 149. 154 
Vi 152, 162 

Vi 153. 162 
Vi 152 
Vi 152 
Vi 153 
Vi 151, 153 
Vi 150, 152 
Vi 150, 153 
Vi 149. 153 
Vi 149. 153 
Vt 150, 153 
Vi 150, 153 
Vi 150, 153 
Vi 149. 152 
Vi 149. 153 
Vi 1 Si. 153 
V3151 t 
Vi 151. 153 
Vi 153 
Vi 151 f. 

2 /3 






Va 169, 




2 /3 











2 /3 



2 /3 


f., 169 

2 /3 



2 /3 














2 /3 






























156, 168 





Plate Inv. No. 

30:7 K. 13404 

30:8 K. 13418:9 

30:9 41:6 

30:10 K. 13430: » 

30:11 1:5 

30:12 K. 13425 

30:13 K. 13420 

30:14 K. 13433 

30:15 K. 13434:1 

30:16 43:3 

30:17 42:9 

30: 18 K. 13408:1 

30:19 K. 13408:2 

30:20 K. 13424:1 

30:21 K. 1338 1 

30:22 K. 13413 

30:23 40:3 

30:24 K. 13417 

30 : 25 42 : 3 

30:26 40:4 

31:1 K. 13423:1— 36 

31:2 21:1 

31:3 K. 13408:3 

31:4 M:i 

3i:S 42:2 

36:6 42:4 

31: 7 3i: J 

31:8 K. 13401:1 

3i:9 42:5 

31:10 26:6 

31:11 20:1 

31:12 20:2 

32:i 34:25 

32:2 K. 13345: 2 

32:3 K. 13345:4 

32:4 34:24 

32:5 K. 13328: 49 

32:6 K. 13328:45 

32 : 7 K. 13328 : 50 

32:8 K. 13346:111 

32:9 K. 13442:5 

32 : 10 K. 13345 : 5 

32:11 K.I3442:6 

33:1 K. 13341:8 

33:2 K. 13341:7 

33:3 K. 13341:6 

33:4 K. 13341:9 

33:5 K. 13341:11 

33:6 K. 13341:14 

33:7 K. 13341:13 

33:8 K. 13341:10 

33:9 K. 13341:4 

33:10 K. 13341:15 

33:n K. 13341:12 

Size Page 

2 /3 155 

Va 161, 

2 A 162, 

2 /3 148, 

2 /3 60, 

2 /3 164, 

2 /3 164, 

2 /3 164, 

2 /3 164, 

2 /3 164, 

Va m 

2 /3 168, 

2 /3 169, 

2 /3 165. 

2 /3 168, 

2 /s 164, 

2 /3 166, 

2 /3 166. 

2 /3 168, 

2 /3 168, 





168, 180 



2/3 162 

2 /3 164, 

f- 179 


Vi 169. 173 


2 /3 
2 /3 






2 /3 164, 
2/3 169, 
2 /3 164, 

Ve 121, 
Va 207, 

Va 121, 

2 /3 15. 

2/3 is, 

2/3 15. 
2/3 220, 

Va 199. 

2/3 207. 

Va 199, 

Vi an, 
Vi 210, 
Vi 210, 

Vl 211, 

Vi 214 

Vi 214 

Vl 212, 
Vl 210, 

Vi 214 
Vi 214 















33: 12 

33 : 13—14 









33 : 24—25 






33 : 34—40 


34: 12—14 

34 : 31—35 






34 : 56—57 
34 : 58-59 








Inv. No. 

K. 13341 

K. 1 334 1 
K. 13341 
K 13341 
K. 1 3341 
K 13340 

K. 1 3341 
K. 13341 

K. 13341 
K. 13341 
K. 1 3341 
K. 13341 

K. 13341 

K. 13341 

K 1334 1 

K. 13341 
K. 13341 

K. 1334 1 
K. 13341 
K 13341 
K. 13341 

K 1334 1 
K. 13341 

K. 13341 
K. 13341 

K. 1334 1 
K. 1334 1 
K. 1334 1 
K. 13341 
K. 13341 
K. 1 334 1 


: 17—18 

: 130 


: 132-133 

: 85-86 
:8 3 
: 124 
: 126-129 
: 1 1 7-123 

: 67-77 
: 22-24 

: 101-116 
: 44-48 

= 31 

= 32 



= 49 



= 51 

= 57 





= 64 

= 41-42 
: 35-36 

K. 13344 
K 13336 
K. 13335 

K. 13343 : 
K. 13337 
K. 13339 
K. 13338 

K. 13346: 58 
K. 13346 : 67 



Size Page 

1/1 2ii f 214 

l /i 214 
t/» 216 

t/i 213. 217 
1/1 216 
1/1 213, 217 
'A 216 
'A 216 

h 212, 215 

2 /3 212, 214 
l/l 216 
'A 216 
Vl 216 
l/l 213, 217 
l/t 213, 217 
'A 213, 217 

Vi 216 
'A 216 

A 216 
A 212, 215 
A 216 
A 215 
A 212, 215 

A 215 
A 215 
A 212, 215 

A 215 
A 215 
A 216 
A 215 
A 215 
A 215 
A 215 
A 215 
A 215 
A 213, 215 
A 215 
A 213, 215 
A 216 
A 216 
A 213, 216 
A 212, 215 
A 212, 215 
A 212, 215 
A 213, 216 

/s 207, 217 f. 

/s 214 

A n8, 209, 214 

A 207, 218 
A 210, 214 
A 208, 210, 214 
A 208, 210, 214 

/q 220, 222 

A 220, 222 










9— 10 


37 = 4 
37 = 5 


Inv. No. 

K. 13346: 56 
K. 13346: 55 
K. 13342: 44 
K. 13346:66 
K. 13342: 25 

K. 13346 : 57 
K. 13346 : 64-65 

K. 13342:14 

K. 13342: 12 
K. 13342: 13 
K. 13342: 42 
K. 13347: 6 
K. 13346: 49 
K. 13349:5 
K. 13349 : 6 

Size Page 


Inv. No. 

Size Page 

V» 220, 222 


K. 13342 : 54 

2/3 210, 218 

*/b 220, 222 


K. 13346: 113 

2/3 151, 220, 223 

*/b 210, 217 


K. 13350: 3 

t/% 226, 228 

Vb 220, 222 


K. 13349:3 

Vi 225, 228 

*/b 210, 217 


K. 13346:31 

Vl 219, 221 

Vfl 220, 222 


K. 13346 : 20 

Vl 210, 221 

4 /b 220, 222 


K. 13349 = 1 

Vi 225, 228 

2/3 210, 217 


K. 13347 : 3 

Vl 210, 223 


K. 13346: 21-29 

Vl 219, 22r 

2/3 217 


K. 13346: 18 

Vl 219, 221 

2 / 3 210, 217 


K. I3347M 

Vi 219. 223 

2/3 210, 217 


K. 13350 : 2 

2/3 226—228 

2/3 210, 220, 223 


K. 13346:35 

2/3 220 f. 

2 /s 220, 222 


K. 13346 : 36 

2 /3 220 — 222 

2/3 225, 228 


K. 13346: 38 

2/3 221 f. 

2/3 228 


K. 13346:37 

2 /3 220, 222 




Abdal, 48, 225. 
Abdurahim, 180, 182 f., 193 f. 
Abdurahman, 60. 
A-ch'i-ni, 200. 

Agate, 13, 29, 32, 34, 154, 172—176, 178, 180, 213, 

215, 219, 223. 
Agni, 200. 
Alfoldi, A., 145. 
Alma-ata, 121. 
Altai, 81. 

Altmish-bulaq, 28, 34, 147. 
Ambolt, N., 9, 200. 
Amethyst, 213, 216. 
Amulets, 72, 78, 137, 212 f. 
Anau, 24. 
Andersson, J. G., 7, 10 f., 16, 18 f., 22—25, 28, 34, 

77, 203. 
Andrews, F. H., 126. 
Anhsi, 41. 

"Animal legs", 72 f., 85, 91 f., 97. 
Anodonta, 150, 152. 
Antioch, 41. 
Apresov, G. A., 8. 
Aralchi, 206. 
Ara-tarim, 59. 

Armlets, 70, 74, yy, 90, 93, 166, 179. 
Arne, T. J., 16. 

bone, 82, 94 f. 

bronze, 54, 149, 153, 164, 168, 174, 179 f. 

iron, 100, 102, 112, 149, 152, 164, 173. 

stone, 27, 29 f, 32 f., 35, 82, 94, 172, 179. 
Arrows, 70, 72—74. 78—82, 91—96, 112, 116. 

symbolic, 70, 72, 80 f. 
Aqsu, 14, 26. 
Astin-bulaq, 178 f. 
Astin-tagh, 34 f., 41, 44. 
Attila, 137. 
Aurousseau, M., 125. 
Avarian bow, 121, 123. 
Avars, 198. 
Avullu-kol, 52. 
Awls, 27, 29, 32 f., 149, 152, 176. 

Axes, 13, 18, 33—35. 60. 156. 170, 172, i74f-. *77 f- 
Azghan-bulaq, 182. 

Baba stones, 202 f. 

Backman, G., 12, 104, 106, 118, 197, 207, 227. 

Back stitch, 93. 

Bactria, 75, 236. 

Badakhshan, 213. 

Baghdad-shahri, 199 — 201. 

Baghrash-kol, graves S. of, 197. 

Baghrash-kol, small lake along lower course of 

The Small River, 101. 
Baluchistan, 16, 23, yy. 
Bamboo, 124, 129. 
Baskets, 70, 72 f., 82—64, 89, 91—93, 96—98, 120, 

129, 136. 139 U 144. 157. 159. 237 f- 
material of, 83, 237 f. 

pattern on, 70, 83, 96—98, 136, 140, 144. 

technique of, 83, 237 f. 
Batik, 103, 105. 
Bayen-bogdo, 14. 
Beads, 40, 70, 74, 77, 90, 93 f., no, 142 f., 149, 152, 

169, 171, 173, 176, 211, 213 f., 215—217, 219, 221, 

225, 228. 
Bejan-tura, 183. 
Belotsarsk, 164. 
Bergenhayn, R., 12, yy, 212. 
Besh-toghraq, iSS- 
Bexell, G., 11, 25, 71, 75, 87. 
Bezeklik, 56, 125. • 

Bifacial flint implements, 28, 30 — 33, 172, 180. 
Bird figure 

of frit, 219, 221. 

of shell, 215. 

on silk, 133. 135- 
Bishop, W. C., 13. 

Bitumen, 151, 154, 157 f. , 169, 171, 178. 
"Blood-sweating horses", 39. 
Bogdo-ola, 13, 26. 
Bohlin, B., 15, 25, 150. 
Bone objects, 78, 94 f., 137, 139. 
Bones, animal, 27, 30, 56—58, 86, 136, 193 f., 198, 


Bones, human, 21, 54, 58, 61, 71, 104 f.. Ill— 113, 

116, 118, 140, 194, 197—199. 20 7 f- 
Boots, 56 f. 
Borum-Esh^j, 76. 
Bows, 121 — 124, 129, 164. 
Boyer, M., 233. 
Bracelets, see armlets. 
Bronze objects, 52, 77, 94, no, 112, 115 f., 119 f., 

128, 148—153, 155 f., 161— 166, 168 f., 170—182, 

*95. J 97» 200—202, 207, 210—223, 226, 228. 
Bronze smelting, 150, 152 f., 173, 176, 218, 220. 
Brown, F. E., 123. 
Brushwood, used as coffin cover, 102 — 104, 106, 

in, 113- 
Bucklcs, 150, 152 f., 166, 168, 170, 173 f., 179 1, 

182, 198 f., 210 f., 214, 221. 

Buddhistic objects, 151 f., 168 f. 

Budschentu-bulak (see Buyantu-bulaq). 

Bujentu-bulak (see Buyantu-bulaq). 

Bugur, 43. 

Burial place 4, 60, 116 f. 

Burial place 6, 106 — 116, 143. 

Burial place 7, 102 — 105, 143. 

Burton, D., 12. 

Buruntu-bulaq, 28. 

Buyantu-bulaq, 182 f., 188. 

Calmadana, 204. 

"Camel grass" or "white grass" of the Mongols, 83, 

Camels as only means of desert travel in ancient 
times, 42. 

Camel wool, 71, 98. 

Canopy fittings, 148, 156, 168, 180. 

Carnelian, 142 f., 152, 154, 171, 216, 223. 

Cash string, 162 f., 179. 

Cave on mesa LM3, 155. 

Cemetery 5, 61—99, "7, >37f.. 143 *■ 

dating of, 145. 

plunderings of, 65, 70, 72—74, 82, 89. 

scarcity of metal, 82. 
Chadir, 44. 

Chain stitch, 126, 131, 133, 135. 
Ch'ai-o-p'u, 26, 29, 202 f. 
Chakhar, 203. 
Chakhir-tepe, 16. 
Chalcedony, 29, 34, 154, 216. 
Chalcolithic cultural complex, 2^ f. 
Chalkoide, 203. 
Chan-chan, see Shan-shan. 
Ch'ang-an (Sian, Hsi-an), 41. 
Chang Ch'ien, 38 f. 
Cape, reconstruction of, 107!, 113. 
Charchan, 18 f., 35, 204—221, 228. 
Charchan-darya, 35, 47, 206. 
Charchaq, 52. 
Charchi, 44. 

Charkhliq, 45, 89 f., 100 t , 181, 189, 199, 219, 224 f. 
„ Amban of, 82, 89. 

Charms, (see amulets). 
Chavannes, E., 45, 212, 232. 
Che-mo-t'o-na, 204. 

Chen, P. C, 9, » i-, 31 U 42, 54, 58, 60, 88 f. ( 136, 
142, 148—152, 155, 157 f., 161— 163, 173 {., 177 f. 

Chen- fan, 18, 77. 
Chengtu, 119. 
Cherchen (see Charchan). 
Cher-chcn, 204. 

Chert, 28, 30, 33 f., 82, 94, 99, 156, 172, 174 f., 177 f. 
Chiao-ho-ch'ii, 155. 
Ch'i-chio-ching-tze, 14. 
Childe, G., 124. 
Child's dress, 74, 125. 
Chin, "collector", II. 

Chinese characters, interwoven on polychrome silk, 
104, 106, in f., 114 f., 125, 130, 133, 135. 

Chinese export to Europe around the time of the 

Han dynasty, 165. 
Chingghis Khan, 124. 
Chiqin-sai, 28, 34—36. 
Ch'i-t'un-ch'eng, 225. 
Chiu-ch'iian (Suchow), 44. 
Chivillik-kol, 147. 
Chong-kol, 48. 
Chok-tagh, 13. 
Chii-lu granary, 155. 
Chu-Iu-tzu, 155. 
Chti-mo, 204, 208 f., 213. 
Chu-pin, 181. 
Chuqur-davan, 35. 
Chu-yen, 39. 

Citrocn-Haardt Expedition, 14. 
Cleavers, 28, 33. 

Coats, 55—57. 103 U 106, inf., 115. 
Coffin types, 55 f., 65, 6&— 71, 102, 104—106, in f^ 

116 f., 132, 134, 136, 138, 143 *- 226 f. 
Coins, 100, 102, 148 f., 152!, 161 — 164, 172 f., 

176 f., 179, 181, 199 — 202, 205, 210, 214, 219, 221. 
Columbaria mendicaria, 212, 215. 
Combs, 71, 78, 91, 95, 97, 124, 129, 137. 139. Mi U 

151 f., 207 f., 218, 220 — 222, 226, 228. 
Conrady, A., 148. 
Coral, 213, 216. 

Cores, 13, 26 f., 29—36, 172—178, 218. 
Cotton fabrics, 56 f„ 103, 105, in, 114— 117, 131. 
Cowries, 81, 212, 215, 220, 222. 
Crimea, 40, 165. 
Cross-bow lock, 163 f., 173, 180. 

„ points, 164, etc. 

Cyprea moneta, 212, 215/ 

Dandan-oilik, 56, 157. 
Danzil, 200 — 202. 
Davan-ch'eng, 26. 


Dcgipter-tash-6i, 197. 

Die, 155 f. 

Discs, stone, 30. 

Dolan-achiq, 31. 

Dolls, 56 f., 78, 137, 139. 

Doll's dress, no, 115. 

Dragon figures, 125, 126, 132. 

Dress hook, 155 f. 

Dress ornaments, bronze, no, 112, 115 f. 

Drills, 27, 33, 178. 

Dune dwellers, 27. 

Du Rietz, T., 12, 34. 

Dwelling sites, 14 f., 26 — 29, 31 f. 

Dzungaria, 24. 

Ear ring, 226, 228. 

Edman, G., 238. 

Edscn-gol, 39, 81, no, 123 f., 151, 160, 164, 166, 

211, 220. 
Ekberg, I., 12. 

Embroidery, 126, 130 f., 133, 135. 
Ephedra plant, 70—73. 86 f., 91 f., 09, 134, *& U 

Ermine skin, used as ornament on head-dresses, 

74 U 93, 96, 99. 137 f- 
Eshme, 44. 

Etsin-gol (see Edsen-gol). 
Eye-beads, 149. 152, 154* 176, 217. 
Eyre, L. B., 12. 

Face powder, 126. 

Fa Hsien, 200. 

Feather ornaments on head-dresses, 69, 72, 75, 90, 

92, 95 i, 98 f., 137. 
Felsite, 28—30. 
Felt, silk, 134, 141. 
Felt, woollen, as lids of baskets, 84, 91, 96 f., 99, 

136, 139- 

as lining of coffins, 55, 102, in f., 132, 135. 

as material, 69, 74, 89, 93, 104, 106, 115, 131, 

137 U 144 *• 
Ferghana, 24, 39. 

Fertility cult, 73, 80, 86, 88. 

Finger rings, 149, 153, 166, 168, 173, 212, 214 f. 

Fire drill, 208, 218. 

Flakes, 13, 26—36, 154, 171— 180. 

Flint, 13, 21, 26—30, 32—34. 36. 52, 82, 94, 170— 

180, 201, 218, 223, 228. 

Food-trays, 120 f., 129, 134, 136, 141 f. 

Fortifications, ancient, 39, 44, 148, 180 f., 193, 195, 

197. 223. 
Francke, O., 192. 

Frit (paste), 143, 216, 219, 221. 

Garments, 74—77. 103—116, 125, 130, 132, 134, 136 

Gazella gutturosa, 236 f. 
„ Pijcvalskii, 236. 




Giles, L., 44 f., 125, 133, 224. 
Glass, 40, 150, 154, 205. 

beads, 40, no, 142 f., 149, 152, 154, 176, 213, 

2l6 f., 219, 221, 225, 228. 

vessels, fragm. of, 154, 181, 213, 218 f., 222. 
vessels with ground ovals, 154, 181. 

Glu-lan (Lou-Ian), 44. 

Gobi culture, 29, 36 f. 

Gobi desert, 26, 51, 77. 

Gold, 40, no, 112, 114— 116, 205. 

"Goose-eye" coins, 149, 152 f., 162, 173, 210, 214. 

Graves, 16, 53—59, 61—09, 102—147, 180, 194, 

197 f., 202 f. ( 205—208, 226—228. 

dating of, 138, 145 f. 

Grave 10, 53, 55—57- 
Grave 35. 131—136, HS- 
Grave 36, 75, 136—139, 143. 
Grave 37, 140. 

Grave monuments, see oarshaped wooden monu- 
ments, and wooden posts. 
Great Wall, 39. 
Grenard, F., 205 f., 211, 224. 
Grinding stones, 28, 30, 218. 
Gronbech, K., 12. 
Grunwcdel, A., 199. 
Gypaetus barbatus, 71. 

Hair, colour of, 70, 72, 74, 106, 112, 116 f., 130, 

136 U 139. 142, 144. 226, 228. 
Hair offering, 112, 137, 139, 226. 
Hair pins, 61, 124, 129, 153, 171, 176. 
Hallwyl collection, 150. 

Hami (Qomul), 13 f., 41 f., 181. 
Haslund-Christcnscn, H., n, 35, 183, 192. 
Hbal Rgyal-sum, 47. 
Head-dresses, 69, 74—76, 89 f., 93, 98 f., 132, 134, 

137 f., 141, 144- 

Hedin, S., 8— n, 13, 33, 42, 44—48, 51, 52, 54, 66, 
77, 83, no, 118, 125, 132, 136, 138, 140, 142 t, 
147—150, 155—^57. 160, 162 f, 166, 168 f., 173, 
180—183, 189, 205, 211, 213, 219, 225. 

Hedin's depression S. of Lou-Ian station, 160, 170. 

Hemp fabrics, 106, 116, 132, 134 f., 156. 

Hentze, C, 150. 

Herrmann, A., 44—46, 50, 159, 181. 

Hiong-nou, see Hsiung-nu. 

Ho Ch'ii-ping, 39. 

Hocrnle, R., 200. 

Homa of the Parsees, 87. 

Homo alpinus, 144. 

Honan, 25, 34, 220. 

Horns, as offerings on graves, 58. 

Horse's bit, 198 f. 

Hsin-ch'eng, 219. 

Hsing kuan, 212. 

Hsiung-nu (Huns), 38 f., 41—46, 124, 137. M& l6 6, 
102, 195. 198, 228. 



i"^ 1 

Hsuan Tsang, 200, 204. 

Huang Wen-pi, 13, 17 f., 54, 119, 121, 141, 147 f., 

Hudson, G. F., 40 f. 

Hui-hui-ch'eng-tze, 15. 

Hummel, D., n, 87. 

Hung-miac-tze (Urumchi), 224. 

Huns, see Hsiung-nu. 

Huntington, E., 53 f., 147 f., 182, 197, 202, 223. 

Hydrography of lower Tarim, 46-— 50, 58 f., 117, 

160 f. 

Horner, N. G-, 9, 10, 31, 32, 46—49. 54. 55. M&— 
152, 155. 160—164, 168—170, 174. 

I-hsun, 224 f. 

Ilek, 50, 101. 

Hi valley, 41, 200, 203. 

India, 23, 50, 117, 191. 

Indo-Scythians, 38. 

Inkur-otak, 183. 

Inner Mongolian graves, 198, 203. 

Inner Mongolia, stone age of, 14, 23, 26—28, 32— 

35. 37- 
Iran, 23, 

Iron objects, 60, ioo, 102, 108, no, 112, 115 f., 151, 

154. 157, 164, 170, 172 1, 175—177, 179. 198 U 
205, 218, 221. 

Irrigation canals, abandoned, 182, 205 f., 224. 

Issiq-kol, 41. 

I-wu, 181. 

Jade, 13, 34, 40, 60, 99, 103, 154. 165, 170, 177, 213, 

215 f., 223. 
Jaghan-sai, 224. 
Janse, O., 23. 

Japanese expeditions to Sinkiang, 89 f. 
Jarring, G., 12, 183. 
Jasper, 34, 154, 174. 
Jehol (Je-ho), 23, 77. 
Jordanes, 137. 
Joyce, T. A., 144. 

Kalta-alaqan-tagh, rock-carving, 189. 
K'ang Yen-tien, 219. 
Kaniska, 232. 

Kansu, 15 f., 18, 23—27, 34, 38 f., 77, 229. 

Karez, 202 f. 

Karlbeck, O., 181. 

Karlgren, B., 10, 44, 127. 

Kashgar, 43, 229. 

Kashmir, 192. 

Kelpin, 203. 

Khaidu-gol (see Khoitu-gol). 

Khakil-abad (Khakul-abad), 24. 

Khara-khoto, 211. 

Khara-teken-ola, 197. 

Kharoshthi documents, 44, 181. 

script, 127, 130, 146, 231—234. 



Khoitu-gol, 199. 

Khotan, 41, 45, 109, 200, 211 — 213, 219 f. 

Kirghiz, 203. 

Knives, bronze, 60, 8r, 164, 170 f., 178. 

flint, 27 f., 30 f., 33, 172, 177, 180. 

iron, ii2, n6, 148, 156 f., 221. 

Kohna-shahr, see under the different place names. 

Konow, S., 11, 127, 146, 231. 

Korla, 34, 41, 43, 181, 195, 199 f. 

Kozlov, P., 48, 180. 

Kroraimna, Kroraina (Lou-Ian), 44. 

Kucha, 13, 34, 41, 45, 166. 

Ku-ch'eng-tze, 14. 

Kuei-hua-ch'eng, 51. 

Kulja, 203. 

Ku! Oba, 76. 

Kumiish-aqma, 202. 

Kurchum, 189. 

Kok-toghraq, 101. 

Kdnche (or Qara-qum), 51, 118. 

Konche-darya, 47 f., 51, 118, 181, 195. 

L. A., sec Lou-Ian station. 

Lacquered wood, 119 f., 124, 128 f., 141 f., 168, 181. 

Ladakh, 189, 191 f. 

Lagergrcn, N., 12. 

Lamaistic signs on rock carving, 185 f., 191. 

Lamps of pottery, 151 f., 201, 223, 228. 

Langar-kisht, 188. 

Lang-shan, rock carving, 189 f. 

Lao-Ian (Lou-Ian), 44. 

Lapis lazuli, 213, 216. 

Lasiagrostis splendens, 83, 238. 

Lattimore, O., 203. 

Latynin, B. A., 24. 

Laufer, B-, 121, 126, 164 f. 

L. B., 133, 156. 

L. C, 119, 127, 133, 170. 

L. E., 32, 43, 54 f., 155. 

Lead, coin (?), 151, 153. 

„ objects, 151 f., 154, 169, 172 f., 175, 178, 

219, 221. 

Leou-lan (Lou-Ian), 45 f. 
Le Coq, A. v., 203. 
Leh, 192. 
Leparite, 29. 

L. F., 43. '38, 140. 

L. H., 54, in, 113, 119. 

L. I., 144. 

Limestone, 151 1, 154, 156, 183. 

Li Tao-yiian, 195, 224. 

Liu, Y.H., 14. ' 

L - J-. 43. 54. 168. 

Ljungh, Hj., 11, 70, 75, 83 f., 126, 136, 235. 

L- K., 35, 151, 156, 159 f., 175. 

L. L., 159. 

L. M., 159. 







Loin-cloths, 69, 71, 73—76, 90 U 98, 137, 139. 
Lo-lang (Lak-lang), 119, 126, 132, 164, 168. 
Loo, C. T. collection, 120, 126, 133. 
Lop desert, 13, 27 f., 31—35, 45 f., 49, 60, 82, 88— 

90, 117, 146 f., 151, 160 f., 165. 
Lop desert, stone age of, 13, 27 f., 31 — 36. 
Lopliq, population of Lop-nor region, 48, 62, 88. 
Lop-nor, 7— 11, 18, 31 f., 36, 42, 46—48, 50 f., 
54, 138, 142, 148, 160 f., 168, 174, 180. 
Lou-Ian, 42, 45—47, 49—52, 57. 59. 83, 120, 126 f. 
Lou-Ian graves: autochthon, see Cemetery 5, 

Grave 36 and 37. 

Chinese, see Mass-grave I and 2, Grave 35. 
Chinese and/or Indian, see Burial places 6—7. 
Lou-Ian kingdom, 44 f., 104, 145, 224. 

authochthon population of, 35, 

44. 75, 77, 84, 86, 88, 128, 140, 


capital of, 45, 224 f. 

Lou-Ian people, intercourse with Chinese, 43, 144 f. 
intercourse with Hsiung-nu, 144 f, 

non-Mongolian features of, 67, 
104, 144. 

Lou-Ian station (L. A.), 32, 42—47, 50, 53 *-. 101, 
no, 147—155. 159— 161, 163, 165 f., 168—170, 
173—176, I79—I8I, 2io, 232. 
visitors to, 148. 

Lo-yang, 109, 124. 

L. Q., 67, 138, 144. 

L. R., 159. 

L. S., 67 f., 138, 140. 

L. T., 54. 68, 138. 

Luan-p'ing grave find, 77. 

Ludcrs, H., 233 f. 

Mace-heads, 151 f., 169, 176, 220, 223. 

Main camp of cxp. 1934, 52, 120, 122. 

Ma Ku, 212. 

Malachite, 213, 216. 

Manchuria, stone age of, 14, 36. 

Mantles, 69, 71—73, 76 f., 90— 9 2 . 94. 98, m, U& 

131. 136, 138 f- 
Mao Tun, 38, 44. 
Maral-bashi, 13. 
Marble, 151 f., 169, 176 f., 215. 
Marco Polo, 204, 208, 228 f. 
Mass-graves, 54, 118—136, 140—142, 145 f - 

„ reported at Charchan, 205. 

Mazar-tagh, 121, 229. 
Mealing-stoncs, 28 f, 100. 
Menghin, O., 23, 36. 
Merdek, 50, 100, 159, 181. 
Merdck-shahr, 90. 

Mesas, used as burial places, 54 f-. 61, 118, 131, 

136, 140, 142, 145 f., 155. 
Miao-erh-ku, 14 f, 19, 22. 
Milk, 141, 239. 

Millet, 73, 84, 87, 236. 

„ porridge, 70, 73, 84, 91 f., 236. 
Ming-6i, 199—201. 

Minusinsk, 80 f., 133, 137, 157, 164, 189, 203. 
Miran, 41, 45, 56, 100, 160, 204, 223—229. 
Mirrors, bronze, 81, 119, 149, 152 f., 165, 171, 176, 

178 — 382, 212, 214. 

iron with silk cover, no, 115. 
Modern settlements along Qum-darya, 58 — 60. 
Mohenjo-daro, 221. 

Mongolian rock carvings, 185 — 187, 191. 

Mongolia, stone age of, 14, 36 f. 

Mongols, 124, 145, 186, 191 f., 198, 204, 211. 

Monoliths, 202 f . 

Montell, G-, 11, 168, 211. 

Mo-shan, 195. 

Motor car cxp., 7, 9, 42, 51. 

Mummies, 56, 61, 69 f., 74, 103, 136, 143 f., 146. 

Mummification, 56, 70, 76, 87. 

Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 9 f., 81. 

Mustela crminea, 75. 

Manchen-Helfen, O., 185. 

Nan-shan, 87. 
Necklaces, 74, 77, 93, no. 
Net, 155 f. 

Net sinkers, 151— 154, 169, 173, 175, 178, 218. 
Niaz bai, 101. 
Nishi Hongwan-ji, 89. 
Niya, 101, 157, 168. 
Nob-chun, 225. 
Noin-ula, see Noyan-ola. 
Non-Chinese coins(?), 153, 214. 
Nordcn, A., 187. 

Norin, E., 9, ". 28, 34, 54, 161 f., 166, 179, 194, 

Noyan-ola, 54, 81, 120, 127, 132 f., 137, 145, 168. 
Nu-chih, 219. 

Oar-shaped wooden monuments, 62, 65 f. 

Oglakty, 133, 137. 

Oldenburg, S., 199. 

Opal, 70, 77, 90. 94. *74, 213, 215, 219, 221. 

Ordos bronzes, 80 f., 195. 

„ style, 18, 164. 
Otani, S., 89. 

Ox-hides as covers of coffins, 68, 72, 136. 
Ox skulls, 64 f. 

Padaki, 204. 

Painted pottery, 13, 15—26, 34, 36. 

Painted vase obtained at Charchan, 17 — 19, 21 f., 

Palisade, 62, 66, 68, 72, 140. 
Palmyra, 40, 125. 
Pamir, 23, 38, 41, 188. 
Pan Ch'ao, 45. 
Panicum miliaceum, 236. 





Panja, 188, 190. 

Pan Yung, 45 f. . 

Pao-t'ou, 14. 

Pataliq-kol, lake along "The Small River", 60, 100. 

Pataliq-kol, lake on S shore of Qum-darya, 53, 171. 

Patination of Lop-nor bronzes, 163, 171, 180. 

Pearls, 133, 135. 

Pei-shan, 42, 168. 

Peking, 7 f., 11. 

Pelliot, P., 13, 34, 224. 

Pendants, 153, 173, 195, 198, 211— 217, 219, 221, 

Personal ornaments, 70, 74, 77, 90, 93 f., no, 142 f., 

149 f., 152—154, 166, 168 f., 171, 173, 176, 179- 
195, 198, 205, 211— 217, 219, 221—223, 225 f., 

Petrographic analyses, 28. 

Phallic symbols, 72 f., 86 f., 97. 

Phtanite, 28—30. 

Piercers, 27, 29, 32, 176 f. ( 180. 

Pile-carpet, 128, 131. 

Pins, 77, 78, 91, 93—95, 97, *37, 139. 152 t, 1/3- 

P'o-ch'eng-tzc, 197. 

Po-hsien, 204. 

Porphyry, 28, 30. 

Potstone, 216. 

Pottery, glazed, 220, 222. 

unglazed, 14—27, 29—31, 35 *-, 52, 54 *■> 
59— 61, 84, 88, 100 — 102, 105!, 118, 121, 128, 

141 f-, 151 U 154 U 157 f-. 169—172, 177, 180, 
182, 193—195, 198 f., 201, 207—210, 214 f., 217 f., 
220, 222 f., 225, 228. 

Pottery kilns, 155, 169. 

Prc-Mohammedan worship, survival of, 203. 

Prjevalsky, N. M., 47, 205, 223. 

Provisions for the dead, 56, 70, 88, 141. 

Qara-khoja, 15, 201, 221. 
Qara-qoshun, 47, 49, 101, 159 f. 
Qara-shahr, 14, 41, 45, 199 f., 202. 
-darya, 199. 


1 1 



river, 200. 

Qarliq-tagh, 15. 

Qazaqstan, 203. 

Qizil Singcr-tagh, 28. 

Qizil-yar steppe, 24. 

Qosh-yaghach, 61. 

Quadrale, 149, 212, 215, 219, 221. 

Quartzite, 28 f., 172. 

Qum-darya, 31, 43, 47 f., 50—55, 58—60, 100, 117 f., 

155—157, i59—*6i, 164, 171— 174, 177, 199. 

inundation of, posterior to Lou-Ian, 47. 
Qum-kol, 58, 60, 170, 181. 
Qum-tura, 13, 34. 
Qumush, 202. 

Quruq-darya, 47 1, 53, 182. 
Quruq-tagh, 26, 32, 34, 44, 47, 159, .180, 183—195, 


Rapson, E. J. ( 231. 

Raurata (Lou-Ian), 44. 

Raw material for flint implements, 28, 32. 

Red ochre, used for painting wood, 64, 67, 72, 78, 

80, 93—95, 97, »37, 235. 
Rep, 91, 94, 113 f., 1 1 5 f ., 130 f, 134 f., 138, 141 f. 

warp rep, 138, 158. 

weft rep, 92, 98, 131, 138. 
v. Richthofen, F., 41, 47. 
"River of the South", 50, 159. 
Road of the Centre, 41 — 43, 50, 195, 228. 
Road of the North, 41 f., 228. 
Road of the South, 41, 204, 213, 228 f. 
Rock carvings, 183 — 193. 
Rock crystal, 154. 
Roman demand for silk, 40. 
Rooran (Lou-Ian), 89. 
Roruka, 234. 
Rostovtzeff, M., 133. 
Ruby, 149, 153. 
Rug, 131, 142. 
Ruin I, 156 — 159. 
Ruin II, 140, 143. 
Ruins, 99—102, 147— 161, 180 f., 193 f., 199—201, 

205, 219, 223, 225 f. 
Russian Turkistan, 23 f. 
Rydh, H., 78, 80. 

Sai-cheke, 195. 

Sait mollah, 59, 88. 

Sakians, 40. 

Sakian dress, 137. 

Saltencrustcd area of old Lop-nor, 32, 42, 48 — 50, 

155. '59- '68, 170, 174. 
Sand dunes, 27, 37, 49, 52, 60 f., 88, 100, 102, 159, 

Sanje, 181. 
San-tao-ling-tze, 14. 
Satma, 59, 88, 147. 
Sayan mountains, 189. 
Scallop stitching, 74, 93, 99, 138 f. 
Scrapers, 26, 29 f., 32 f., 35 f., 172, 175 f., 178. 
Scythian boots, 76. 
bow, 123 f. 
head-dresses, 137. 
Seals, 211 f., 215. 

Selvage with cord edge, 90, 92, 94, 98, 139. 
Semipalatinsk, 203. 
Sengim-aghiz, 15 f., 20, 22. 
Seres, 40. 
Sergiopol, 203. 
Serpentine, 77, 94, 215. 
Sewing rings, 149, 153, 214. 
Sha-ching stage, 18. 
Shahr-i-Khaiber, 24. 
Sha-kou-t'un, 34, 169. 

Shaman drumsticks, possible occurrence of, 71, 85, 
91, 96 f. 





Shan, kingdom of, 195 f. 
Shan-shan, 44 — 46, 224 f. 
Shears, 108, H4f. 

Sheep bones in graves, 56, 103, 134, 136, 194, 198. 
Sheep wool, 75, 98, 236 f., 239. 
Sheng Shih-ts'ai, 7. 
Shensi, 25. 

Shell objects, 77, 93 f., no, 142, 149 f., 152, 154, 
212, 215, 221. 

Shih-ch'eng, 225. 

Shimsha Kharbu, 192. 

Shindi, 180, 182 f., 184, 193—195, 198. 

river (Buyantu-bulaq), 183, 193 f., 197. 
Shinega, 195. 
Shirge-chapghan, 101. 
Shirt, 108, 115, 125, 130. 
Shoes, 69, 72 f., 76, 89 f., 92, 103, 125, 130, 132 f., 

135- 137. 139 f-. 155 f- 
Shor-tsaghan, 197 — 199. 
Siberian bronzes, 81, 164. 

rock carvings, 185, 187, 191. 
Signet rings, 157 f., 166—168. 
Silk, damask, no, 1141., 125 f., 130—132, 134 f., 


dating of Stein's, 146. 

felt, 132, 134, 141. 

plain weave, 105 f., 109, 114 f., 130, 134 f., 

141, 228. 

plain (=unpatterned), 56, 103, 105— 117, 

125—127, 130—135, 141 f. ( 226—228, 231—234. 

polychrome, 103—108, in— 115, 125 f., 130, 

132—135. "46. 

pouches, in, 114, 126 f., 130 f., 133, 135. 

printed, 141 f. 

taffeta, 108, 113— 116, 130 f., 135. 

Silk Road, 40 — 44, 46, 50, 52, 100, 148, 170, 181, 

194 f., 204, 229. 
Silk trade, 40 f., 127, 165. 
Silver objects, 205, 212, 215. 
Sinew fibres, 69, 86, 90, 93, 99, 137—139. 
Singer, 26—30, 32 1, 35 f. 
Sinkers, see net sinkers. 
Sinkiang-ch'eng (Urumchi), 224. 
Sino-Kharoshthi coins, 200 — 202. 
Sino-Swedish Expedition, 9, 13, 22, 121, 147 f. 
Skirt, 109, 112, 114, 116, 134- 
Slag, 100, 152, 154, 218. 
'Small River', 33, 50, 58—^1, 88, 99—102, 117, 

159— 161, 171, 181 f. 
Smelting pot, 220, 223. 
Smith, H., 12, 210. 
Smith, R. A., 13. 

Snake representations, 73, 86, 92, 95. 
Socket of Ko-handlc, 164, 172. 
Socks, 56. 
Sogdians, 127, 219. 
Solokha, 169. 







So Mai, 44, 46. 
Spindles, no, 115, 124, 129. 

Spindle whorls, no, 115, 124, 129 f., 151 f., 154, 
156, 169, 171, 174, 177 f. f 210, 218, 220, 223, 228. 

Spondylus, 77, 94. 

Spool for yam, 221. 

Spruce-twig pattern, 15, 19. 

Srinagar, 192. 

Stein, M. A, 9 f., 13, 32 f., 36, 42—45. 47 U 50. 
53 U 67, 70, 75, 78, 83, 86 f., 89 f., 101, 108, 
110 f., 113, 117, 119— 121, 125—128, 133 f., 137 f., 

140, 144— 148,. 150 f., 155—157. 159 f-. 162 f., 
165 f„ 168 f., 175, 180 f., 183, 191, 193, 199, 203 
—206, 213, 219 f, 223—227, 232. 

Stone ring, Pi, 169, 177. 
"Stoppers" for nostrils, 103, 104, 106. 
Strap fittings, 149 f., 152 f., 156, 165 f., 173, 201 f., 
211 f., 214. 

Strombus floridus, 212, 215. 

Stucco heads, 199, 201. 

Suchow, 25. 

Sui-yiian, 51. 

Sulek, 189. 

Sulphur, 152, 154. 

Sun Yiin, 204. 

Sylwan, V., 11 f., 103, no, 125, 132 f., 145. 

Syria, 40 f., 181. 

Szuch'iian, 119. 

Stidcrbom, G., n, 52 f. 

Soget-bulaq, 195 — 198, 

Tabby weave, 56 f., 116 f., 138. 
Tachibana, 89 f., 147 f. 
Taffeta, see silk taffeta. 
Taklamakan, 13, 41, 159. 
Tallgren, A. M., 121, 18&— 191. 
Tamarisk mounds, 27, 52, 58 — 61, 102, 106, 116, 
219, 226. 

Tamarisk wood, 70, 73, 92 f., 95 f., 121, 129, 132, 

Tamgha signs, 185, 187. 
Tanu-tuwa, 185. 
Tapestry weave, 71, 91, 98. 
Taranchi, 14. 

Tarim Basin, 14, 34, 36, 38, 41, 44, 50, 88, 101, 
127 f., 144 f., 150, 191, 200, 204, 219 f., 228 f. 

Tarim River, 41, 43 f., 46—48, 50 f., 53, 58—60, 
89, 101, 182. 

Tash-6i, 193 f., 197 f. 

'Tati' finds, 161, 208 — 223. 

Tchertchen (Charchan), 205. 

Teilhard de Chardin, 13 f., 26, 28. 

Tcmenpu, 48. 

Textiles, see under the different materials. 

Tendon, 78, 97. 

Tibetans, 87, 192, 220, 225, 228 f. 



Tibetan characters on potsherds, 210, 217, 220, 
222, 225, 228. 

Tibetan occupation of the Tarim Basin, 210, 213, 

220, 229. 
Tibetan records, 223, 225, 228. 
T'ien-shan, 14 f., 24 — 26, 41, 43. 
Ti-hua (Urumchi), 224. 
Tikenliq, 48, 180 f., 199. 
Toghraq-bulaq, 181 f. 
Toghraq, the wild poplar, 61, 101. 
Tokharians, 38, 40, 56. 
Tokhta akhun, 225. 
Toqsun, 16 — 19, 21 f. 
Touen-houang (Tun-huang), 45 f. 
Trade routes, 40 — 44, 228 f. 
Trever, C, 145. 
Triangles, incised in wooden articles as ornaments, 

7}—7Z> 77 ii 80, 91, 93—97. *37i '39. '44- 
Triangle-bands, hypothetical significance of, 80 f. 

Trousers, 56, 104, 106, 109, ill, 114 f., 134. 

Tsaghan derisun, 83, 239. 

Tso-mo, 204. 

T'u-ken, 43, 54, 145, 148, 156, 168, 170, 180. 

T'un-ch'eng, 225. 

Tun-huang, 39, 41 f., 44—46, 81, 124, 127, 146, 

150, 166, 229, 232. 

Turbo, 149, 154. 

Turfan, 14—16, 41, 46, 48, 181 f., 200, 202 f. 

Turfan Basin, 16, 18, 25, 44, 125. 

Turquoise, 152, 154, 174, 216 f. 

T'u-yii-hun, 204. 

Twill weave, 56 f., 108, in, 114 f., 134. 

Uch-turfan, 203. 

Uigurs, 229. 

Ulan-chap, 203. 

Unkrig, W. A., 12, 39, 186, 199, 225. 

Urayim (Ibrahim), 195. 

Urdjar, 203. 

Uryangkhai, 185, 189. 

Urumchi, 8, n, 14, 26, 41, 182, 202 f., 224. 

Vash-shahri, 151, 204, 210, 219—223, 228. 

Wang Mang coins, 148, 152. 

Wardak inscription, 231 f. 

Warp-rib, 106, 108, 112— 115, 125 f., 130 f., 133, 

Watch-towers (signal-towers), 39, 43, 99 — 101, 

181, 193 f., 195, 203, 226. 
Weaving instrument, 157 f. 
Weft-rib, 105 f. 
Wei-t'u-ch'i, 224. 
Wheat, 69 f., 72 f., 84, 87, 89, 91 f. 

Whetstones of slate, 94, 151 f-, 154. 169, 171, 174, 

176—178, 218, 223. 
White lead, used as face powder, 126, 131. 
White, W. C, 124. 





Width of silk fabrics, 57, 113 f., 116, 130, 232—234. 
Wind eroded objects, 156, 169, 172, 174, 179. 
Wind erosion, 16, 33— 35, 46, 48 f., 66, 145, 159, 

163, 176. 
Wooden posts as grave monuments, 61 f., 65 — 6y, 

70 f., 103, 105, 132, 144. 
Wooden records, 39, 148, 174, 225, 228. 
sculptures, 67, 68. 
vessels, 18, 84, 94, 113, 116, 118 f., 128 f., 

135. Mi U 207, 218. 
Woollen fabrics, braided (plaited), 75 f., 90, 98, 

131. 139. 207, 218. 

patterned, 71, 84, 88, 91, in, 

115. 128, 131, 136, 138. 

plain, 69, 72—76, 90, 92, 94, 98, 

104, 106, 116 f., 135, 139, 

Woollen yarn, cords, strings, 71 — yy, 80, 84 f., 

90—99, 137, 139, 142 f. 
Wool, quality of, 75, 236 f., 239. 
Wu-ch'u coins, 100, 102, 148 f., 152 f., 161 — 164, 

172—174, 176 f., 179, 219, 221. 

age of, 162 f. 
Wu-i (Wu-ch'i), 200. 
Wu-lei, 44. 
Wu-sun, 40 f. 
Wu Ti, Chinese Emperor, 38 — 40, 119. 

Yangi-darya, 101. 
Yang-shao culture, 23 f. 

„ pottery, 34. 

Yaqa-yardang-bulaq, 31. 

Yaqinliq-kol, Z3> 57. 59 *■- 88, 170. 
Yardangs, 16, 31 f., 49, 52, 55, 59, 61. 
Yardang-bulaq, 31, 47, 52, 55, 59, 160 f., 164, 172. 
Yarkend, 41. 

„ -darya, 48. 

Yar-khoto, 13, 17, 121. 
Yarliq-kol, 53, 55. 
Yen-ch*i, 41, 45, 199 f. 

Yeou-houan (Yu Huan), king of Shan-shan, 46. 
Ying-p'an, 43, 120, 134, 149, 180—183, »95. 199- 
Yrzi bow, 123. 
Yuan, P. L., 13. 
Yueh-chih, 38. 
Yukken-gol, grave at, 198. 
YiMi-hsien (see Konchc). 
Yii-men corridor, 25. 
Yii-men-kuan, 41 — 43, 127. 
Yii-ni, 227 f. 

Zaya Pandita, 186. 
Zhob, 16, 77. 

urdek, 5^—53. 55. 58, 62, 64, 67 f., 74. 76, 82, 89, 

99 f., 103. 171. 
"Ordek's necropolis" see Cemetery 5. 

Ostasiatiska Samlingarna, see Museum of Far 

Eastern Antiquities. 






E . • 


PI. 1. 


Charchan. 2/3. 

PI. 2. 

Vr V 


Miao-erh-ku, Sengini-aghiz and Toqsun. Xat. size, 

PI. 3 













h - m ^- ' 






PI. A. 


wm » 


U 3b 




' £ 






Miao-crh-ku. Singer ami Lop-nor sites. 

PI. 5 


Lop-nor sites, 

PI. 6. 

Grave i o. 

PL 7. 







Cemetery 5. 


PI. 8. 







!fi rr 






Yf 8 fr^ 

Cemetery 5 

PI. 9. 








Cemetery 5. 


PI. 10. 

Cemetery 5 

PI. 11 

Cemetery 5 and Grave 36. 

PI. 12. 


Cemetery 5. 

PI. 13, 





Cemetery 5. 

PI. 14. 

•I fill 




top ' 


Cemetery 5, 

PL 15. 








Soget-bulaq, Ying-p'an, Danzil and Lop-nor sites. 


PI. 16. 


Grave 6 A and 6 B. 

PI. 17. 

Grave 6 A. 

PI. 18. 







Various Lop-nor sites. 

PI. 19. 

Mass-grave i 

PI. 20. 


Mass-urave i . 

PI. 21 



^ [ass-Grave i . 


PI. 22 

Mass-grave i and Grave $$. 

PI. 23 

*-*riZ,r*?*. ,i 


b -■:■ 

. ■ 






Grave 35, Mass-grave 1 and 2 


PI. 24. 

Grave 35. 

PI. 25. 

\ arious Lop-nor sites, 

PI. 26. 

( irave 36. 

PI. 27. 

Various Lop-nor sites. 


PI. 28. 


47 4 8 

Lou-Ian station. 


PI. 29. 

Various Lop-nor sites, 

PI. 30. 



- 1, 









Lop-nor sites. 






PI. 31 

w * 



&*^ ; 

- ■: -:i 











Lop-nor sites. 

PL 32. 



Various Sinkiang sites. 

PI. 33 



PI. 34. 













/ r. 



















I ■ ■■->- - -■■-••-- ■-■- - ■--— ■ _ 

PI. 35. 

'■ - ,\\' . * 


,. i) ."-■ 






PI. 36. 

* i 

Charchan aiul Vash-shahri 

PI. 37. 


Charchan, Vash-shahri and Miran. 

i_I_l_ l^ J »*^T*^VY 

PI. 38. 











Miran and Vasli-shahrL 

k * , 


I . 


• i 

. • 





I / 

\ '':' 

• . 

* M* 

■- 7 - 



r-.'. . 

■ ■'. X W . ,,, .-, i ■• . 'J - 







■ ■ 

. ■ 


.. . 



1 i 




■a ■ ■ ■■■ • , l . 




1 * h 

. '■ '■'"■■' 









' . < ■• ■ . 

• '1 


'• L 



S;- : ; -^M' &,l 

. '' , § if ' J .1, V: 

iiif .'■■■•■ . : ;' :S " . 

W : / & V I HP ' • "#| i , •■' ■ ■, '4v . 

W ■ ► ■ • ■-.■■'■' ■ /■ '■ 

* - 






** - 



/ i 

1 _* « 


, i *